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he has a chance, I "accede” to him. If my main object is to prevent if possible the election of either B or C I accede to some other cardinal, in the hope that the votes given to him, if not sufficient to elect him, may at least, in Conclave language, give an exclusion to B and C, i.e. prevent either of them from having a twothirds majority. It will be seen that the accessit” requires for its management some of the most delicate and dexterous play of any portion of the Conclave operations.

The second act of the post-scrutinium, when no election has been made at the first vote, is the opening of the seals which seal down that fold of the voting paper where the number and the motto are written, to ascertain that the first and second votes are by the same person, and are given either "nemini,” or to a different candidate from him voted for the first time; the third, the numbering; and the fourth, the examination of the votes (only in case an election has been accomplished). The fifth act of the post-scrutinium is the adding together the votes obtained by the different candidates in the scrutiny and the “ accessit.” The sixth act consists in the verification by the “ricognitori” of the votes and the counting of them by the scrutators; and the seventh and last in the burning of the voting papers.

It should be noted, however, that in the examination of the votes, if an election should have been made by a number of votes exactly sufficient to constitute the required two-thirds majority, the scrutators must ascertain that the person elected has not voted for himself. Otherwise no election would have been made.

Volumes of subtle casuistry have been written on the exact sense of the terms of the cardinal's oath, that he will elect him whom he believes before God ought to be elected, and on the degree of literalness in which it must be assumed to be binding on the conscience. At the beginning of a Conclave many scrutinies are gone through without any thought of coming to an election merely to try the strength of the different parties and to explore the ground. Conclave tacticians are of opinion that an elector may often injure the final chance of a candidate by voting for him from the outset in these tentative skirmishes. Is an elector, therefore, to injure the chance of the man whom he believes to be the fittest by voting for him at such times ? A man may in his heart and conscience believe himself to be the fittest there to be made Pope. Is he bound to risk invalidating his own election by voting for himself ? Or must he vote for some one whom he does not think the fittest? May a man vote for one whom he deems unfit when it is clear that that one will be elected ? · Answer: Yes ! because it is fitting that an election should be made with concord and without giving rise to evil passions. Such questions and « cases " might be, and indeed have been, multiplied almost ad infinitum.

But the entire history of the Conclaves in which the Popes have been elected, and of the rules which have been enacted for the regulation of them and restriction of the actors in them, is one long series of demonstrations of the vanity and futility of endeavouring to bind by law the wills of men whose power is above that of law, and who recognise no superior. Prescription has

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a certain amount of power, which is even greatly increased when it is applied to a corporate body. But it breaks down under the strain of the temptations to which those are exposed to whom so great a business as the election of a Pope is entrusted. Given the necessity of having a Pope, it would probably be impossible to devise a better means of getting one than that which the Church has gradually perfected. But she attempts the impossible ; and her efforts to secure her aim, though they have been to a great degree successful, have resulted in an amount of false pretence, solemn sham, hypocrisy, and substitution of pompous appearance for reality, the long story of which makes the account of these Conclaves somewhat humiliating reading for the believer in human perfectibility.

INDEX.

| Announcement of their creation to new
Abdication of Celestine V., 87.

Cardinals, 35.
Abnormal length of the reign of the

he | Antecedents of Moroni, Gregory
Antipope, Benedict XIII., 86.

XIV.'s barber, 93.
- papal elections, 57.

Antipopes, 57.
Abuses of the secret system of nominat-

Ascetic and bigoted character of
ing Cardinals, 25.

Michael Ghislieri, Pius V., 244.
Accumulation of wealth by papal
families, 317–322.

B.
Advantage of a numerous College of
Cardinals, 23.

Barberini Family, downfall of the, 324.
Age of candidates for the Cardinalate,

Behaviour of newly created Cardinals,
47.

36.
Alexander VII., character of, 337.

Benedict XIV., character of, 338.
- modified nepotism of,

Beretta, the, 36, 43.
338.

Berettina, the, 36, 42.
Alexander VIII., 388.

Bitter dissensions in the Sacred College
and his secretary,

(1303), 90.
afterwards Clement XI., 27, 28.

Bull of Sixtus V., finally regulating the
Amount of dotation permissible to a

composition of the Sacred College,
papal nephew, 321.

18, 19.
Anecdote of Cardinal Altieri on the eve

Bulls of Gregory XV. forming the
of his election as Clement X., 375.

basis of Conclave Law, 229.
Anecdote of Cardinal de Retz, 377.

- Pius VI., promulgated in
- -Giampietri"Caraffa

1782 and 1798, 407.
(Paul IV.), 229.

Burial of Alexander VI., extraordinary,
- Giangiacomo Medici,

173.
brother of Pius IV., 232.

-- Gregory XIV. and Boni.
facio Vanozzi, 26-27.

Cardinal Albani in the Conclave after
- an hereditary conclave the death of Clement XII., cunning
“custode,135.

intrigues of, 385–387.
- an intrusive Conclavist, 221.

nephew of Clement
· Matthew Corte, the papal XI., sketch of, 380.
physician, 86.

de Coligny, deposition of, by
Nicholas IV., 85.

Pius IV., 50.
- Nicholas V. and his mother,

deacons, 21.

Cardinal's hat, the, 36, 37.
Paul II., 156.

Cardinal Ludovisi during the reign of
Sixtus V., 260.

Gregory XV., influence of, 298.
Anecdotes of the Conclave at the death

- Moroni accused of heresy in
of Eugenius IV., 137–141,

1557, 251.
— that elected

- Nephews," 138.
· Pius II., 146-151.

-, origin of the term, 14.

144.

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295.

387.

312.

Cardinal Pole, of England, nearly | Close of the era of “the Zealous Popes,"
elected to the Papacy, 205–208.

- loses his election by his Closing of the Council of Trent in
scruples, 208.

1563, 241.
- Rohan, French naiveté of, “ Closing and opening" of the mouths
381.

of new Cardinals, 45, 46.
Cardinals and Cardinal Deacons, dif Commencement of modern Papal
ference between, 21.

history, 77.
early, differing ecclesiastical Conclave at the death of Alexander
rank of, 16.

VI., 175.
fifty churches after which

- of Adrian VI., 190–
they are called, 20.

196.
-, during Conclave, inaccessi-

of Calistus III., 145.
bility of, 65.

of Clement VII., 197.
- juvenile, made by Alexander

of Clement IX., 346–
VI., 48.

376.
by Alexander VIII., 52.

of Clement XII., 379–
by Clement VI., 48.
by Clement VIII., 52.

of Eugenius IV., 135.
by Eugenius IV., 48.

of Gregory XI., 106.
by Honorius II., 48.

of Gregory XV., 303–
by Innocent VIII., 48.
by Innocent IX., 51.

of Innocent VI., 98.
by Innocent X., 52.

- of Innocent VIII., 171.
by Julius III., 51.

of Innocent X., 332,
by Paul III., 61.

333, 334.
by Paul V., 52.1

of John XXII., 95.
- by Sixtus IV., 48.

of Julius II., 180.
by Sixtus V., 51.

of Julius III., 213, 221.
– by Urban VIII., 52.

of Leo X., 186.
Cardinals, new, receptions held by,

of Leo XI., 262–292.
44, 45.

of Marcellus II., 224.
-, newly created, behaviour

of Paul II., 156.
expected of, 36.

of Paul III., 204-211.
-, objections to the secret sys-

of Paul IV., 236-240.
tem of nomination to the order of, 25.

of Pius II., 155.
- original number of, 18.

of Pius III., 178.
- in petto, 23, 24.

of Pius IV., 245–257.
-, rapid succession of, 21, 22.

- of Urban VIII., 322.
, six sees after which they are

- of Sixtus IV., 167.
called, 19.

, the modern, 395–428.
-, social position in the Roman

; a modern, how the day
world of, 29.

passes at, 414, 415.
Cardinalitial ring, the, 46.

- regulations, futility of, 427.
Carlo Borromeo, the celebrated Arch-

- at Viterbo in 1269, remark.
bishop of Milan, 247.

able, 60.
Catastrophe at the coronation of Conclaves in the eighteenth century,
Clement V., 94.

389.
Celebration of public obsequies at the

modern, internal discipline
death of a Pope, 71.

of, 399,
Cells prepared for the Cardinals in

- in the nineteenth century,
Conclave, 398.

390.
Change in the position of the Popes, 315. - during the schism of 1378—
Character of Adrian VI., 188.

1417, 125.
- Gregory XIII., 259. Confusion in Christendom after the
- Pius IV., 233.

election of the antipope Clement
Choice of a locality for Conclaves, 69. VII., 123, 124.
Chronicle of the diarist Infessura, 162. Congregation of Rites, the, 37.
Clement VIII., 261.

Conspiracy to assassinate Pius IV.,
Close of the day in Conclave, 417.

243.

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