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person is still liable to be tried and punished by the ordinary processes of law (130).

The Governor and all other civil officers are liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office.

Removal from Office.—All officers hold their offices on condition that they shall behave themselves well while in office, and shall be removed on conviction of misbehavior in office or of any infamous crime. Appointed officers, except judges of the courts of record and the superintendent of public instruction, may be removed at the pleasure of the appointing power (131).

Oath of Office.-Senators and representatives (132), and all judicial, State, and county officers must take the oath of office prescribed by the State constitution before entering upon their duties. It is administered by some person authorized to administer oaths. The oath is administered to members of the senate and house of representatives by a judge of the supreme court or of a court of common pleas, in the hall of the house to which the members are elected. The oath of a State officer or of a judge of the supreme court is filed in the office of the secretary of the Commonwealth; and in the case of other judicial and county officers, the oath is filed in the office of the prothonotary of the county wherein it is taken. Violation of the oath of office is ferjury.

Public Officers.-All officers whose election is not provided for in the constitution, are elected or appointed as may be directed by law (168).

No member of Congress, nor any person holding or exercising any office under the United States can, at the same time, hold or exercise any remunerative office in this State (169). The Legislature may declare certain offices incompatible, as, for example, the office of judge and notary public. Dueling disqualifies a person from holding public office, and he may be otherwise punished (170).

QUESTIONS

What is the origin of the impeachment of officers ?

In what body does the State constitution vest the power of impeachment? In which branch of the Legislature is the sole power of trial vested?

What governmental principles are illustrated in the impeachment of a State officer? In the impeachment of a judge ?

What offices are incompatible? What does the State constitution hold as to dueling?

What persons may be removed from office at the pleasure of the appointing power? Note the exceptions.

What is the oath of office? What is the penalty for its violation ?

CHAPTER XV

SUFFRAGE AND ELECTIONS

Who may Vote.—The Constitution of the United States leaves to the different States the power to define the conditions upon which a person shall exercise the right to vote, called the right of suffrage, except that it expressly provides that the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Under the constitution of Pennsylvania (133) there are three personal qualifications:

The voter must be (a) of the male sex, (b) at least twentyone years of age, and (c) a citizen of the United States at least one month before the election. Aliens cannot vote, no matter how long they may have lived in the State. Women cannot vote, although they are eligible to any office of control or management under the school laws of the State (166). The ownership of property, and the ability to read and write, are not necessary qualifications of an elector. Besides the three personal qualifications there are three others relating to (d) residence, (e) payment of taxes, and (f) registration.

Residence.—To have the right to vote, the person must have resided in the State at least one year next preceding the date of the election; but if, having previously been a qualified voter or native-born citizen of the State, he shall have removed from the State and returned, then he must have been in residence six months immediately preceding the election. He must have resided in the election district where he shall offer to vote at least two months next preceding the election (133).

Payment of Taxes.—If the elector is twenty-two years of age or upward, he must have paid, within two years, a State or county tax, which shall have been assessed at least two months, and paid at least one month, before the election. It is unlawful for any person or persons to pay or cause to be paid any occupation or poll tax assessed against any elector, except on the written and signed order of such elector au· thorizing such payment to be made. This order must be presented at least thirty days before the date of the election at which the elector desires to vote.

Between the ages of twenty-one and twenty-two a young man may “vote on age,” that is, without having paid any tax. A man who has no real estate or other property taxable by county or State votes on payment of his occupation tax, a small sum collected by the county on the voter's occupation or business.

Registration.—Townships, and wards of cities or boroughs, form or are divided into election districts (143), and registry lists of the qualified voters are made. The duty of compiling this list devolves upon the assessor of the township or ward. This officer posts a copy of the list on the door of the house where the election for the district is held. Complaints of errors are received, and corrections made. The revised lists are returned to the county commissioners, who put the names in alphabetical order and furnish two copies to the election board of the proper district for use at the polls. One list is used by the inspectors of election who have charge of the ballots, to check off the names of voters as their ballots are furnished them; the other list is used to designate which per

sons have voted. These are called the ballot check list and the voting check list respectively.

Privilege of Electors.—Except for treason, felony, or breach or surety of the peace, voters cannot be arrested during their attendance at the polls, and in going to and returning therefrom. This provision of the constitution prevents corrupt misuse of legal process (137).

Voting Room and Booths.—The county commissioners must provide for each election district a room fitted up with a number of voting shelves or booths at which the voters may mark their ballots secure from observation by others. A guard rail must also be so constructed and placed that only the persons within the rail can pass within six feet of either the ballot box or the voting shelves; yet the ballot box and voting shelves must not be hidden from the view of persons just outside the guard rail.

Time of Elections.—Two election days are provided for by the constitution. The general election is held biennially on the Tuesday next following the first Monday of November in each even-numbered year. At this time are elected National officers, State officers, and members of the General Assembly (134).

Elections for judges of the courts of the several judicial districts, and for county, township, borough, ward, city, and school district officers are held on the Tuesday next following the first Monday of November in each odd-numbered year (135). Judges of the supreme and superior courts may be elected at either a general or a municipal election.

Election Officers.—The officers forming the election board are chosen biennially by the citizens. This board consists of a judge and two inspectors; and each inspector appoints one clerk (146). Each elector has the right to vote for

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