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naming those whom he publicly creates, adds, “Alios duos (or more or less] in pectore reservamus, arbitrio nostro quandocumque declarandos." The Popes, however, have never succeeded in obtaining with any degree of certainty the recognition of cardinals thus made if they should be surprised by death before the publication of them. Sometimes they have been allowed to take their places in the Sacred College. Sometimes their title to do so has been rejected. More frequently, perhaps, than either, the succeeding Pope has given them admission to the College by a nomination of his own. It is now, however, a recognised maxim of the Roman Curia that no Pope on succeeding to the see of St. Peter is in any wise bound to recognise any nominations left by his predecessor in this incomplete condition, even if he should find the document in which his predecessor had registered his act in this respect, or if the facts of the case should become known to him in any other manner.

Sometimes it has been the Papal practice to cause some entirely confidential person of those about them to make out a list of those intended to be comprised in a coming creation of cardinals. And the secret history of the Vatican has many anecdotes connected with this practice. Bonifacio Vannozzi, of Pistoia, well known in the history of the Roman Court as having served it as secretary for more than thirty years, had been employed by Gregory XIV. (ob. 1591) to draw up such a list of contemplated promotions. Having subsequently passed into the service of the Cardinal di Santa Cecilia, the Pope's nephew, the latter, anxious to know the names of those who were to be promoted, succeeded in wrenching them from his secretary Vannozzi, whose own name was in the list. The Pope soon found out that his nephew knew all about the new creations, and, sending for Vannozzi, told him that he had misinformed the Cardinal di Santa Cecilia in one respect at least, and so saying handed him the list and bade him erase his own name!

On another occasion it is related * that Pope Alexander VIII. (ob. 1691) sent for his secretary Gianfranceso Albani, who afterwards became Pope as Clement XI., that he might prepare an allocution to be spoken by the Pope on the following day but one, when a Consistory was to be held for the creation of twelve new cardinals. As the secretary proceeded with his work, the Pope, walking up and down the room the while, told him with many injunctions of profound secrecy the names of the cardinals to be made, one by one as the secretary came to that passage in the allocution which concerned them; for in Papal allocutions upon these occasions it is the practice for the Pope to utter some words of eulogy and record of services rendered to the Church with reference to each of the new nominees. The Pope had thus gone through the first eleven on his list, and then stopping in his walk said, “Well! why don't you go on with your notice of the twelfth ?” “But who is the twelfth, your Holiness?" returned Albani. " What! don't you know how to write your own name ?" said the Pope. “Thereupon,” says tho Jesuit biographer, who was, when he wrote, Bishop of Sisteron, “Albani prostrated himself before the Pope and conjured him to

Lafiteau, Life of Clement XI., p. 27, 2 vols. 12mo, 1752.

nominate some more worthy person ”—a little bit of hypocritical comedy which the Jesuit deems necessary to the due exaltation of his subject. But the Pope, who was virtually making him not only a cardinal, but his own successor next but one-Innocent XII. (ob. 1700) having reigned nine years in the interim—told him that he had made many changes in the list of those whom he purposed to elevate to the purple, but that he had never once thought of omitting his name.


Ceremonial connected with the Creation of Cardinals.--Practice in the

Earliest Ages.—Consultation of the College on the Subject.-Modern Practice. - Communication of his Creation to the new Cardinal. His customary Duties thereupon.-Costume.—New Cardinal's Visit to the Vatican.--Patronage.-Ceremonial at the Apostolic Palace.Speeches on the Occasion. --The “Beretta.”—The new Cardinal's Reception.-Shutting and Opening of the new Cardinal's Mouth.Cardinalitial Ring.–Fees.-Ages at which Cardinals have been made.-Anecdotes of Odet de Coligny, the Heretic Cardinal.—Laws restricting Popes a Dead Letter.

It would occupy too much time and space to attempt to give a complete account of the ceremonies attendant on the creation of the members of the Sacred College. But as these ceremonies, both the strictly ecclesiastical portion of them and the social accompaniments of them, were for three or four hundred years, and up to the time of the recent revolution, which put an end to the temporal power of the Papacy, a prominent and leading feature in the routine of practices which constituted the life of the Apostolic “ Curia,” and in the social life of Rome, it is necessary to say a few words upon the subject. For unless the ecclesiastical and social dignity and position of a cardinal, and the sort of place he fills, or rather filled, in the eyes of the Roman world, be clearly understood, the meaning and significance of a Conclave will not be rightly apprehended.

In the earlier ages of the Church the ceremonial



observed in the creation of a cardinal was not only much more simple than it became at a subsequent period, which might have been expected, but it indicates also that there was in those days a very much greater reality in the theory which represents the Sacred College as an assisting and, to a certain degree, controlling Council established for the guidance of the Holy Father. And this, too, indeed, might be expected to have been the case by those who have paid any attention to the progress of Church history.

The creation of cardinals in the earlier centuries usually took place on the first Wednesday of the “Quattro Tempora” or fast, with which each of the quarters of the year began; and the first act of the creation took place mostly at Santa Maria Maggiore. There after the Introit and Collect of the Mass had been said, a reader ascended the pulpit, and turning towards the people, said in a loud voice, “Cognoscat caritas vestra quia (N. N.) de titulo (N. N.) advocatur in ordine diaconatus ad diaconiam (N. N.) et (N. N.) diaconus de titulo (N. N.) advocatur in ordine presbyteri ad titulum (N. N.). Si quis habit adversus hos viros aliquam querelam exeat confidentur propter Deum et secundum Deum, et dicat.” * If any objection was stated, inquiry was made; and if it was found to be well founded, a different person was raised to the cardinalate. On the following Friday the

• " Be it known to your charitable consideration that N. N., of the title of N.N., is called in the order of deacons to the deaconry of N.N., and N.N., deacon of the title N. N., is called in the order of priests to the title N. N. If any man hath any complaint against these men, let him step forth with confidence, in behalf of God, and according to God's Word, and tell the same."

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