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again considers it, a quorum being present. If two thirds of the members present agree to pass the bill a second time, it is then sent to the other house. If two thirds of the members repass the bill over the veto, it becomes a law without the signature of the President.

In accordance with the Constitution, the President must either sign or veto a bill within ten working days after he has received it, or the bill becomes a law in like manner as if he had signed it. But Congress by adjournment may prevent its return, in which case it does not become a law. When the President thus holds a bill so that the time for adjournment arrives before the expiration of the ten days allowed for returning it, his retention of it under these circumstances at the end of a session is called a "pocket veto."

Bills are sometimes defeated by a process called filibustering. In the House, this is done by making motions delaying action,--such as motions to adjourn, or calling for the yeas and nays upon them. In the Senate, a bill particularly objectionable to a minority may be “talked to death” by the unrestricted right of debate exercised on the part of the Senators. In the House, however, dilatory tactics of a minority may be ended by a process known as cloture, which calls for an immediate vote on the question before the House.

After a bill becomes a law it is sent to the Secretary of State, who preserves it as a part of the law of the land.

QUESTIONS

What is the supreme power in the British system of government?

In what respect is Congress a National body? In what respect is it a Federal body?

What are the qualifications, length of term, and salary of a Representative? Of a Senator?

How is the number of Representatives determined? Of Senators?

Give the reputed history of the term “gerrymandering.” Is there any sign of such action in the boundaries of the Congressional districts of this State ?

What is the number of Representatives in the present Congress? What is the number representing this State ?

To how many Representatives in Congress is the State of Pennsylvania entitled ?

How are Representatives apportioned to the several States? By what authority is the State divided into Congressional districts? How are Representatives chosen ?

What is the constituency of a Representative? Of a Senator? Of a President? Of a State representative in Assembly? Of a State senator?

How is a vacancy in the House of Representatives filled? What are the qualifications of a Representative? Of a Senator?

Describe briefly the power of Congress and of the State Legislature over the election of Senators and Representatives.

What are the conditions of eligibility to the United States Senate? The House of Representatives? By whom are our Senators chosen?

How may a bill become a law ?

To whom would a member of Congress send his resignation if he desired to be relieved ?

What title is given to the presiding officer of the House of Representatives? How does he obtain this office, and how long does he hold it?

Who is the present Speaker of the House?

What officers in Pennsylvania are required to take an oath or affirmation upon assuming office?

Give an account of the election of United States Senators. What other plan has been proposed ?

State by whom and for what period the Senators in Congress are elected. What salary does a Senator receive?

Who is the President of the Senate? Can he vote at any time? What are the other officers of the Senate?

When does the Vice President have a right to vote?
How are vacancies in the United States Senate filled ?
Who administers the oath of office to the new Senators ?

Write out in full that part of the Federal Constitution which relates to the arrangement of the Senators into classes.

Discuss the Senate in regard to its characteristic powers.
How may the President be removed from office?

If the President of the United States were to be impeached, how would it be done?

Who presides in the Senate when the President of the United States is impeached? Which President was impeached?

Explain this news item: “The Oklahoma Senators drew lots December 17, 1907. Thomas T. Gore drew the term ending March 3, 1909; Robert L. Owens drew that expiring March 3, 1913."

Give the history of a bill after it has passed Congress. Where must all bills for raising revenue originate?

What duties do the committees in the two houses perform?

How are the several Congresses numbered? When does the legal existence of a Congress begin? When does it end? What is the number-official designation--of the present Congress?

When does Congress assemble? Can it assemble at any other time?

Give an account of the two regular sessions of Congress. How are special sessions convened?

To what extent are the members of Congress privileged from arrest and from being questioned for any speech or debate ?

What is the difference between an appropriation bill and a revenue bill?

What is meant by the term Senatorial courtesy? What are its advantages and disadvantages?

Can suit be brought against members of Congress for language used in debate? Why?

How may disorderly conduct in Congress be punished?

Give historical instances of such action. How may a member of Congress be expelled ?

What constitutes a quorum in the House? In the Senate?

What means may be used in order to secure a quorum? What is meant by the term “counting a quorum”?

What is the power of each house in regard to rules, order, adjournment, etc.?

What is the rule concerning adjournment? What is the object of this rule?

Who makes the final decision as to who are entitled to a seat in either house of Congress?

What is the number of your own Congressional district? Of what counties is it for med?

What makes Congress the center of National politics?

Describe in brief the mode of passing bills. What is filibustering? How are laws made?

Name five powers of a school board in Pennsylvania. Name five powers of the Congress of the United States.

Name three of the most important committees of the House of Representatives.

Under what circumstances may the President defeat a bill without vetoing it? What name is given to such practical veto ?

How may the action of the President in vetoing a bill be overcome?

Are there any people in this State who are not counted in making up the representative population? When was the first Federal census taken? When was the last taken? How is a Territory represented in Congress? How is the District of Columbia represented ?

What five States had the largest representation in the First Congress? What five States now have the largest representation ?

Name the present officers of the House of Representatives.

Compare the House of Representatives with the British House of Commons.

Is Congress now in session ? Will the next session be the long or the short one? When was there an extra session of Congress? Could the President convene one house without the other?

If two persons should claim the same seat in the House of Representatives, who would decide between them?

Did you ever see a copy of the Congressional Record? If Congress is in session, determine what it has done during the past week. Can a member be punished for an offense committed before he was elected? Is a member of Congress an “officerof the United States?

CHAPTER XXVI

POWERS OF CONGRESS

Delegated Powers.—The general government from its very nature is largely a government of delegated powers. Having derived its powers from the people, such powers are limited by the Constitution. Most of the powers of Congress are enumerated in the eighth section of Article I. All of these general powers of legislation vested in Congress are necessary to the formation of a strong and efficient government. These eighteen clauses are a vital force in the system of National control. Political parties differ concerning the nature of the powers granted to Congress; one party favoring a broad construction of the Constitution, while the other favors a strict construction which looks toward State rather than Congressional legislation.

Taxes: Tariff: Free Trade.-Congress has power to raise money needed for the payment of the debts of the United States, and to provide for the welfare of the Nation. The power to tax is one of the most essential principles of an enduring government. The only restriction placed upon the power of taxation is that all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; and that direct taxes must be apportioned among the States according to their population (I 1 and C 3). Taxes are of two kinds, direct and indirect. A direct tax

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