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would succeed very well with a frog just decapitated and skinned, and better still with a living frog just out of the water.
In connexion with a powerful machine, a man who is in communication with the ground I undergoes similar shocks. This may be tried with a conductor on a grand scale : two persone placed at the two extremities of this conductor do not experience sensible effects whilst the charge is made ; but if one of them approaches sufficiently near the conductor to draw sparks, the other experiences, at the moment, all the violence of the return shock, without the appearance of any trace of electricity or light between him and the conductor.
In studying the effects of thunder, we shall see that a storm cloud may act in an analogous manner, and strike at one and the same time, by the direct and by the return
The interruption to the transmission of electricity from the earth and bodies on its surface, to the clouds, when the latter fly high, and the air itself is dry and insulating, i.e. non-conducting, along with other favourable meteorological conditions, as to temperature pressure, &c.; is supposed to account for that buoyant exaltation of the common feeling, called by the Germans gemeingefühl : the opposite atmospheric conditions, of course then, will account for the opposite feelings of languor and depression, by the loss of electricity our bodies sustain (using a common term) through the improved conducting media of moist water air, near clouds, &c. : this state of depressed animal energy is subject of notoriety -not only amongst ourselves as human beings, but also among all classes of the animal creation. In some nervous temperaments, i.e. where irritability and sensibility of the body are not counterpoised by the equal developments of the muscular and circulating systems, the sensations during a thunder storm are exquisitely distressing, quite apart from the moral condition such as alarm—those whose legs have been fractured or hurt it may be years ago-who may have old gun-shot wounds, &c., find these places, become painful; all this may be owing to electrical changes in ourselves and bodies around: the strength of body and animal spirits return after the thunder has “ cleared the air,” as people say—or as we should rather say, after the air has cleared itself of the thunder cloud, which return shows the depression to have been independent of muscular exertion.
* i.e., not insulated.
Shoes and Boots.— With reference to the plan of wearing cork soles, which we omitted to speak about, we have lately seen a new plan of inserting the cork sole, which certainly to our mind obviates many of the objections to the old plan, whereby the leakage through the stitching of the upper leather is prevented by a series of double stitching, which renders the upper leather more secure than before, whilst guarding against the possibility of wet getting to the foot. The lightness and effectual resistance to wet seems to recommend this plan far before the heavy leather soles, for those who have much walking in all weathers. We shall try the plan for some time, and hereafter, if the work should attain to the honour of a second edition, we can give the result of the trial fairly. A boot-maker of the name of Russell, Duke-street, Liverpool, is the party to whom we allude as having drawn our attention to his " improved cork sole.”
With regard to the wear of woollen socks--especially when the soft fine lamb's wool is used, as in the before alluded to, midge pattern—the method of washing them requires care in order to prevent them felting, or “running up," so as to become inconveniently small; the best plan is to have them washed before deeply soiled, so as that they can be rapidly washed in hot water, and immediately put upon a wooden stretcher to dry gradually; by this means they will keep their shape and elasticity.
Instructions to Bathers.-6. With respect to the man. ner of bathing, the most important point is to moderate the shock to the nervous and the delicate. This, as a general rule, is best done by a sudden immersion of the whole body. The uneasy feelings are much augmented by the practice, adopted by the timid, of gradually permitting the water to ascend higher and higher until the whole body is immersed. A little fortitude is necessary to take the first plunge, but after this little or no inconvenience is generally felt ny repeating it. The time best adapted for bathing demands also a passing comment. By common consent, early in the morning, before breakfast, is preferred; and it is considered to be improper whilst digestion is going on, or at least during the early stages. The process of digestion occasions a concentration of the vital activity on the stomach, and this is morbidly modified by any cause that acts powerfully on the nervous system, or interferes with the general vascular and nervous action, as bathing certainly does. But although before breakfast is the best, it is not the only time for bathing. Under similar circumstances it may be advantageously had recourse to whenever digestion is completed, or considerably advanced. The best general rules for guidance, as to the use of the cold bath especially, when performed at seasonable times, are not to employ it when the individual is cool or chilly, or when the heat is undergoing resolution by the establishment of perspiration, which is a cooling process.”-Dr. Dung. linson's Elements of Hygiene. Philadelphia, 1835. (P. 417.)
Let even a coward, at entering the water, but believe the fact, that “the human body, in an ordinary healthy state, with the chest full of air, is lighter than water;"> and, as Dr. Arnott justly observes, “it would lead to the saving of more lives, in cases of shipwreck and in other accidents, than all the mechanical life-preservers which man's ingenuity will ever contrive."
By holding in a full inspiration the body "naturally floats, with a bulk of about half the head above the water, having no more tendency to sink than a log of fir. That the person may live and breathe, then, it is only necessary to exert volition, so as to render the face the part which remains uppermost.” – Vol. I. EL. Phys. p. 290.
We condense these remarks which we would fain enlarge upon fully, into the three following golden cautions. If you are no swimmer, and are in danger of drowning, as you think, under any circumstances you are safe, if you mind to
Float on your back immediately.
Keep your chest full of air—and keep your hands in the water.
Do not plunge or struggle.
Thus your face will be always out of the water, and you can breathe as ordinary. Never let your mind get flurried, for you are safe if you are collected, and doing the easiest thing in the world--floating, as we say.
A Hint for those who can swim about saving those who cannot swim from drowning.- A swimmer who may attempt to save the life of a person floating in the water, by bringing him to shore, must avoid getting within such struggling person's reach, or he will in all proba. bility lose his own life in the attempt rashly to save that of another. Let him remember, then, to avoid the death-grasp, as it is called, of the drowning; for it can seldom be quitted when once fastened, and both go down
inevitably! The way is, to swim round till their plunging slackens, and they rise to the surface of the water generally for the last time, when you must go behind them, never before them; seize either the back of the neck, or even a lock of the back hair, particularly if long hair, will be quite sufficient to hold them, and to urge them before you to shore-holding them by one hand, and swimming with the other. (Parties should practise swimming with either hand alone, and they will be more fitted, having tested their own resources this way, to rely upon their ability for any attempt to rescue others.) Sometimes the foot can be readiest seized : this will do, though not so well. Always keep clear of their arms and hands, with one exception perhaps—the back of their arm, or grasping the shoulders round and under the armpit from behind. They must be made your prisoner in one of these ways, which are the chief, or else you may be made, however unintentionally, theirs, which, as we have said, is fatal to both; the reverse being a happy success in your object. Alas! huw many noble endeavours, on the part even of good swimmers, are worse than thrown away, by not attending to this-how often does there result a double loss of life, deepening into horror the earlier part of the catastrophe-as our newspaper records show almost day by day. A per. son had better not jump in to help, under the promptings of a noble anxiety, unless he can with presence of mind put these precautions into practice. If in his praiseworthy efforts to save the struggler, or the lifeless body, from a "watery grave," he finds his own strength failing, and the hope he bravely cherished impossible to realise, then he must consign his prisoner to his fate, and save his own life, however distressing to desert a drowning fellow-creature. This duty to himself he cannot discharge if he have allowed himself to become im