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the end of time. In such a great variety of ways, is the constituted connexion between the first sin of Adam and the sinfulness of all mankind to the latest posterity, clearly revealed in the Bible. Neither the promises concerning the coming of Christ; nor the declarations concerning his design in coming; nor the descriptions of his sufferings and death; nor the positive institutions of the gospel, can be accounted for on any other ground, than that of Original sin. This doctrine lies at the foundation of all revealed religion; and to deny it, is virtually to deny the whole of divine Revelation. For if it had not been for the original sin of the first Man, there would have been no occasion for the sufferings and death of the second Man, who is the Lord from heaven.
3. There is no ground to suppose, from any thing which has been said in this discourse, that Adam knew, before the fall, that he was the public head of his posterity; or that his conduct should determine the moral state, in which they should come into existence. The divine prohibition and threatening were sufficient to acquaint him with his duty, and lay him under obligation to perform it. There appears to have been no more occasion for his knowing, that his sin would destroy his posterity; than for his knowing, that a divine Redeemer would come into the world to save them. God constituted the connexion between him and his posterity, to regulate his own conduct, and to accom. plish his own designs. And he might see a great impropriety, in acquainting him with his public capacity, before his first transgression. Our Savior concealed the knowledge of his character and sufferings, for a long time after he entered upon his public ministry, lest this knowledge should either retard or accelerate the event of his death. · And God might foresee, that
it would frustrate his own designs, if he acquainted Adam with his public capacity, before he had actually involved himself and his posterity in ruin. Accordingly we find the first prohibition and threatening were directed to him personally. God says, “In the day thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die.” If we now search the Bible from beginning to end, we shall discover no intimation, that God informed Adam of his being placed as the public Head of his posterity, before he actually sinned, and exposed them all to the fatal effects of his first transgression. And since the Scriptures are entirely silent upon this point, it is by no means proper to take it for granted, and to reason from it as an established truth.
4. It appears from what has been said in this discourse, that God did no injustice to mankind, in appointing Adam their public Head. They have often complained of the injustice of God, on this account. But they never had the least foundation for this
general complaint. It appears from what has been said, that the constituted connexion between Adam and his posterity, neither made his sin their sin; nor his guilt their guilt; nor exposed them to the least degree of punishment, on his account. There could be no injustice, therefore, in God's appointing Adam the public Head of his posterity. It is presumed, the general complaint of injustice has originated entirely from a false idea of the divine constitution, under which Adam was placed. God made that constitution to regulate his own conduct; and not to regulate the conduct of either Adam or his posterity. It was Adam's duty to obey the divine prohibition, whether he stood in a public or private capacity. And it is our duty to obey all the divine commands, notwithstanding his constituted relation to and connexion with us. The truth
is, there was neither justice, nor injustice, in God's appointing Adam our public Head. It was an act of mere Sovereignty. God, as a Sovereign, had as good a right, to make Adam the public Head of his posterity, as he had to make him at all, or to place him in the garden of Eden, or to determine a single circumstance of his life. And, as a Sovereign, he had as good a right to determine that his posterity should be sinners, in consequence of his first offence, as he had, to determine their numbers, their natural abilities, their outward circumstances, and their final state. There is neither justice, nor injustice, in God's determining what the moral characters of moral agents shall be; though there may be justice, or injustice, in his conduct towards them, after their moral characters are formed. The constitution, which connected Adam's sin with the sin of his posterity, was such a constitution as God had an original and sovereign right to make. For if he had a right to bring us into existence, he had an equal right to determine how he would bring us into existence, whether as single, detached individuals, like the angels; or as naturally and constitutionally connected with our first and great Progenitor. And since God had a sovereign right to place us under such a constitution, we have no right to call it unwise, unjust, or unkind.
5. It appears from what has been said, that our first Parent laid us under no necessity of sinning. If he had transmitted to us a corrupt nature, or a sinful principle, we might have had some ground to suppose, that we were obliged to sin, by the fatal influence of his first transgression. But since that sin neither directly nor indirectly ever affected either our natural or moral faculties; it is certain, that we act as freely and yoluntary in committing sin, as we could have done,
if Adam had never sinned, nor stood in the least connexion with 'us. It is true, indeed, his first offence, according to the divine design, determined the event of our becoming sinness. But the design of God never laid any of his creatures under a necessity of sinning. God designed, that Adam should fall, and, from eternity, provided a remedy for it; but God's design laid him under no necessity of falling, nor of accepting the remedy provided. So, God's design, that we should be sinners, if he partook of the forbidden fruit, did not lay us, or any of his posterity, under a necessity of committing sin. Neither Scripture, nor reason, nor experience, teaches us, that we are constrained to hate God, or transgress his holy and righteous commands, by virtue of any guilt, pollution, or depravity, derived from Adam. We have no more right to cast the blame of our sins upon him; than he had to transfer his sin and guilt to us. He must answer for his own sins; and we must answer for ours.
6. If Adam has proved the occasion of involving all bis posterity in sin; then children stand in peculiar need of a virtuous and pious education. They are all liable to sin, as soon as they become moral agents, And there is a moral certainty, if they live, that they will run into evil, and incur the divine displeasure. This is a most alarming consideration to parents. They have been the occasion of introducing them into a sinful world, where they are in the utmost danger of dishonoring God, and of destroying themselves forever. If parents would duly consider the depraved hearts of their children, they would feel very solicit. ous to train them up in the way they should go; and, if possible, early instil into their young and tender minds,
pure principles of religion and virtue. Nor would they neglect to lay all proper restraints upon them, to
preserve them from the paths of the destroyer, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience. The law of nature requires parents to promote the temporal happiness of their children; and the law of christianity requires them to bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. And though they cannot sanctify the hearts of their children; yet they can instruct their minds, restrain their outward conduct, and commend them to Him, who is able to make them meet' for the inheritance of the saints in light. If they neglect to do these things, they will sin against God, and become accessary to the ruin of their dear offspring. But how can they bear the thoughts of seeing their children openly vicious, and finally impenitent! It would have been better for them never to have been born, than to live and to die in sin. Their case, therefore, loudly calls for the compassion, the
prayers, and instructions of their parents, who are under every tender and solemn tie, to do all in their power, to promote their temporal and eternal happi
7. This subject calls upon all impenitent sinners, immediately to repent and believe the gospel. They have no excuse for their enmity and disobedience to God. They have never been necessarily drawn into sin, by any corrupt nature or corrupt principle derived from Adam. They have sinned freely and voluntarily, and therefore destroyed themselves. In this guilty and perishing situation, it is their immediate duty to repent, and look up to God for pardoning mercy, through the divine Redeemer. He came to seek and to save those who are lost, and stands ready to receive all weary, heavy laden sinners. Let them no longer charge their misery and guilt upon God, nor upon Adam; but let them take the shame and