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mean is, that in effect he makes religion the work of man and not of God: “the Persecutions (he tells us) have given us one Creed, and the Empire another,"the Holy Ghost (it follows necessarily) has given us neither. And so when he comes to foretell the future of the Church, he seems to abandon the view of his great master, Arnold, of there not being any new epoch in store for man, and thinks that such an era will yet be developed in the Church. And what does he rest this view on? “not on any fancied interpretation of the Apocalypse ;" but really on the progress of civilization, and learning, and love !

Most gladly would we think so too if we could : but passing events seem to lead us to expect a very different result. Of these we will just refer to two : (1.) A few years since a school of real toleration and liberality did spring up in this country: it was the party organized by and called after the late Sir Robert Peel. But already it is absolutely defunct, and its principles utterly scouted! (2.) Another even more recent example, and to Mr. Stanley most closely personal, is the case of Dr. Tait, Bishop of London. We all remember the flourish of trumpets made by Mr. Cotton in his consecration sermon: we had entered upon a golden age of love and moderation. And what has been the result? His Episcopate hitherto has been the reign of a most narrow-minded meddling tyranny! We do not for a moment suppose that Mr. Stanley approves the Bishop's course: but Dr. Tait was pointed to as the model Bishop ; and Mr. Stanley is his chaplain ; and we are retrograding nevertheless to the times of persecution.

Our Doctor's Note Book (Hayes and Co.) by the author of “ Tales of Kirkbeck,” is characterized by the same simplicity and earnestness of devotional feeling which rendered the former work so attractive. The tales contained in this present volume have perhaps less of incident and variety than their predecessors, but they are so evidently taken from real life that even the most brief and fragmentary are full of a touching interest ; while the reflections which they have suggested to the author are at once pure and beautiful.

My Dream, by the author of "White Raiment,” (Masters) is a prettily written fiction, designed to give children a distinct idea of the various stages of preparation through which they must pass to their heavenly home. The language, however, perhaps is somewhat too high flown for such


minds. Millie's Journal (Masters) gives, in a series of letters from a young lady, an account of the voyage and first settlement of an emigrant family in New Orleans. There is nothing at all striking or remarkable in the history, but it contains many little useful hints for persons similarly circumstanced, and the narrative is pleasing from the simplicity and sincere religious feeling of the writer.

Two Months' Preparation for Confirmation, chiefly in the form of Question Papers, founded on the Offices of the Church (Skeffington) is a title which explains itself. We have only one fault to find with it ; but that is the fundamental one that, along with the right sense, it attributes a meaning to this rite of the Church which it was never intended to bear.


Any one who has been used to children, will recognize Charlotte Drew's Pinch to be true to nature. And natural books are always popular with children.

An account of the Penitentiary at Shipmeadow, by the Chaplain, (Rivingtons,) is modestly and nicely written. It is very interesting to trace the growth of all these institutions, as it were, in spite of their originators, into the Catholic model.

In connection with this may be mentioned an interesting Report, presented to the Bishop of New York, by the Rev. Mr. M‘VICKAR, of various institutions in England for reclaiming the Church's Lost Sheep. It is called “City Missions." (Dana and Co.)

We have read with much interest an Eloge Funebre, pronounced in honour of Madame de Rochejaquelin, by the Bishop of Poitiers. It is an able and eloquent tribute to a truly Christian lady.

No one can have failed to admire the tone of Mr. SEYMOUR's speech with which he advocated the introduction of the Laity into Convocation. And it will repay perusal in its printed form (Rivingtons) even by those who like ourselves, cannot altogether go along with the author in his views.

Three new editions of valuable reprints have reached us from the press of Messrs. Parker of Oxford, viz., Taylor's Holy Living and Dying, (two very elegant volumes,) and Bishop Ken's Manual of Prayers.

Theodora Phranza, by the Rev. J. M. NEALE (Masters), is a much more elaborate and highly finished work than any of the charming little volumes for which our young people have been of late indebted to this well-known writer. It is, we believe, a production of his earlier years, and is in some degree wanting in that fascination of style which has always characterized his later ; but it has an historical value as a faithful transcript of a period most interesting to the Eastern Church. It gives à graphic account of the Fall of Constantinople, with the struggles which preceded it. The character of the noble and unfortunate Constantine is admirably drawn.

Two fresh contributions to the history of the Church, as adapted to the comprehension of children, are offered to us in Mr. Fox's Holy Church throughout all the World, and Mr. BARING Gould's Path of the Just (Masters). The first is an abridged History of the Church, clearly and concisely written, unobjectionable in the earlier part, but failing very considerably on the critical ground of the last few centuries, while the second, the “ Path of the Just,” is a very beautiful series of Martyr records which merits our best commendation.

Mr. BENNETT has published two Sermons, entitled respectively, Christian Zeal, and Holy Places, (Masters) which he preached at the Chapel of the Holy Trinity, Bordesley, Birmingham, on the occasion of a new and improved ritual arrangement having been effected there. They are earnest and eloquent, like all Mr. Bennett's writings : the commencement of the second sermon is, in fact, very striking. It is much to be regretted that the Church at large does not benefit more from those who, like Mr. Bennett, possess a gift for preaching.

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Ir the inferences which were drawn in a foregoing paper from history be correct, it will be seen that the error of the English Church has been, to give occasion through neglect of discipline for estrangements from her pale, to overlook these estrangements while in progress, and to attempt when too late, a comprehension of dis

, senters.

This mistaken policy reached its height at the period of the Revolution. Earlier attempts at comprehension had been made, but there was not one of them so formal as that of 1689.1 They were rather endeavours made by individuals acting on their own responsibility to ascertain on what terms the dissenters would return to their allegiance to the Church ; but this was propounded by a Royal Commission. It was rejected by the Church; for although it was not formally laid before Convocation, yet it was well understood to be virtually condemned in the refusal of the Lower House to classify the foreign reformed Communions with the Church of England. Another circumstance distinguishes the attempt of 1689, namely, the distinct proposal made by the State, and neglected by the Church, that the Church should restore her discipline. Sufficient attention, we conceive, has not been paid to this circumstance. Tillotson's scheme is generally viewed merely with regard to the objectionable proposals made by the commissioners; and while the Lower House of Convocation is justly praised for its firmness in rejecting these proposals, and the error of those who made them is sufficiently animadverted upon, adequate attention is not paid to the neglect of the commissioners, and the dereliction of duty in the Church at large, in omitting to follow the course indicated by the terms of the Royal Commission. Had that course been followed a result to the nation might have ensued very different from the lamentable result which did ensue. We will not say, that the adoption of measures of real reformation would have reconciled the dissenters, but we say that such measures would have undermined their strength, and would in all probability have prevented the wide schism originated by Wesley, the widest and worst schism that the Church has suffered.

On this account the history of the eighteenth century deserves the closest attention. Other considerations will also show its im. portance. We appear

now to be approaching a time of real Church legis

i Concerning the attempt made by Bridgman and Hale, sufficient regard does not appear to have been paid to the account given by Sherlock, in “ A Vindication of the Rights of Ecclesiastical Authority.”—P. 186.

VOL. XIX.-JULY, 1857.

2 a


lation, a time when the Church may consult in her Synods, as well as the State in its Parliament.

Now in legislating for any society it is necessary to have a thorough acquaintance, not only with the state of the laws when legislation ceased, but also with the history of that time and of the intervening time, so as to compare all these circumstances with the circumstances of the present time. For legislation without history cannot but be faulty, as attempted in the dark. The revival of Convocation therefore throws us back upon the period when Convocation was silenced. And as it will be seen that Convocation, when so unconstitutionally silenced by George I. was, in fact, taking steps in the direction indicated by the Commissioners of 1689, it becomes a question of deep moment, whether the unfinished work is not now to be taken up where it was left, with such modifications as the events of the intervening 140 years may render proper. In resuming the building of an unfinished cathedral, it is matter not only of antiquarian interest, but of practical moment, whether as we have seen on the noblest work of Gotbic art, the crane which lifted the last course of stones is still left, or the builders endeavoured to give a finish to their work although it manifestly lacked its due proportions. Of still greater interest and importance is it to ascertain what is wanting to the completion of their plan; and whether, if the arrangements have been made, and the implements of labour have been left, later generations ever attempted to use them, why they failed, and with what hope of success the attempt may be renewed.

In writing of the history of the close of the seventeenth century, it is by no means our aim to depreciate the merits of its divines, or to exalt one class of them at the expense of another class. That age produced men not unworthy to take their place in the roll of our divines. Gibson and Kennett, Jane and Aldrich, were not uninformed in Church law and Church history. Stillingfleet, Wake, Patrick, Prideaux, Hickes, Brett, were no inconsiderable divines; Bull and Beveridge of still higher rank. The age which produced these men was not uninformed. And although English theology was then on the decline, and suffered, first from the technicalities of the controversy with the Romanists, then from the mode in which the defence against the freethinkers' attack was conducted ; although our present state, when theology is again on the rise, may be the more hopeful of the two, still he who compares the writings of that day with the writings of the present day, will hardly say that we have risen much above, if indeed we have attained, the level at which they stood. Certainly we are not entitled to pass by with contempt either Hanoverian prelate or Jacobite seceder. It will be far better to allow to all their due authority, and to consider carefully to what that authority points. We are much mistaken, if we shall not find a far closer agreement between the men of both parties as to the real wants of the Church than is generally supposed, and an agreement too with the convictions of the most thoughtful men of our own time.

1 See Queen Anne's heads of business and the subsequent reports of Committees, in Cardwell's Synodalia ii. p. 731. These matters were in progress in Convocation, when their proceedings were stayed by the death of the Queen.”—Lathbury, p. 427. The same business was recommended to Convocation by George I., and some progress was made when their proceedings were interrupted by the case of Iloadly.-- Lathbury, p. 441.

A Royal Commission directing the most eminent divines of the day to prepare certain measures, which measures were to be submitted to a Convocation, summoned at the especial request of Parliament, may properly be styled, as we have styled it, a distinct proposal of the State to the Church to engage in the work named in the Commission.

This Commission states that the particular forms of Divine Worship are alterable—that the book of Canons is fit to be reviewed, and made more suitable to the state of the Church that there are defects and abuses in the Ecclesiastical Courts, particularly not sufficient provision for removing scandalous ministers, and for reforming of manners, either in ministers or in people; that it is most fit there should be a strict method for the examination of candidates for holy orders. All these wide and important subjects are recommended to the Commissioners, who are directed to prepare such alterations of the Liturgy and Canons, and such proposals for the reformation of Ecclesiastical Courts, and to consider such other matters as may most conduce to the ends abovementioned.

Now that a body of Churchmen and Divines, Bishops, Deans, Archdeacons, and Professors, having so great a subject proposed to them, should spend the time of eighteen general meetings and of all the meetings of six sub-committees, in accumulating such a mass of minute alterations, as those for the first time presented at length to the Church by Mr. Heywood, altering "righteously” to justly,'

;> "

","session" to " sitting," “ meekly kneeling” to “kneel. ing humbly;" besides all the changes and exchanges of "priest,'

presbyter” and “minister,” without preparing the way for the revision of the Canons, the reform of the Courts, and reformation of manners and discipline—this misapplication of time and labour cannot but appear most extraordinary. Doubtless the alterations proposed are not all of this trivial character; some are of the deepest significance; but the significant alterations by no means occupied the largest portion of time. In the first session the question of reading the Apocrypha was soon settled. In the fifth session, the question of the Athanasian Creed was disposed of. The crucial questions concerning Ordination occupied indeed nearly four ses

1 Alterations in the Book of Common Prayer, &c. ordered by the House of Com: mons, June 2, 1854.


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