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office which are read in the Second Service; and there is certainly

no ground for finding fault with the observance of it, unless, as 'may happen in some Churches, it render the Service inaudible.' It

is not, however, as appears to me, the only allowable practice. In 'the Rubric at the end of the Office, by which it is directed that certain parts of the Service “shall be said if there be no Com“munion," there is no order as to the place where they shall be said; whereas, in the Liturgy of 1549, it was expressly enjoined that the Priest should say them “at the Altar.” (KEELING. 229.) * This circumstance would lead us to presume that the later Books 'intend to allow the custom of reading elsewhere. The Rubric ' which directs that the “ Priest shall say the opening prayers stand

ing at the north side of the Table,” is interpreted by Laud to mean, that whenever he reads these prayers, he must stand there, although there be no Communion. (Three Speeches, 375.) This Rubric, however, plainly refers in strictness to times when the Table is prepared for a Celebration, and the change which has just been mentioned appears to shew that it and the other Rubrics which suppose the Priest to be at the Altar are not necessarily to 'be extended to all times when a part of the Office is used; 'inference which is strengthened by the fact, that this Rubric and 'the omission of a special direction for the place of Second Service

date alike from the Liturgy of 1552. From the order in the 82nd Canon of 1604, that the Table shall stand in the east,“ saving " when the Holy Communion is to be administered; at which time “the same shall be placed in so good sort within the Church or "Chancel, as thereby the Minister may be more conveniently heard of the Communicants in his prayer and ministrations," it is evident

that the framers of the Canons did not contemplate the Minister's officiating at the Table except on occasions of actual Communion; and, as we have already had reason to know, the practice of that

age, until Laud attempted to introduce a change, was that the . Second Service should be read from the Desk (p. 169.)......My own feelings are strongly in favour of going to the Altar at all times; but I have thought it well to call attention to the true state of the case, as one among many proofs how little ground there really 'is for the assumptions of some persons who talk very confidently “as if all authority were unquestionably with them.” (p. 172.)— How shall we Conform to the Lit.

Mr. A. J. STEPHENS (Barrister-at-Law) writes): --'Where a • Statute will bear two interpretations, one contrary to plain sense, 'the other agreeable to it, the latter shall prevail. Doubts have arisen with regard to the meaning of " north side of the Table." It is clear that the Table must be moveable and that the Ordinary can order it to be placed, during the Communion Service, to satisfy 'the language of the Rubrics. But ther. a question suggests itself, wiether there is any language to satisfy upon which a doubt can arise. It is contended that if an oblong table be used, then, as the sides are different in length from the ends, or “ head” and foot," standing either at the head or foot of an oblong table is not stand. ‘ing at either of its sides; and therefore, that, to satisfy the language of the Rubric, if an oblong table be used, the “head” and “ foot of the Table should be east and west and then a north side will be acquired. But this is in fact forgetting that no form of table has been prescribed by the Statute, and therefore that it may be square

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or of any other rectilinear figure, or even circular, where of course you cannot have any side, in the sense which it is contended "side" here bears. The meaning of " at the north side” therefore seems really to be simply " to the north" of the Table.' (p. 1125.)— Book of Common Prayer. E. H. S.

The Kalendar of the English Church Union says:~"" The north side” does not mean the north end. Ancient usage (independent of the balance of Historical evidence as to all the Reformed Prayer * Books) seems to prove that the correct Position of the Priest," at " the commencement of the Service, is "stunding in front of the Altar, near the North-Corner. If another Priest or Deacon is

present, he should stand at the South (or Epistle) side of the Altar, .but on a lower step or level than the Celebrant. If two other • Priests or Deacons are present, the second should occupy a similar • position on the North-side. If a Priest and Deacon are present, • the Deacon should stand on the Gospel side, the Priest on the · Epistle side.' (p. 79.)*For 1863. (Pub. by Masters )

In a Note we find:- No chairs or seats should be placed at either end of the Altar facing the people; but, when the Bishop is present, a Throne or Chair should be provided for him and placed

stall-wise on the North-side of the Sanctuary and westward of the • Altar. The Celebrant (when not the Bishop) should, it seems, sit

in the middle of the Sedilia ; the Deacon or Gospeller being on his right hand, and the Epistoler on his left.' (p. 74 )-ibid.

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THE LORD'S PRAYER.

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The Priest......... shall say the Lord's Prayer,' &c.

602.-The Rubric directs that the Priest shall begin the Service of the Holy Communion by saying the Lord's Prayer. Palmer tells us that this prayer of the faithful' was introduced into this Office in the earlier English Uses,' about the eighth or ninth century. (Orig. Lit. ii. 24.). There are, however, no especial instructions for the People to say it with the Priest, as we find laid down in the Morning and Evening Services, and in the after part of this Office; because it is looked upon here rather as a prayer of consecration, than of supplication, whence the Doxology is omitted; which, however, the Royal Commissioners of 1689, proposed should be introduced. In consequence of this silence with respect to the duty of the people as regards the utterance of this prayer, there is a diversity of usage. The question turns on the extent of the interpretation to be given

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to the expression Divine Service, employed in the Rubric following the 'Absolution' in Morning Prayer where it is enjoined:

' Then the Minister shall kneel and say the Lord's Prayer with an audible voice; the People also kneeling and repeating it with him, both here, and wheresoever else it is used in Divine Service-Present Book of Common Prayer.

603.-It must necessarily therefore be inquired, whether the COMMUNION OFFICE is a part of the · Divine Service' here referred to? We may answer, that subsequent Rubrics in this Office would lead us to the inference that it was considered, when this Rubric was introduced, as a part of Divine Service. In a Rubric before the Offertory Sentences, it is directed, that ' Nothing shall be proclaimed or published in the

Church during the time of Divine Service, but by the Minister, &c.; and, again, at the end of the Communion Office, there is a Rubric beginning After

Divine Service ended, the money given at the Offertory,' &c. So in the 'MARRIAGE OFFICE,' the first Rubric enjoins that the 'Banns' are to be published in the time of Divine Service immediately

before the Sentences for the Offertory.' The Reviewers of 1662, when introducing these Rubrics in that, the last Revision of the Prayer Book, must have considered the Communion Office a part of Divine Service,' or these words could not have been employed in the Rubrics, where we find them; and this may easily be accounted for, from the fact of the three Offices of Morning Prayer, the Litany, and Communion Service, being then combined into one long Service: a custom which prevailed some time before that Revision, and which has continued since to the present day, as we have already shewn in Vol. B. It may, therefore, be laid down as the Rule, that when the Communion Office is appended to MORNING PRAYER, it forms a part of the Morning Service, or, what the Rubric designates, Divine Service ; ' and in such case, the Lord's Prayer here is to be repeated by the People with the Minister. But when the communion Office is used as a separate and distinct

Service, the Lord's Prayer should be said by the Priest alone, as the whole Office then acquires a different character, from what may be conveyed to People's minds when merely the Ante-Communion Service without a celebration of the Eucharist is employed. (See a further discussion of this question, pars. 49—54. Vol. E.) It may be remarked likewise, that when the Communion Office is used as a separate and distinct Service, and for ' a Celebration,' it should begin with the Lord's Prayer, and not with the Offertory Sentences, as is sometimes done. In confirmation of these opinions, we will add a few authorities in addition to those cited in the preceding Volume. (Vol. E.)

In the previous citations in Vol. E, it will be found that Yardley, Bisse, Shepherd, Bp. Mant, Jebb, and Robertson, advocate the repetition of the Lord's Prayer by the People with the Priest.

The Rev. J. J. BLUNT (late Margaret Professor of Divinity at Cambridge University) observes: — Are the People to repeat 'the prayer, on this occasion, after him? The custom is not to . do so, in spite of the general injunction contained in the Rubric, 'prefixed to the Lord's Prayer, where it first occurs, that they are to repeat it after the Priest wheresvever it is used in Divine Service." I think the custom of abstaining from doing so in this particular instance, may be right, the theory being this (I propose it merely for your consideration): In primitive times the Lord's Prayer seems, probably, to have been regarded as a portion of the prayer of consecration of the Elements; and, for this reason, in the early Liturgies, always has a position before the Communion; 6 “Give us this day our daily bread," considered to have a reference

to the Eucharist, about to be celebrated. Accordingly, under that 'view of it, it was the business of the Priest, and not of the People, . to say the prayer; the People having no share in the act of consecration. And this would account for the usage which Mr. Robertson tells us 'now obtains in Westminster Abbey, that not only the Priest alone says the prayer, but that the people do not even accompany him in the Amen. On the other hand, the Rubric before the Lord's Prayer, where that prayer follows the Com'munion, runs, "then shall the Priest say the Lord's Prayer, the People repeating after him every petition ;” because here that prayer has no longer the character of a prayer of consecration, .but of general petition, to be joined in by all. And the same

consideration, perhaps, would be the key to having the prayer, ‘in the first position, without the Doxology; in the second, with it, as it stands in our Service.' (p. 326.)-Duties of the Parish Priest.

DR. CORRIE, Master of Jesus College, Cambridge, states: 'Contrary to the direction added at the review of the Liturgy in * 1662, that whenever the Lord's Prayer is used, the whole Con

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"gregation shall join with the Minister in an audible voice, the custom universally is for the Priest, in this case, to say the Lord's Prayer alone. Such was, also, the usage in England before the • Reformation. In the Greek and Gallic Churches the custom, in the celebration of Mass, was for all the Congregation to join in the recital of the Lord's Prayer. See Mabill. Liturg. Gallic. p. 49.' Note in WHEATLY's Illus. of Book of Common Prayer, p. 304.

The Rev. J. C. ROBERTSON, speaking of the custom of the Priest saying here the Lord's Prayer alone, remarks—that the practice • has continued in this place, may perhaps be ascribed to the force of tradition, prevailing over the new order......I am informed that at Westminster Abbey the custom is that the Priest alone should say the Prayer without being accompanied even in the Amen.

This practice, as well as that of joint repetition throughout, would satisfy the rule by which the Amen' is printed in upright letters. It appears to me, however, that it is a tradition of the time before

the last Revision, not an exemplification of our present Rubric.' (p. 211.)How shall we Conform, &c.

The “ Amen” is to be uttered here by those only who say the Lord's Prayer.

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POSTURE OF PRIEST, AND PEOPLE.

(Priest standing, People kneeling.)

604.—The Rubric directs that the Lord's Prayer,' and Collect, following, are to be said by the Priest

standing, the People, the while, kneeling.' This attitude of standing the Priest assumes from exercising here the function, rather of administration; and the People kneel to express their sense of supplication. The omission of the celebration of the Eucharist was not contemplated when this Office was compiled, therefore the characteristic of the Lord's Prayer we have noted above and which is conveyed in the petition, “ Give us this day our daily bread,loses the beauty of its application when there is no Communion. While saying the Lord's Prayer, and the Collect following, the Priest turns towards the south, as addressing God.

BP. MANT, says:— 'He is at first to turn to the Lord's Table; and after the Lord's Prayer, and following Collect, to turn to the People.' (p. 53.)-Hor. Lit.

The Rev. H. R. Moody writes:— Read the Lord's Prayer and * Collect, standing, with your face towards the Table. Then turn to

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