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the Governor, and is the legal adviser and advocate of the State (86). His duties are increasing from year to year. He advises the Governor and other State officers on questions of law and of public interest whenever such questions are submitted to him for an expression of his opinion. Many of his duties relate to the finances of the State, and a large part of his work consists of the collection of delinquent claims certified to him by the auditor-general. He has access in the course of his business to the books, papers, and documents in the offices of the auditor-general and State treasurer. He may proceed by law against any corporation that refuses to submit its affairs to examination by the proper officers, or violates any law binding upon it. In the course of his duty, he represents the Commonwealth in all appeals taken by corporations in the settlement of taxes. Through the courts he can proceed to force certain officers to perform their official duties. He submits to the Legislature reports of the official business transacted in his office.

The attorneygeneral is a member of the board of pardons (87), the board of property and accounts, and of other important boards. His salary, $12,000, is one of the largest paid to State officers; and the breadth of the duties of the office requires that he be a lawyer of pronounced ability.

Auditor-General.—The auditor-general is elected for a term of four years, and is not eligible to the office for the next succeeding term (99). He makes an annual examination of the condition of the State treasury, including the treasurer's accounts, and all banks, corporations, etc., having deposits of the public funds. He examines and settles all accounts between the Commonwealth and other parties. The auditor-general has extensive powers to examine accounts, summon witnesses, and examine them under oath

if necessary. All warrants upon the State treasury are drawn by the auditor-general, except those drawn by the Governor; and such must be countersigned by the auditorgeneral. The books and papers of the treasurer's office are open to the inspection of the auditor-general.

State Treasurer.—The State treasurer is elected for a term of four years, and is not eligible to the office for the next succeeding term (99). He receives all money paid into the State treasury, and issues receipts therefor, which the auditor-general countersigns and registers. He pays all warrants drawn by the proper officers. He gives bond in the sum of $500,000 for the faithful performance of his duties. He makes an annual detailed report to the Legislature of the receipts and expenditures of the preceding year, ending November 30, and at the commencement of each session makes a financial report to the General Assembly. On the first business day of each month he renders a statement of account to the auditor-general, giving in detail the sums which make up the grand total of the amounts for that day in the State treasury, including moneys appropriated to the sinking fund. It also includes the names of banks and trust companies with which public funds are deposited, and sets forth under oath the amounts of such deposits.

Secretary of Agriculture.—This officer is appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the senate for a term of four years. The creation of the office was due to the magnitude of the interests formerly intrusted to the State board of agriculture. The object of the office which he fills is to promote agriculture, horticulture, forestry, and kindred industries. His principal duties are to collect and publish information relating to many subjects, such as the adaptability of grains, grasses and other crops to the soil and climate of

the State; wool growing and stock raising; diseases of domestic animals; methods and rates of transportation; valuation and taxation of farm lands; and all topics relating to the general agriculture of the State. Through his subordinates he is charged with the management of farmers' institutes; the enforcement of laws relating to the adulteration of food products and fertilizers; and the care and protection of forests against fire and other depredations.

By virtue of his office he is secretary of the board of agriculture. He has four assistants: the director of farmers' institutes, the dairy and food commissioner, the State veterinarian, and an economic zoologist.

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The Great Seal.—The State provides for the use of its executive a seal called the great seal of Pennsylvania. In effect this seal is an instrument whereby the name and emblem of the State may be impressed upon the paper or other material upon which the official document is written. All commissions are issued in the name and by the authority of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, are signed by the Governor, and sealed with the great seal of the State (100).

QUESTIONS

How are the executive functions of the State of Pennsylvania distributed ? Name some of the administrative officers of this State.

What are the powers and duties of the Governor? Of the lieutenant governor?

Does Pennsylvania give much or little power to the Governor? Which of the executive officers are elected by the people?

What are some of the powers and duties of the secretary of the Commonwealth? Of the State treasurer? Of the secretary of internal affairs? Of the attorney-general? Of the superintendent of public instruction? Of the auditor-general? Of the adjutant general? Of the secretary of agriculture?

Which State officers in Pennsylvania are appointed by the Governor, by and with the consent of the State senate?

Is the pardoning power an executive or a judicial function? In whom is it vested?

Tell all you know about the board of pardons.

In case the Governor is not chosen in the regular way, what provision is made for the selection of such officer?

the Governor's veto be overcome? Name the State officers you have seen. What is meant by saying that the Governor executes the law ? Have you ever read a message of the Governor? A proclamation by the same State officer?

If the State superintendent of public instruction wants information on some point of school law, to whom should he appeal?

How many senators and representatives would it take to pass a bill over the Governor's veto?

How are the expenses of the State government met?
What is the law of succession to the Governor's office?

How may

CHAPTER XI

OTHER STATE OFFICERS: STATE BOARDS

How Appointed: Names.—Many other offices have been created by law and are filled through appointment by the Governor, with the advice and consent of the senate. The most important of these officers are:-adjutant general, State librarian, factory inspector, superintendent of public grounds and buildings, superintendent of public printing and binding, commissioner of health, commissioner of banking, insurance commissioner, highway commissioner, commissioner of forestry, commissioner of fisheries, chief of the department of mines, and mine inspectors.

The chief duties of these officers are, perhaps, sufficiently explained by their official titles. A few facts in regard to some of the special duties arc here given.

Adjutant General.—This officer is the Governor's chief of staff, and his military executive officer. He is the chief inspector of the National Guard of the State, and is the keeper of the military records of the Commonwealth. He has charge of all the battle flags belonging to the State, and is also custodian of the war records and muster rolls. He is a member of the State military board.

Militia and the National Guard.—All male citizens of the State between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, except such as are by law exempt from such service, constitute the militia of the State. The term National Guard is ap

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