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“On this occasion the cardinals appear to have had special grounds for being on their guard against the possible presence of unqualified conclavists ” (Mr. Cartwright means unqualified persons ; if they were conclavists they were qualified), for the day after the closing of the gates and the formal expulsion of strangers they proceeded to an exceptional scrutiny of all who had remained within. The whole population of the Conclave was got together in the Pauline Chapel, at the door of which the three cardinals, Capi d'Ordine (i.e. the Dean of the College, who was the senior of the cardinal bishops, the senior of the cardinal priests, and the senior of the cardinal deacons), with the Cardinal Camerlengo, took their seats and scrutinized each individual as he passed out singly before them, the result of the inspection being the ejection of fifteen interlopers. . . . After an unusual and unexplained delay, the cardinals, who had formally entered Conclave as long ago as the 5th, proceeded to a first ballot on the 9th of April, when the suffrages were found divided between Caraffa (who subsequently became Paul the Fourth), the Cardinal of Chieti, and Cervini, Cardinal of Santa Croce. The first of these three was particularly obnoxious to the Imperialists; but his following was considerable, his influence formidable ; and his elevation to the Papal chair, out and out the result most deprecated from an Imperialist point of view, seemed not merely possible, but was considered likely to be assured, if the election were protracted another four-and-twenty hours. To defeat Ferrara's chance of success became accordingly the object above every other of the efforts of those be as legate,

Jeration was nad of time.

cardinals who had at heart the Emperor's interest. To this end they quickly concerted to throw their influence without loss of time on the side of Cervini, as the most generally popular candidate” (this hardly states the matter correctly. Cervini was in no wise a candidate at all, save in so far as he was a cardinal; nor was the resolution of the Imperialists so immediately taken. Other attempts were made first, but Cervini was found to be the man on whom most votes could be united among those who might be supposed not utterly distasteful to the Emperor), “even though there were grounds why he could not be specially agreeable to the Emperor, whom he had displeased during his presence as legate at the Council of Trent. But the danger of Ferrara's elevation was so imminent, that a sacrifice had to be made without loss of time. Under these circumstances it was resolved to carry the election by surprise before Ferrara and the French party had the opportunity to counteract the move the next morning. Accordingly Cardinals Madruzzi (Trent) and Caraffa stole privately to Cervini's cell to prepare him for what was coming, while the cardinals were assembled within the Paoline Chapel in debate, which became eager and hot. Suddenly up jumped Cardinal Crispo, a confederate, and exclaimed, ' Up! and let us be going; I, for one, will not rebel against the Holy Ghost !' and with these words he led the way, followed by most of the cardinals, to the cell of Cervini, who was carried forcibly into the chapel amidst the vociferous acclamations not merely of his supporters, but even of most of his opponents, when they saw the day lost for them. "Still success had been snatched so far only by a bold stroke; and to confirm the adverse party in disorganisation, the conclavists were employed to make the fact of Cervini's election known at once in the city, with the view of eliciting popular demonstrations that might effectually suppress any awakening tendency to opposition. For what had occurred, though of unmistakable force, was yet quite informal, and before the acclaimed Cervini could legitimately call himself Pope, it was still necessary to go through certain elaborate and punctiliously enjoined formalities.'"

The above passage, which is marked as a quotation, contains of course a statement of Mr. Cartwright's own views, and not the substance of any information given by the conclavist. And the view expressed in them is an entirely erroneous one. After the acclamation described, one thing, and one thing only, was needed to make the election complete, final, irrevocable, and canonical—the acceptance of the individual so acclaimed. Mr. Cartwright seems to fall into the same error when at another page of his usually accurate book (p. 152, note) he says, after citing the names of sundry Popes, whom the ecclesiastical writers consider to have been elected by “inspiration,” “ acclamation,” or (more properly) “ adoration,” among whom Marcellus II. figures, “ this list confounds acclamation, such as might follow discussion, with the little shout of miraculously spontaneous unanimity exacted by canonical prescriptions for an election by inspiration.” The list rightly and properly “confoundsacclamation with inspiration. The two words in Conclave language mean the same thing; but the term "adoration,” still meaning the same process and the same thing is preferred by the best authorities. It is quite true that such a spontaneous unanimity as the canons contemplate for an election of this sort would be, not "little short of,” but clearly “miraculous,” and the Church considers it as such. It is quite true, further, that an unanimous acclamation or adoration following and produced by discussion and planned arrangement is a very different thing, and need have nothing at all miraculous about it. But it would seem to argue an ingenuousness, which a small amount of ecclesiastical reading would, it might be thought, dissipate for ever, to suppose that, because a plotted acclamation can, in truth, have none of the essential characteristics and qualities contemplated by the canons as constituting the real meaning and virtue of an election by adoration, therefore an election brought about by such planned and plotted acclamation cannot be the same thimg as that intended by the “inspiration” recognised by the Church. Of course there never was an election made by sudden and spontaneous unanimity of choice. That is the theory of what might conceivably be. The practice has always been to bring about these supposititious sudden impulses by previous plotting. It is true that unanimity is necessary to the validity of the process ; and it may at first sight seem to the uninitiated that if the members of the College in Conclave are or have after discussion become unanimous in their choice, there can be no need for plotting, and it can matter little by what process the votes of the electors are expressed. But the expression of such a notion

would cause a smile of a very significant character to be visible in the eyes at least of every old conclavist. The proper and skilful management of the vote by adoration was one of the most delicate, subtle, and difficult portions of the science of a conclavist; and an explanation of the methods in which it was worked, and of the nature of the dangers and difficulties which surrounded it, will be found at a subsequent page, where the doings of the Conclave which elected Paul V. are described at length. The necessity of a further and more orderly process in the case of Marcellus, whom nevertheless the Church has always considered to have been one of the Popes elected by "adoration," was doubtless occasioned, not by any fear that the validity of the election by adoration might be endangered by the fact that it was planned and not spontaneous, but by doubts respecting the unanimity of it.

Mr. Cartwright proceeds : “In the heat of the moment the proposal was indeed heard to hoist Cervini without more ado into the Papal chair, and to proceed forthwith to the act of adoration ; but Medici, though a warm supporter, interfered, and drew attention to the necessity for observing carefully in this case every enjoined prescription, as a safeguard against later challenge of the election. At this admonition the cardinals calmed their excitement, and relapsing into a proper air of gravity, proceeded to their seats, while the conclavists were ordered out of the chapel. 'I alone went behind the altar,' writes the anonymous conclavist,

when the others were being driven out, and after the door had been closed came back again and put myself

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