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CAPTAIN FRANKLIN'S SECOND JOURNEY, The navigation which Dr. Richardson had to perform Although Captains Parry and Franklin both left Eng- was almost wholly unobstructed ; and between the 4th of land with their rospective expeditions about tne same July, and the 8th of August, he succeeded in accomplishperiod in the year 1819, yet the former of these gentlemen ing the coast voyage of 902 miles, between the mouths of returned considerably the carlier, and had already been the Mackenzie aud Coppermine Rivers. He returned with gone nearly eighteen months on a second enterprise, when his party to Fort Franklin on the 1st of September, and, the other arrived from his first. Scarcely a year had, how after a lapse of nearly three weeks, was joined by the ever, clapsed, before Captain Parry returned, in the autumn eastern branch, as we have before related. In the following of 1823, from this second voyage, in which he had vainly year the two parties set out in company for England, which endeavoured to penetrate the icy channel named the Strait they reached in the autumn of 1827. of the Fury and Hecla. Towards the close of the same

This second expedition of Captain Franklin, though year, the Government made known its intention of sending destitute of that tragic interest which his first excited, may that active navigator to engage in a third attempt; and be regarded as more important in its geographical results. then Captain Franklin laid before them a plan for another The 65 degrees of longitude, for which ihe northern co-operative expedition, overland to the shores of the Polar shores of America had been explored in the former enterSea, for the conduct of which he offered his own services. prise, were now extended to a line exceeding 39} degrees The proposal was accepted, and every arrangement made in length, and approaching on the one side to within 160 for carrying it into immediate effect. Dr. Richardson miles of the extreme known north-western point of that solicited permission again to accompany his friend, which continent, and on the other to within 400 miles of its was readily accorded; and the party was completed by the supposed extreme north-eastern point, appointment of their old fellow-traveller, Lieutenant Baek, with Mr. Kendall, Mr. Drummond as assistant botanist,

VOYAGE OF CAPTAIN BEECHEY. and four marines. Captain Franklin was directed, by his When the simultaneous expeditions of Captains Parry and instructions, to winter at the Great Bear Lake, and thenee Franklin were undertaken in 1824, it appeared to those proceed, in the following spring, down the Mackenzie with whom they originated, to be almost impossible that River, (which was explored by the traveller of that name either of them, even in the event of success, could reach in 1789.) On reaching its mouth, the expedition was to the open sea in Behring's Strait, without being nearly, if separate into two parties; the one to trace the coast to the not wholly, exhausted of resources and provisions, and it westward, and the other to survey it to the eastward, as far was quite certain that Captain Franklin's party would be as the Coppermine River.

entirely destitute of the means of conveyance to Europe. The necessary boats and stores were forwarded in the Accordingly, to obviate these anticipated diffioulties, His summer of 1824 to York Factory, and thence despatched Majesty's Government determined upon sending a ship to by the ordinary river-navigation towards the Great Bear that spot, to await the arrival of the two expeditions. The Lake. The officers lett England early in 1825, and pro- Blossom sloop was selected for this purpose, and the comceeding by the more circuitous but inore convenient route mand of her given to Captain F. W. Beechey, who had of New York and Canada through Lake Huron, overtook already distinguished himself in the preceding northern the boats on the Methye River in the summer of the same voyages. Before the departure of Captain Franklin, be year. By the 5th of August, the whole party had reached arranged with Captain Beechey the plan of their joint the Great Bear Lake River, which flows from the lake of operations. Kotzebue Inlet was agreed upon as the place that name into the Mackenzie River; and on its banks of rendezvous, where Captain Beechey was to remain Captain Franklin resolved to take up his winter-quarters. during the summer-months of 1826 and 1827. They quiekly began to build a habitation and store, which The Blossom sailed from England on May 19th, 1925; they afterwards named from their respected commander; and passing Behring's Strait, entered Kotzebue Sound early and while the most skilful were thus engaged, he, himself, in the morning of the 22nd of September. The land was proceeded down the Great Bear Lake and Mackenzie much obscured by a thick fog, which, however, cleared off Rivers, in order to take a view of the Polar Sea, and soon afterwards, and discovered to their astonished view, obtain information which would probably serve to guide, a deep inlet in the northern shore, that had escaped the in some degree, his operations the following year. In this observation of Captain Kotzebue. Captain Beechey excursion he was eminently successful; and he rejoined named at Hotham Inlet, and sent the barge to examine it, his companions on the 5th of September.

intending to proceed with the ship further into the sound, The winter was passed in the usual manner; and with as far as Chamisso Island, the appointed place of renthe return of spring the party began to prepare for their dezvous. The unfavourable state of the wind prevented expedition. On the 28th of June they quitted Fort him from advancing for nearly two days. During his Franklin, descended the Mackenzie, and, on the 4th of detention, a party of the natives approached the ship, in July, separated into the two branches which were to pursue their baidars, bringing with them various articles of skin different directions, following the two channels into which and fish, which they were desirous of changing for other the stream here divided. Captain Franklin conducted commodities. The baidars are a species of boat, similar the western party, and Dr. Richardson the eastern. The in construetion to the Esquimaux oomiaks (or woman former had scarcely reached the sea, when they fell in boats), of Hudson's Bay. “They consist," says Captain with a large number of Esquimaux, with whom, but for Beechey “ of a frame made from drift-wood, covered with their own forhearance, they would have been involved in the skins of walruses strained over it, and are capable of a bloody, and perhaps, fatal encounter, Having extricated being tightened at any time by a lacing on the inside of themselves from this imminent peril, they continued their the gunwale; the frame and benches for the rowers, are course, greatly impeded, however, by the unfavourable state fastened with thongs, by which, the boat is rendered both of the atmosphere. The low and swampy land that here light and pliable; the skin, when soaked with water, is extends between the northern termination of the rocky translucent; and a stranger placing his foot upon the flat mountains and the sea coast, seems to be productive of a yielding surface at the bottom of the boat, fancies it a frail constant fog, frequently so dense as to contract the range of security ; but it is very safe and durable, especially when view to within a few yards, Nevertheless, by the 16th of kept well greased." Each of these boats now contained August they had succeeded in reaching the half-way point froin ten to thirteen men, who all exhibited the custon, between Mackenzie River and Icy Cape, (the furthest point which was afterwards found to be general along this part to which the north-western coast of America had been of the American coast of wearing ornaments in their traced from Behring's Strait); but the symptoms of under lip. These consisted of pieces of ivory, stone, or approaching winter here became so unequivocal, that they glass, formed with a double head, like a sleeve-button, one were compelled to return, though with great reluctance. part of which is thrust through a hole bored in the under Unfortunately, Captain Franklin did not know, that at this lip. The incision is made when about the age of puberty, moment the barge of the ship, which had been sent to and is, at first, the size of a quill; as they grow older, the await his arrival in Behring's rait, was actually within natives enlarge the ori and increase the size of the 160 miles of the spot which he had himself reached, had ornament accordingly, that it may hold its place. Ia he known it, “no difficulties, dangers, or discouraging adults, this orifice is about half an inch in diameter, and circumstances," to use his own expression, would have will, if required, distend to three quarters of an inch. prevailed on him to return, Under the existing circum- The people themselves possessed all the characteristic stances he was obliged to do so, and, on the 21st of Sep- features of the Esquimaux ;_large, fat, round faces, high tember, this western expedition reached Fort Franklin, cheek bones, small hazel eyes, eyebrows slanting like the where they found the eastern branch returned before them. Chinese, and wide mouths. The engraving of them at perang 256, is from Captain Beechey. They were strictly honest; | ward, and reached the harbour of San Francisco, in Caliand in this respect offer rather a contrast to others of their fornia, on the 8th of November. Here Captain Beechey race, whom Captain Beechey subsequently visited.

had intended to recruit his supplies; but the inadequacy Red and blue beads, buttons, knives, and hatchets, were of the means which it afforded, compelled him to proceed in general request, and readily induced them to sell their first to the Sandwich Islands, and thence to Macao, where ordinary commodities; but tawac, as they called our he procured sufficient stores to enable him to prosecute the tobacco, was the great object of the men's desires, and an voyage. The ship left Macao on the 30th of April, 1827, offer of this, made them part with even their bows and and, after visiting the Great Loo Choo, passed through arrows, which they had refused to barter for the usual Behring's Strait, and reached the rendezvous this time by articles of exchange. Their habits seemed to be very the 5th of August ; still there was no trace of Franklin, filthy; but they were hospitable, though, after their own and they accordingly stood forward to the northward. The fashion. Whenever Captain Beechey visited them, he was unfavourable state of the ice prevented them from proceedreceived in the most friendly manner; and frequently, to ing so far as they had gone the former year; and, after the use his own expression, " underwent the full delights of an loss of their barge, and a narrow escape of wreck on the Esquimaux salutation." A contact of noses, or a smooth-part of the ship, they were compelled, by the early setting ing of the visiters' faces with hands, which had been in of the winter, to take a final leave of the Polar Sea, and previously licked and applied to their own, was the usual retrace their course to England, which they reached on the mode of reception; and sometimes, as a most especial | 8th of September, 1828, after an absence of three years mark of regard, a warm embrace and hug, supplied the and a half, and a voyage of 73,000 miles, place of this less-distinguished favour. The choicest delicacies which their means could afford, were then

LAST VOYAGE OF CAPTAIN ROSS. offered; but the guests, with a squeamishness that excited We have already adverted to the open charge of negligence at once the surprise and ridicule of their less scrupu- which was brought against Captain Ross, on his return lous hosts, could never be prevailed upon to accept the from the first expedition in 1818, and to the doubts that dainty fare. Bowls of blubber and walrus flesh, dishes were by many expressed as to the accuracy of his of whortleberries mashed up with sorrel and rancid train statements. It will not, of course, be supposed, that the oil, were left untouched by our fastidious countrymen; the chivalrous honour of a British seaman, could tamely brook entrails of a fine seal, and a bowl of coagulated blood, a censure so directly impugning his personal and proshared a similar fate; and even “the raw flesh of the fessional character. To vindicate his wounded reputation narwhal, nicely cut into lumps, with an equal distribution from the stain, which, to his jealous eye, seemed to rest of black and white fat," displayed its tempting charms in upon it, became, therefore, with this gallant officer, an vain. One gentleman only, and he to oblige the Captain, object of paramount importance; for the attainment of ventured to taste one of the motley mixtures, but at the which, neither the sacrifice of his property, nor the venture expense of his appetite for the rest of the day,

of his life were thought too great a price. Accordingly he İt was not till the morning of the 25th of July, that left England with the Victory steam-vessel, in the summer Captain Beechey reached Chamisso Island, only five days of 1824, in order to discover, if possible, a passage to later than had been agreed upon by Captain Franklin and the westward, through Prince Regent's Inlet; which he himself. No traces of the latter gentlemen were yet to be reached in August. It was on the western shore of this seen; and Captain Beechey, therefore, proceeded, according opening that the Fury had been abandoned in Captain to the arrangement, to survey the coast further to the Parry's third voyage, and when Captain Ross reached northward, towards the Arctic Sea. At the same time, in the spot where she had been left, all remains had been order that Captain Franklin might not want provisions, drifted away by the ice. But the provisions which had in the event of his missing the ship along the coast, and been deposited or shore, were in good condition; and arriving at the island in her absence, a tight barrel of having availed themselves of these, Ross and his party flour was buried in the most unfrequented spot in its continued to the south and west, until in latitude 70°, and vicinity, and directions for finding it were deposited in a longitude 90° W., their progress was arrested for the bottle, to which attention was directed by writing upon the

An excellent wintering harbour was found, in cliff's with white paint. By the middle of August he which they secured their ship, (which had already been reached Icy Cape, where he found the sea quite open, and converted into a sailing vessel,) and to which they gave the felt the greatest desire to advance. His instructions were, name of Felir Harbour however, positive, to avoid the chance of being beset with The winter was spent in the usual manner his ship in the ice; and he was obliged, therefore, to con- again a party of Esquimaux contributed to alleviate its tent himself with despatching the barge to prosecute the gloomy dulness. The whole summer of 1830 was spent further search, while he returned to Kotzebue Sound. in examining the continuity of the inlet, and whether The barge proceeding to the north-eastward, succeeded in there was a channel by which a vessel might pass to the exploring the line of the coast as far as Point Barrow, 126 westward; and it was at length ascertained, that a narrow miles beyond Icy Cape; and, the crew having erected a neck of land presented an impassable barrier to all con post for Captain Franklin, returned to the ship.

nexion between the waters of the inlet, and the sea to the Captain Beechey remained with the Blossom at Cha-east: this extraordinary isthmus was found to be fifteen misso Island, occupied in surveying the coast and harbours miles in breadth, ten of which were occupied by a chain of of Kotzebue Sound, until the approach of winter rendered fresh-water lakes. It was crossed by commander James it necessary for him to hasten his departure. During Ross, who surveyed the sea coast to the westward as far his stay, he made several excursions, and procured many as to lungitude 999, or to within 150 miles of the Point interesting fossil remains. He had also an opportunity Turnagain of Franklin, to which it appeared directly to of remarking the habits and peculiarities of the natives, or trend. The rest of this season was employed in tracing western Esquimaux, as they are called, in contradistinction the coast to the eastward from the bottom of the isthmus, to their eastern brethren. Their deserted huts were and the results left no doubt of its joining to the land frequently found in many places, and traces of a recent forming Repulse Bay. A second winter was now passed residence were often visible. He particularly notices their in Sherif Harbour, not far from the former winter burial-places, and the mode which they have of disposing quarters; which, with that of 1831, is alluded to by of their dead. The corpse is deposited, with the head to Captain Ross as being one of uncommon severity. The the westward, in a sort of coffin formed of loose planks, summer of 1831, appears to have been occupied in surand placed upon a platform of drift-wood, which is some veying the coast across the isthmus to the north-west; times raised to the height of two feet. A double tent of and in the autumn, the Victory was moved fourteen miles spars of drift-wood, put together closely, is erected over to the northward. All hope, however, of saving the ship, this as a covering to secure the body from the depredations was nearly at an end; and the severity of another winter of foxes and wolves; but the rapacity of those animals put it quite beyond possibility. Accordingly, in the month succeeds before long, in breaking through this feeble of May, 1832, she was abandoned, and our adventurers protection. The body is generally dressed in a frock made entered on a perilous and fatiguing journey to Fury Beach, of eider-duck skins, and covered with hides of deer or sea- “as the only means of saving their lives." This they hörse. The coffin and planks are sometimes omitted, and reached on the 1st of July following, and they immediately the corpse then rests simply on the drift-wood. We have proceeded to repair the boats of the Furv, and to construct given a representation of one of these graves in page 256. a temporary hut.

The Blossom quitted the sound on the 11th of October, On the 1st of August, they again departed, and emerged and having repassed Behring's Strait, stood to the south- | into Barrow's Strait on the 1st of September. Here, how


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WESTERN ESQUIMAUX OP HOTHAN INLET, IN THEIR BAIDARS. ever, all their hopes of escape were at once destroyed.

CONCLUSION. Nothing but one impenetrable mass of ice presented itself | The results of the various expeditions which we have to view over the whole channel. Accordingly, they were recorded in the preceding pages, may be said to be almost compelled to return to Fury Beach, where another dreary conclusive in favour of the existence of a North-West winter was passed. At length, on the 8th of July, 1833, Passage; but at the same time, equally clear in establishing they once more quitted this station. Fortunately they the impracticability of its navigation.' Its accomplishment had now the satisfaction of finding clear water, where they may now be regarded rather as a point of geographical had the year before been stopped by ice, and therefore science, than as an event likely to be at all productive of any made the best of their way to the eastward. On the 25th immediate practical benefit. The object for which it was they crossed Navy Board Inlet, and on the following morn- originally undertaken,—the discovery of a shorter coming descried a ship in the offing, becalmed, which proved mercial route to the Indies, has, indeed, been abandoned, to be the Isabella of Hull, the same vessel that Captain ever since the opinion of John Davis and the older mariners, Ross commanded in 1818. At noon they reached her, that the “deep sea fryseth not," was refuted by the expeand having been taken on board, reached England on rience of modern navigators; but when the motive, arising the 20th of October, 1833, after an absence of more than from the prospect of a lucrative traffic had ceased to exist, four years. The results of this expedition may be briefly another, and still more powerful incentive sprung up in its summed thus :—The discovery of the continent and place, the desire of enlarging the bounds of human isthmus of Boothia (as the new land to the southward was knowledge and civilization. It must be pleasing to us to named by Captain Ross,) of the Gulf of Boothia, (or the sea observe the strenuous efforts of our own country in this to the eastward,) as also of a vast number of islands, rivers, work; alone and unsupported, she has done nearly all that and lakes; the determining that the north-eastern point of has been done towards effecting the solution of this great the American continent extends to the 74th degree of question, and still continues her unremitting exertions on north latitude ; valuable observations in every branch of its behalf, in the hope, and the well-founded hope, we trust, science, more particularly in magnetism; and the dis- of success. covery of the true position of the magnetic North Pole.

The last accounts which had reached England from Captain Ross, being dated in July 1829, from Disco Island, fears the most alarming were excited for his safety, as the close of 1832 approached, and no tidings were yet heard of him. A meeting of the Geographical Society was held, to consider what steps were fit to be taken ; and it was resolved to open a subscription, and organize a committee, to make the requisite preparations for despatching a party in quest of him. This was done; and, on the 17th of February, 1833, Captain Back, to whom the expedition had been intrusted, sailed from Liverpool. Two days before the announcement of Captain Ross's safety, a letter was received from Captain Back, dated June 19th, from Jack River, with intelligence of his arrival at that stage of his journey. It was accordingly determined that a messenger should be despatched after him, to carry the welcome news, and direct him now to turn his attention to what had before been a secondary object of the expedition, geographical discovery. The efforts of this gentleman will, it is hoped, complete our knowledge of the north-eastern shores of America. It is probable that he will, in the ensuing summer, reach Coronation Gulf, and, passing Franklin's

M extreme eastern point, continue the survey, along the shore

WWW of the Arctic Sea, to the parts surveyed by Commander James Ross, and thus connect the discoveries of the late expedition with those of Franklin,


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XXIV. The design of this work is to afford a condensed vier of the History of both OUTLINES of GRECIAN HISTORY. By the Rev. BARthe Old and New Testaments, together with a brief account of the Jewish History, in the interval between the Babylonish Captivity and the Birth of Christ; and in

TON BOUCHIER. With Maps and VIEWS. Price Oxe the period between Christ's Ascension and the fulfilment of his awful Prophecy Shilling. of the Destruction of Jerusalem and the Dispersion of tho Jews.

In this little work, the author has commenced with the earliest times !

Greece, and described its growth in civilization and power, until the extinctio XVII.

of its glory on the death of Alexander. It is calculated to form a pleasing and useful introduction for young readers, to a history of larger extent: and ma

of maturer years may find interest in its perusal, and recall to mind the import20: SCENES and SKETCHES from ENGLISH HISTORY. transactions of that extraordinary country," the land of the port, the historia Vol. I. With Engravings. Price 3s. 6d. Cloth lettered.

the sculptor, and the sage." A map of (irrece, and a Plan of Athens and its con rons, are added, together with engravings of Delphi and Paniassus, and of the lar.

thenon. And nt the end of the book are questions to each chapter for the esas: It is our purpose to narrate the prineiral, and most interesting irents in the nation of pupils. annals of England ; not to reject any topic connected with them which is likely to entertain and instruct: Religion, Literature, Customs, and Manners; to avail

XXV. ourselvey of authentic private memoirs and anecdotes of celebrated personages ; sometimes to comprise the history of many years in a brief passing notice ; at others, OUTLINES of ROMAN HISTORY. By GEORGE HO. to dwell for a considerable period on that of a few weeks, or even of a single day. Rejecting, in short, all the trammels of the regular historian, and rejoicing in

GARTH. Price Ten PENCE. the liberty of our own far humbler literary station, we do not intend to impose

A complete and popular epitome of the History of the Rise, Progress, and any restraints upon our wanderinys, save those of strict chronological arraige.

Fall of the Roman Empire. It is embellished with a handsome Print of a Roman ment, and an undeviating adherence to guides of acknowledged authority-In.

Triumph, and numerous Figures of Costumes, &c. troduction. XVIII.

XXVI. DOMESTICATED ANIMALS considered with reference

The ELEMENTS of ASTRONOMY. By the Rev. T. G. to Civilization and the Arts. With many ENGRAVINGS.

HALL, M.A., King's College, London. Price Ten PEYCE. Price 3s, 6d, Cloth lettered.

An elementary Work, intended to instruct. in the sublime facts of Astronom,

1110se who are unacquainteil with mathematical reasoning; and to explain This work will comprise a general survey of Domestic Quadrupeds, and the

them, in familiar language, the principal phenomeria of tho Hearcus. Toe Les purposes they subserve in the great economy of nature: their connexion, too, with

sons are illustrateci by numerous Engravings. the progress of civilization and the arts, with the history of nations, and the peculiarities of soil and climate, are also specified; those countries which are ren

XXVII. dered habitable only by the subjugation and appropriation of certain species, arg generally described, with the manuers and habits of the natives, as far as they | The ELEMENTS of BOTANY. With many ENGRAVINGS. are associated with the history of Domestic Animals.-Introduction.

New Edition, Now ready. Price One SAILLING, XIX.

The principles of this beautiful and important science are explained in a cm and simple manner, so as to render the acquisition of them comparatively easy

The book is illustrated by numerous cuts of the different parts of plants, e EUROPE and its INHABITANTS FAMILIARLY DE

and the examples, when possible, are selected from our own wild flowers, or from SCRIBED; for the Instruction and Amusement of

those cnltivated in all gardens or fields, and they are cited by their familiar dan

A Glossary of most of the terms usually employed is subjoined, and an sina Young Persons. In the Press.

betical List of the most useful plants, with their botanical names, &c, The design of this work is to give yonng persons a zest for the study of Geo. graphy and History, by introducing to them the leading features of those sciences

XXVIII. under the most agreeable form; and by thus furnishing their minds, almost im.

EASY LESSONS on MONEY MATTERS, for the Use perceptibly as it were, with a pleasing variety of facts and incidents, which con. stitute the elements of future intelligence. To those who have watched the in. of Young People. With ENGRAVINGS. Price ONE SAILterest with which children listen to the tales of a Traveller, or have seen with what delight they view tlie costumes of nations and other pictorial representations,

LING, Bound in cloth. little need be said to recommend the present work. The language in which it is Many, even of what are called the educated classes, grow up with indistiset written, will, it is hoped, be found sufliciently familiar without being puerile : the

or erroneous, and practically mischievous, views on these subjects; and the preja: sentiments inculcated, are such as unite moral worth with benevolent principles dices any one may have casually imbibed, are often hard to be removel at a time of and patriotic feelings.

life when he imagines his education to be complete. In this little book, care bas Similar volumes, describing the other portions of the Globe, will follow very been taken to convey elementary knowledge in such simple language, that it is snortly

Joped, tliese LESSONS will be found easily intelligible even to such as base but the

ordinary avantages in point of education; and there are few subjects ou site XX.

it is, for all classes of people, more important to inculcate correct priuciples, and

to guard against specious fallacies. The BOOK of ANIMALS. (CLAS$ MAMMALIA.) With

XXIX. very many ENGRAVINGS. Price ls. 6d., bound in cloth. This little book has been prepared, without any pretensions to scientific import- INSECTS and their HABITATIONS. A Book for Ch? ance, solely for the rise of young persons. The nature, habits, and lises of the dren. With many ENGRAVINGS. Price One SHILLING Animals described, are, however, presented in a correct, though simple and at. tractive, form, and no recourse has been had to the marvellouts, which too frequently We may learn many useful lessons from the History of Insects : And, k forms a prominent feature in books upon similar subjects. Upon the whole, it is observing their habits, we shall find that they set us an example of variant and trusted that this little volume will be found a useful addition to the stock of books qualities. Though they are amongst the smallest of Gop't works, yet Ilis for young persons, and an acceptable introduction to works of a higher class in and wisdom visibly shine forth in them, and we shall see fresh cause, as wep this department of NATURAL HISTORY.

ceed, to adore the great and wise Creator, who formed them out of nothing Similar books, on Birds, Fishes, Reptiles, &c., are in preparation.


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