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materials for sealing, and writing requisites. The conclavists then retire and the doors of the chapel are closed. Their Eminences, it is expressly provided, may recite their breviary during the scrutiny, or read any book, if they like that better.
The chapel is divided, as visitors to Rome will no doubt remember, into two halves by a balustrade, the inner portion, or that nearest to the altar, being called, as in other churches, the presbytery. The entire floor of this is raised to a level with the daïs, on which ordinarily is placed the Pontiff's seat, on this occasion removed. The altar alone remains, with its crucifix and six candles, which are always lighted during the whole time of the scrutiny. All round the walls of the presbytery thus prepared are erected a number of “thrones” (for they are all sovereigns during the vacancy of the see), equal to that of the members of the College. Each has a baldaquin, or canopy, over it, which, as well as all the other drapery attached to it, is of green for those cardinals not created by the last Pope, and of purple for his “creatures. These canopies are so arranged that they can be removed by pulling a rope at a minute's notice, and they are all let down the instant the new Pope is chosen, with the exception of that one above the seat he has occupied. Under the baldaquin, and in front of each seat, is a table covered with drapery of similar colour, in front of which is written the name of each cardinal, and below the name his coat-of-arms. On the table there is what we should call a blotting book, which is to be, as we are told, of black leather ornamented with lines of gold. The Dean
of the Sacred College sits under the first baldaquin on the gospel side of the altar. All the rest follow, the bishops, priests, and deacons, in the order of their creation, so that the junior occupies the baldaquin nearest to the altar on the epistle side. In the middle of the floor are six little tables, similarly furnished with everything necessary to the business in hand. These are for the use of any cardinal who, fearing that he may be overlooked by his neighbour when writing his voting paper, may prefer to do it in the open space, where overlooking is impossible.
In front of the altar is a large table covered with red serge, with the following objects on it: a number of papers folded, wafers, sealing-wax, four candles ready for lighting, a box with flint, steel, and matches, a quantity of red and another parcel of purple cord for filing the schedules on, and a box of needles for the same purpose. There is also a tablet of walnut wood with seventy holes in it, answering to the number of cardinals when the College is full, together with a purple bag containing as many balls of wood as there are cardinals, with the name of a cardinal on each of them. From this bag, every morning and every afternoon, are drawn by lot by the hand of the junior cardinal deacon the three scrutators, and three cardinals to attend the invalids and take their votes in their cells if there are any invalids in the Conclave, as is almost certain to be the case. And the balls, with the names of the six cardinals thus drawn by lot, are placed in the respective holes in the tablet above mentioned, and are allowed to remain there during the entire time of each
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scrutiny. Finally, there is also on the large table the form of oath to be used on putting the voting papers into the urn, and two urns with their dishes beneath them, which during the time of the scrutiny are placed on the altar; also a box with a slit in the lid, and a lock and key, which the cardinals appointed to receive the votes of their invalid colleagues carry round, locked, to the cells of the latter, and into the slit in which the sick cardinals put their folded papers containing their votes with their own hands.
Behind the altar there is a little iron fireplace with a tube chimney communicating with the outer air. There is also a little closed grating and a small quantity of damp straw. At the close of each scrutiny in which no election has been accomplished all the voting papers are placed, together with a portion of straw, in this grating, which is then inserted in the iron stove, and the whole is set on fire by a match lighted from the tinder-box before mentioned, so that the burning occasions a dense smoke, by the rising of which all Rome, eagerly on the watch, is informed that no election has taken place at that morning's, or that afternoon's, scrutiny. This is the celebrated “Sfumata” of which so much has been heard, and on which so many bets have been decided. It serves also as a signal to the artillerymen who are on the watch at Castle St. Angelo, ready to fire their guns as soon as the election shall have been made ; and, further, to the workmen, also on the watch, to pull down the walling-up of the great balcony, from which the new Pope will, immediately on his election, give his first benediction, “ Urbi et orbi,”
on the instant that an election shall have been consum
When the cardinals have entered the chapel and taken their places, the senior master of the ceremonies reads the instrument declaring the perfect closing of the Conclave, and the other masters of the ceremonies distribute to the cardinals little books containing a form of prayer to be used during the vacancy of the see. The sacristan, who is always a bishop, then intones the “ Veni Creator Spiritus," and the “ Oremus ;" and then every one save the cardinals leaves the chapel, and one of them fastens the door with a chain, which must be no more removed till the end of that scrutiny. As soon as it has been brought to a conclusion, the Dean of the College rings a bell which is on the little table before him, and all the cardinals rise to leave the chapel. The first who reaches the door unlocks the chain and rings a bell, the rope of which is there, to let the conclavists and all the Conclave world know that the scrutiny is over. The morning's work, including the mass, generally occupies about two hours. The afternoon scrutiny, without the mass, takes about an hour and a half.
When their Eminences come out from the morning scrutiny it is about time for the mid-day meal—a great event in the day, doubtless, within the Conclave walls, but a still greater one on the outside ; for the dinners of their Eminences are brought to the “rota," or turntable opening, at which they are to be passed into the Conclave in great state and with much ceremony. Each cardinal has a “Dapifer"-a bringer of the feast-who
performs that office for his imprisoned master. We read in the old constitutions of the one dish to be allowed to the electors, and that to be diminished to bread and water if the election were not terminated within a given number of days. And it might be supposed that Dapifer could convey that “ feast” with sufficient convenience in a small hand-basket! But such Apostolic simplicity has given way to a ceremonial which forms-or perhaps I should say, formed one of the great spectacles of Rome during an interregnum. The cardinal's state carriage and state liveries set forth from his Eminence's palace with much accurately prescribed ceremonial, under the command of “ Dapifer,” who superintends the passing of the good things brought by him through the “rota,” after they have been duly probed and examined by the officials appointed, ad hoc, to see that no scrap of writing or message of any kind is conveyed with or in them. How gross a farce all this is has been sufficiently seen in the accounts of sundry Conclaves which have been given.
By various other regulations, the utmost apparent care is taken that no communications respecting the business of the Conclave shall take place between those imprisoned and the outside world. The prelates who preside at the “rota” are directed to read all letters passing in or out, to seal and pass them if there is nothing relative to the election in them, and to refuse to allow them to pass otherwise. Conversations at the srota,” to which any cardinal may be called by those who wish to confer with him, may not be carried on in