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the full protection of the laws, and has such rights of holding office and voting as the Constitution allows. However, not all citizens are electors; an elector is a citizen who has the right to vote.
An alien is a person who owes allegiance to a foreign country, but enjoys such rights as the country in which he resides sees fit to grant to him. Among such rights usually granted may be named the power to acquire and own land. Strictly speaking, an alien cannot exercise political rights; but some States in the Union permit aliens, after a short residence therein, and after declaring their intention to become citizens, to exercise the elective franchise. When an alien is thus allowed to reside in the State, to hold property, and to vote, the distinction between him and a citizen is not very
clear. Indians who still retain their tribal relations are not citizens; and they are therefore only in a qualified sense subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
Naturalization.-An alien may become a citizen of the United States by naturalization. This makes him also a citizen of the State or Territory in which he resides, but it does not necessarily give him the right to vote. Naturalization is a Federal right, while the right to vote comes from the State and is a State gift. The chief requirements for naturalization are as follows: Five years' residence in the United States, and one year's residence in the State where the privilege is sought; two years' preliminary declaration of intention to become a citizen; evidence that the applicant has behaved as a man of good moral character, and is well disposed to the good order and happiness of the country; an oath to support the Constitution of the United States; the renouncing of allegiance to any foreign power, and of all
titles of nobility. By virtue of the naturalization of parents, all their children living in the United States and under twenty-one years of age become citizens. A minor who has resided in the United States three years immediately before attaining his majority, may, after becoming of age and after five years' residence, including the three years of his minority, become a citizen by taking oath that for two years it has been his intention to become such. The naturalization of Chinese, Japanese, and others of the Mongolian race-group is prohibited by law. The rights of citizenship are forfeited by naturalization in a foreign country, or by desertion from military or naval service. A naturalized citizen is ineligible to the Presidency.
Population: Residence. The population of the country may be distinguished as citizens, or inhabitants, or residents. Citizens are all persons born or naturalized within the United States and subject to its jurisdiction. Collectively they constitute the people or Nation. Inhabitants are all those who reside permanently in the country; the term includes citizens and aliens. The term residents is broader still; it includes not only inhabitants, but all sojourners, such as travelers, tourists, and others.
A matter of great importance in relation to citizenship is the question of residence or domicile. A residence or domicile is the place where a person intends to reside permanently. In a political sense the term residence is applied to the act or fact of dwelling or abiding in a place for some continuance of time. Under such circumstances a person is said to gain a residence in that place. A person can have but one place of residence, and temporary absence does not change it. A change of location, with the intention of permanently dwelling elsewhere, removes residence from one
place to another. Residence regulates the exercise of certain political rights and privileges.
Students do not gain or lose a residence while attending school.
Patriotism.-Patriotism is the noblest passion that animates man in his capacity as a citizen. Love of country is natural, and has some of the qualities of an instinct, but is much greater than any mere instinct or passion, since it may become a living principle or motive leading to heroic action. The noblest motive is the public good. Not only should the citizen protect his country from invasion, but he should maintain its laws and institutions in vigor and purity. Thus patriotism becomes the noblest and sublimest of all public virtues. The patriotism which, as a mighty force, moves armies into the battle lines in times of the Nation's peril is not a mere instinct, but a conviction; not a mere impulse, but a determination. It is a principle with all the white heat of passion: loyalty to liberty, and devotion to country.
We should study the history of our country, become familiar with the Nation's institutions, and take an active interest in its affairs. Nor should the closer local form of pride in the records of the Commonwealth which we call our own State be left uncultivated. Every glorious fact in its history should be emphasized, and the names and acts of its great men held in loving remembrance.
(To be answered from the preceding text, from part of Chapter
XXXIII, from the definitions at the back of the book, and from
What division of governmental power was made in ancient times? Name the most common kinds of
government. Name and define the two fundamental forms of government.
What is the object of government? Where does the government obtain its power?
Define law. What is a constitution?
What is a democracy? What is a republic? Why may we call the United States a representative democracy or a democratic republic?
What principles of our government are illustrated in an election? In a jury trial? In the support of the public schools by taxation?
What great social right has the child? What is the corresponding social duty of the parent?
Name the duty which corresponds to each of the rights of an American citizen.
What is a right? What is a duty ? Name the different classes of civil rights, and define each.
What classes of people are citizens of the United States?
Define civil liberty. Define citizenship. Distinguish between right and liberty.
What is the difference between a pure democracy and a representative democracy?
Why is a pure democracy necessarily limited to a small territory and a small number of people ?
Define and discuss eminent domain.
Distinguish between social and political rights. What civil rights does the State guarantee?
In the earlier stages of social development how was crime punished?
Are all citizens of the United States electors? Distinguish electors, inhabitants, residents, and citizens.
In a political sense, what is the meaning of the term residence?
THE KEYSTONE STATE
IMPORTANCE: BOUNDARIES: EARLY HISTORY
The Keystone State.—“Let what each man thinks of the state be written upon his brow” was one of Rome's famous inscriptions. The patriotic son of the grand old Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has no reason to blush when he thinks of the record of his State. Pennsylvania was a most potent factor in the adoption of the Constitution of the United States. Among the original States it stood with six free States to the north, and six slave-States to the south, a true political “Keystone” to the arch of the Union. Every foot of the Commonwealth is historic ground. What need to go to classic Greece to seek for spots sacred to liberty? The battles of Brandywine and Germantown were fought on its soil, and Valley Forge is within its limits. The graves at Gettysburg mark well the field on which, in one of the greatest battles of modern times, the armies of thirty-four States fought to decide the question of mankind's right to freedom.
Thus, when we realize the important place which the Commonwealth held in the Revolutionary War and in the Civil War, together with the part that its great men had in the establishment and government of the country, it certainly appears as the “Keystone State” in a much broader sense than that ordinarily indicated by the term. In population and in wealth Pennsylvania is exceeded by