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THE ZEALOUS POPES.
Remarks of Ranke on the Papal History of the Sixteenth Century.-Julius
III.-His Character.—Conclave which elected him.-View of this con-
clave by the Venetian Ambassador.-Delay in Assembling of the
Conclaves after Paul III.'s Death.-Reginald Pole.—The Expectation
that he would be elected.—Was all but elected.His own scruples.-
His Election lost by them.-Anecdote of his behaviour in Conclave.-
Cardinal di San Marcello, afterwards Pope as Marcellus II.—Deter-
mined to elect Pole, if possible.—The Emperor appealed to by Letter.-
He vetoes Cardinal Salviati.-Election of Del Monte as Julius III.-
His Character . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Marcellus II.-His Character.—The Conclave which elected him.-The
Choice lies between him and Cardinal Caraffa.—Hostility of the Im-
perial Party to the Latter.--The Meaning and Practice of Adoration,"
* Acclamation,” or “ Inspiration."-Anecdote of intrusive Conclavist at
a Scrutiny.--Election of Marcellus II.-His Death, and Conduct at the
Council of Trent ,
. . . . . 213
The Conclave which elected Paul IV.-Imperialist Party.-Cardinal Pole.-
Results in practice of the requirement of a two-thirds majority.-
Cardinal Carpi excluded.—Cardinal D'Este.-Cardinal Morone.- Objec-
tions to him.- Cardinal Pozzi.-Management of Farnese.--Election of
Paul IV.-Anecdote of the feeling of Rome on the occasion.-Character
of Caraffa, Paul IV. Imperial " Veto" disregarded in this election.-
Saying of Caraffa respecting his own elevation.—Estimate and descrip.
tion of Paul by the Venetian Ambassador.-Giovanni Angelo Medici:
his Family, Brother, Early History.—Character and personal appear.
ance of Medici, Pius Iv.-The Inquisition.-Signs of the times.-
Practice of giving complimentary votes.—Anecdote of the craft of a
Conclavist.-Cardinal Carpi again.—Why he was objectionable to
D'Este.--Medici suddenly elected as a pis aller . . . . . 224
Death of Pius IV.-Closing of the Council of Trent.--Ranke's Remarks on
the work of the Council.-Action of the work of the Council on the
Character of the Popes.-Anecdote of a plot to assassinate Pius IV.-
Michael Ghislieri : his antecedents and character.-Character of the
Election.-Conclave which elected Pius IV.-Rivalry between Cardinals
Farnese and Borromeo.-Representative of the old and of the new time.
- Cardinal Altemps.--Anecdote of Borromeo at Florence.-Conclavist's
View of Borromeo's character.-Moroni's imprisonment and acquittal
on Charge of Heresy held in Conclave to be sufficient reason against
his Election.-Borromeo wishes to elect him.-It is found impossible,
however, to elect him.-Duplicity of Farnese towards Borromeo.
Cardinals Ferrara and D’Este hostile to Morone, and why.-Farnese
and Borromeo agree to the Election of Ghislieri. -Dismay in Conclave
at the result accomplished in the Election of Pius V. . . . . 241
Character and Disposition of Ugo Boncompagno is dominated by the Spirit
of the Age.-Felice Peretti, Sixtus .-Saying attributed to him.-
Urban VII.-Sfondrato, Gregory XIV.-His Character and Practices.
-Fachinetti, Innocent IX. — Aldobrandino, Clement VIII. - His
Character.-Characteristics of the Conclaves that had elected these
Popes.-Camillo Borghese, Paul V.--Conclave which elected him.-
Principal Parties in it.-Their relative Strength, and the Manner in
which' it operated.-Attempt to elect Cardinal Saoli.-Anxiety of
Aldobrandino's Party. - First Scrutiny.- Cardinal Bellarmine. -
Cardinals Baronius and Borromeo.—Motives for putting forward Bellar-
mine.-Negotiation between Baronius and Aldobrandino.-Cardinal
Montalto at Supper.-Cardinal Camerino put forward, and dropped.--
Cardinal San Clemente put forward.-Threatened “Esclusiva.”-
Cardinal Tosco put forward.—Meeting of Cardinals for the exclusion
of San Clemente . . . · · · · · ·
Continuation of the Conclave that elected Paul V.-Aldobrandino deter-
mines to elect Cardinal Tosco.-Points for and against him.-Attempt to
elect Tosco by" Adoration.”-Montalto's Indecision.-Remarkable Scene
in the Cell of Cardinal Acquaviva.-Conference between Aldobran-
dino and Montalto.-The Latter unwillingly agrees to the Election of
Tosco, which appears all but certain.-Suspense of Tosco.-Remarkable
Step taken by Baronius.--He alone by the Ascendancy of his Character
prevents the Election of Tosco.—Baronius himself nearly elected.—The
* Sala Regia " in the Vatican.-Party Tactics thrown into Confusion.-
Tosco's Disappointment.--Extraordinary Scene in the Sala Regia and
the Sistine and Paoline Chapels.—Borghese at length proposed by
common Accord, and elected as Paul V. .
THE PRINCE POPES.
Close of the Era of the Zealous Popes.- Characteristics of the Group which
succeeded them.-Death of Paul V.-Alexandro Ludovisi elected as
Gregory XV. by the influence of Cardinal Borghese. — Ludovico
Ludovisi, the Cardinal Nephew.-Regulations of Gregory XV. for the
holding of the Conclave.-Father Theiner's Remarks concerning them.
-Interregnum, Description of.-Death of Gregory XV., and Entry of
Cardinals into Conclave.-Conclave expected to be a long one, and
why.— Parties in the Conclave.-Cardinal Saoli again. - Cardinal
Delmonte.-Borromeo.-Cardinals Bandini, Ginnasio, and Madruzzi.
The Barberini Family.-Character of Maffeo Barberini, who became
Urban VIII.-Cardinals Gaetani, Sacrato, and San Severino.-Illness
in the Conclave of Cardinal Borghese. He refuses to leave the Con.
clave.-- Barberini named in the impossibility of any other Election,
and elected.-Terrible mortality of Cardinals and Conclavists . : 295
Reign and Works of Urban VIII.-Change in the Position of the Popes.-
No more Possibility of obtaining Sovereignties for Papal Nephews.-
Accumulation of wealth by the Papal Families.-Sixtus V.-Gregory
XIV.-Clement VIII.-Paul V.- Gregory XV.- Urban VIII. -
Amount of dotation permissible to a Papal Nephew.-Persecution of
one papal family by another.—Conclave at the death of Urban.
Parties and interest at Rome much changed since the last Conclave.-
Cardinal Pamphili elected as Innocent X.—The Barberini driven from
Innocent X.-The Story of his Reign stands alone in Papal History.-
Donna Olympia Maidalchini, his Sister-in-Law.-Her Influence over
him.- Her scandalous venality, greed, and corruption.— Scandal
throughout Europe.--Innocent's futile Attempt to banish her.-Anec-
dote of her dealings in the last hours of the Pope's life.--Innocent's
Death.-A Conclave without any leaders.—The “Squadrone Volante."
Anecdote of Cardinals Ottobuono and Azzolini. - Chigi proposed.-
Opposed by the French interest.—The Barberini again. -Chigi elected
as Alexander VII.-End of the story of Donna Olympia.-Pestilence
at Rome. . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Fabio Chigi, Alexander VII.-His character. His modified nepotism.-
Difficulty of entirely abolishing nepotism.-Changing characteristics
of the Papacy.—Dispute at the death-bed of Alexander.- Rospigliosi
elected Pope as Clement IX.-His character.-The fluctuations in the
population of Rome.-Curious Connection between these phenomena
and the decrease of nepotism.-Mixed motive of the Electors in the
Conclaves of this period.-Complaints of the decline of religion and
morality in Rome.—Qualities now sought for in a Pontiff.-Innocent
XI. a really capable financier.—Conclave which elected Clement X. . 337
Conclave which elected Altieri as Clement X.-No fewer than twenty-one
“Soggetti Papabili."-Barberini.-Ginetti.-Brancacci.- Carpegna.-
Facebinotti.-Grimani.-Gabrielli.- Odeschalchi. - Alvizzi. - Cibo.-
Ottobuoni.- Spada.- Bonvisi. -'Vidoni. - D'Elci. — Celsi. – Litta.
Bonelli.-Altieri.-Nerli.—Bona.-Complaint by the Conclavist of the
impiety of the Times . . . . . . . . . . 346
No Chief of a party or party able to make Pope the man they most desired to
elect.-Fear of enmity much more operative in the Conclave than
enmity.-Multiplicity of considerations ever on the increase.-The
Conclave which elected Clement X. especially long and difficult.
Moderation of recent Popes as to nepotism operates to increase this.-
Saying of the Princess Albani.--Abundant evidence in this Conclave
that negotiations with a view to the election were not checked by the
Bulls to that effect.-Searching the Dinners of Cardinals a mere
Farce.-Odeschalchi all but elected.-Father Bona wishing to further
his chance, injures it.—Why Cardinal Pio could not vote for Altieri.-
Chigi fails altogether as Head of a Faction.--Anecdote of Cardinal
Razzi.--Message from the King of Spain to the Conclave.-Remarkable
results of it.-Anecdote of Altieri on the Eve of his Election.-Election
of Altieri. -Anecdote of De Retz . . . . . . . 365
Letters of the French President De Brosses.-Last Years of Clement XII.,
Corsini.-Notices by De Brosses of the then Cardinals : of Cardinal
Corsini, of Cardinal Albani, of Cardinal Coscia, of Cardinal Fleuri, of
Cardinal Rohan, of Cardinal Tencin.-How Matters went in the Con-
clave.-Tencin loses all influence.- Proposal to elect Cardinal Aldro-
vandi opposed by Albani.—Albani's treacherous scheme to ruin
Aldrovandi.-Albani's treachery ruins the chances of Cardinal Porzia.
- Plain speaking of Cardinal Acquaviva.-Election of Lambertini as
Benedict XIV. His character and appearance.-Conclaves and Popes,
sisteen in number, between that of Clement X. in 1670, and that of
Pius IX. in 1846.–Saying of Cardinal Albani.-Characteristics of latter
Popes . . .
THE CONCLAVE AS IT IS AT PRESENT.
The death of a Pope.-Time to elapse before Conclave.-Cardinal Gays.
ruck's Journey.-The Mode of constructing cells for the Conclave.-
Localities in the interior of the Conclave.-Drawing lots for the cells.-
Mode of fitting and furnishing the cells.—The cell of a Royal Cardinal.
-The Camerlengo.—Mode of living of the Cardinals.—First day in
Conclave . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
The Twenty rules of Gregory XV.-Signal for strangers to clear out.-Scale
of payment of fees to servants and attendants in Conclave.-Death of a
Cardinal in Conclave.-Business of each meeting of the Cardinals
between the death of the Pope and the commencement of Conclave.
Entry into Conclave.—Bull of Pius VI. dispensing with certain formali.
ties in the election of his successor, - Next Conclave in all probability
will be quite regular . . . . . . .
Three Canonical modes of Election.-Scrutiny and “ Accessit.”-Entry of
the Cardinals into Chapel for the scrutiny.-Vestments.—Mode of pre-
paring the Sixtine Chapel for the scrutiny.—The Seats of the Cardinals
at the Scrutiny.--The Sfumata.”—How the day passes in Conclave.-
The bringing of the Cardinals' dinners.—Cardinals heads of Monastic
Orders.-Close of the day in Conclave . .
. . . . 409
Mcde of Procedure at the Scrutiny.—"Ante-scrutiny.”—The Four Actions
composing it.—Description of the voting papers.—The Eight Actions
composing the Scrutiny more properly so called.-Infirm Cardinals.
The Manner of their voting.-- Relatives may not be Conclavists.-
How this rule is evaded.-The “ Accessit.”—The “ Post-scrutiny."-
Different procedure in case an election has or has not been accom-
plished.-Care to ascertain that an elector has not made the necessary
majority by voting for himself.-Cases of conscience as regards the
voting - Objects intended to be ensured by Conclave rules impossible
of attainment.-Conclusion · · · · · · · ·