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ries in the Roman senate, now the symbol of the power of the people. The duties of the doorkeeper are broader than his title, since he has charge of the room of the House of Representatives. The chaplain opens each daily session of the House with prayer for Divine guidance.

Compensation.-A Representative receives a compensation of $7,500 a year; and the Speaker $12,000. Mileage is allowed at the rate of twenty cents a mile for the necessary distance traveled in going to and returning from the seat of government. A Congressman is also allowed clerk hire, and $125 a year for stationery.

Oath of Office.—The Constitution requires that Senators and Representatives, and the members of State Legislatures, as well as all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall take oath of office to support the Constitution (X3). As soon as the Speaker of the House is chosen, the clerk designates certain other members of the House to escort the Speaker-elect to the chair. The clerk then calls upon the member-elect who has served longest continuously—the “ father of the House "—to administer the oath of office to the Speaker, who then administers the oath to the new members, called before him for that purpose. After the oath of office has been taken by every member, the House is ready to proceed to any business which may be presented.

The Senate.—The Senate of the United States is composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature for a term of six years. Each Senator has one vote (D 1).

At the time of the framing of the Constitution, the large States conceded to the small States equal representation in the Senate. Both the equality of representation and the election of the Senators by the State Legislatures are survivals of the old Articles of Confederation. The term of six years gives to the Senator a feeling of security in position that does much to insure independence of action in regard to the best interests of the nation. Cases are on record where Senators have served for more than five consecutive terms.

Number of Senators: Classes.—There are ninety-two Senators at present, two from each of the forty-six States in the Union. Senators are divided into three classes as nearly equal as possible. The terms of one third of the Senators expire on March 4th of each odd year:

Class I, 1791, 1797 . . . . . . . . 1911, 1917 Class II, 1793, 1799 . . . . . . . . 1913, 1919 Class III, 1795, 1801 . . . . . . . 1915, 1921

The two Senators from a State are never assigned in the same class. It is seen that one third of the Senators go out of office every two years. This arrangement secures at all times the benefit of the experience of at least two thirds of the body. It may happen that one or both of the first Senators from a new State may serve less than the full term of six years (D 2).

The Pennsylvania Senators were placed in classes three and one.

The Senate is a perpetual body, and at any time is ordinarily fully organized, although not in actual session.

Qualifications of Senators.-A Senator must be at least thirty years old, a citizen of the United States for nine years, and an inhabitant of the State for which he is chosen (D3).

Previous absence from the State, on public business in a foreign country, or as a traveler, does not debar a person from the Senate nor from the House.

Election of Senators.-A law passed by Congress in 1866 makes the election of Senators uniform for the States (E?).

The Legislature chosen next preceding the expiration of the term of a Senator in any State, must, on the second Tuesday after organization, elect a Senator in the following manner. Each house must vote viva voce for Senator, and the vote is recorded in the journals. The next day, at noon, the houses meet in joint session and the journals of the proceedings of the previous day are read. If the same person has received a majority of all the votes cast in each house, he is declared elected. If no election has resulted, the joint assembly then proceeds to choose a Senator by viva voce vote of each person present, and if any person receives a majority of all the votes of the joint assembly—a majority of all members elected to both houses being present and voting—he is declared duly elected. If no choice is made on this day, then the houses meet in joint session each succeeding day of the session at the same hour, and must take at least one vote until a Senator is elected or the Legislature adjourns.

Vacancies.—When a vacancy occurs in the Senate during a recess of the Legislature, the Governor appoints a person to fill the place until a successor is chosen at the next meeting of the Legislature (D 2). When a vacancy occurs during a session of the Legislature, the Legislature elects. The newly elected Senator only fills out the term of his predecessor.

Officers of the Senate.—The Vice President of the United States is President of the Senate, but has no vote, unless they are equally divided (D 4). The Senators choose one of their number President pro tempore, who presides during the absence of the Vice President, or when he has become President of the United States through succession to that office. The Senate elects a secretary, chief clerk, executive clerk, sergeantat-arms, doorkeeper, postmaster, librarian, and chaplain. None of these are members of the Senate (D 5).

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Compensation.—A Senator receives a salary of $7,500 per year, clerk hire, and mileage at the rate of twenty cents a mile for the necessary distance traveled in going to and returning from the seat of government (G 1). A yearly allowance of $125 for newspapers and stationery is now made to Senators. When the President pro tem pore takes the place of the Vice President for any considerable length of time, the salary of that official, namely, $12,000 per year, is paid during the time the President pro tempore exercises the office.

Oath of Office.—The Vice President of the United States takes the oath of office on inauguration day; and, when he meets the Senate on the first day of the session, he administers the oath to the new Senators (X3). The Senate is then ready to proceed to the transaction of any business that may be presented.

Impeachment.—The sole power to try impeachments is vested in the Senate (D 6); but the sole power to impeach is vested in the House of Representatives (C5). In such cases the House adopts formal articles of impeachment, similar to the counts in an indictment found by a grand jury in a court of law. A committee from the House presents the articles of impeachment before the Senate. The Senators sit as a court, and must then take a special oath or affirmation (D ). No person can be convicted except by the vote of two thirds of the Senators present. When the President of the United States is impeached, the Chief Justice presides at the trial. The judgment in cases of conviction can not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States. Whether acquitted or convicted, the person is still liable to be tried and punished by the ordinary processes of law (D?).

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