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blance to the rocks at Coblentz, which the time in which they intend it extend to Andernach.

should be performed, according to Near Edinburgh, it is to be observe the scale of an instrument, called MEed passing into sandstone, and con TRONOME, or rule of measure, which taining red hematite. Salisbury Craig, gives an exact measure of time correthe rocks at the Custom House, on sponding with each number. As, how, the sea-shore, to the westward of New- ever, this instrument is somewhat haven, I found to be of whinstone. expensive, and is little known here, Arthur Seat, on the contrary, is truly our performers, in general, do not volcanic, being composed of basaltic understand the notation of the scale, lava, scoriæ, tuffa, and other similar and are not able to avail themselves rocks.

of the accurate directions of the seDuring the few days I remained at veral composers who use it. It will Edinburgh, I visited the beautiful therefore probably be agreeable to range of hills named the Pentlands, in your musical readers, to have the lanthe investigation of which, I was much guage of Maelzel's scale explained to assisted by Professor Jameson's de- them, which, as it is exceedingly simscription in the Wernerian Memoirs. ple, may be done in a few words. The Professor considers that range as The indication consists of a musical of Neptunian formation, an opinion I character, such as a minim, crotchet, cannot subscribe to; on the contrary, or quaver, with a number affixed, I believe that the rocks are decidedly which determines the number of mivolcanic. These roeks, to me, did not nims, crotchets, or quavers, which present any regularity of arrangement, the composer means should be per-nothing like what we observe in the formed in a minute; or that the mic basaltic ranges of Saxony and Au- nim, erotchet, or quaver of that vergne ; hence I learn, that, although movement, should have a length the environs of Edinburgh abound in equal to the fraction of a minute divolcanic matter, much of it belongs to vided by the number specified. the last revolutions of the globe. A principal rock in the Pentland range

Thus, “ 960 Maelzel’s Metronome” is felspar, which often contains scales means, that the minim in the moveof mica, and crystals of substancement to which it is prefixed, should like actinote. It is the same rock I met be a second or the sixtieth part of with in the mountains of the Puy de a minute, or that sixty minims should Dome and Puy de Chopine, and which be performed in one minute. In the has engaged much of the attention of Saussure and other naturalists. It is same manner, 100 expresses, that of a volcanic nature, as is also the cach crotchet should be the hundredth case with the amygdaloids and sco- part of a minute, or that a hundred riæ met with in the same range of of the crotchets should take a minute hills.

The Braid-hills and Blackford-hill, to perform ; [ 75 indicates 75 quawhich are composed of varieties of compact felspar, appear to have expe vers to be performed in a minute. It rienced terriblé commotions; in the is evident how much more precise Braid-hills, in particular, the agita- and accurate this notation is, than the tions must have been tremendous. vague and indeterminate terms Adagio, The hills, in a mineralogical view, Andante, Allegro, and Presto, in comvery much resemble the Puy de Dome mon use; and we attach the greater in the south-west of France, which is value to Maelzel's invention, because now universally considered as of vol we have often had occasion to regret canic origin.

our ignorance of the time in which composers wished their movements to be performed, especially the older masters, such as Corelli, in conse

quence of a change which has taken OF MAELZEL'S METRONOME.

place in the meaning of these terms. MB EDITOR,

Now, the time of a piece indicated, Ries, and many of the best mo- according to Maelzel's Metronome, is dern composers of music, prefix to fixed for ever, and for every country, each movement a number, indicating and there will be no excuse for sing

AN EXPLANATION OF

TION EMPLOYED IN

THE NOTA-
THE SCALE

ers drawling out Andantes, till they in regard to the celebrated eighth conset us asleep, or for fiddlers rattling certo, the first movement is character. through an Allegro, so as to defy ized as Vivace, and is to be performed any ear to discover the fine combi- at the rate of three long half-seconds nations of the author. By this nota- in a bar ; the second is marked Grave, tion, the time intended by the author and is four seconds in a bar; the third is precisely fixed, and the performer who Allegro, is four longish half-seconds does not adopt it, must submit to the in a bar ; the fourth Adagio, is eight imputation of incapacity, or of vanity seconds ; the fifth, another Allegro, is in conceiving hiniself a better judge four short half-seconds; the sixth is of the spirit of a composition, than he the same as the fourth; the seventh who wrote it. Formerly, it was other- another Vivace, is three short half-sewise. When Mr Bremner published conds; the eighth another Allegro, two some of Corelli's concertos for the harp- short half-seconds ; and the last sichord, he pointed out this evil, and Pastorale, is four short seconds in a endeavoured to remedy it in regard to bar. This was no doubt a great imthem. “ The terms Adagio, Largo, provement, but it was not sufficiently Allegro, &c. usually affixed to musical precise, for it only fixed accurately compositions, being in themselves ra two times, seconds and half-seconds. ther vague, it were to be wished that These correspond with 60 and 120 of some more determinate means could be Maelzel; but all the other numbers found to transmit to posterity the exact between these, and greater and less time in which every species of music than these, were still vaguely indicated ought to be performed, as then the by the addition of the qualifying epicompositions of the present age might thets long and short.' Dr Crotch give more pleasure centuries hence, adopted a very philosophical method than we now receive from the harp- of determining the time, with great sichord music of former ages. For in- precision, by marking the length of a stance, the editor being, in the year pendulum which would vibrate in 1762, at a sale of music which belong- correspondence with the minim, croted to the late Dr Pepusch, purchased chet, or quaver. Its application was Queen Elizabeth's virginal book, which, also exceedingly simple. A leaden though exceedingly fair and intelligi- bullet was affixed to a piece of tape or bly written, and the compositions un- ribbon, upon which the inches were questionably excellent; they being by markerl, measuring from the centre of Tallas, Bull, Bird, and other great the bullet. By taking hold of the masters with whom England then tape at the number of inches desigabounded ; yet, owing to the seeming nated to be the length of the penirregularity of divisions by bars, and a duluin, and setting it a swinging, we want of knowing the true times in have the exact time of the minim, crotwhich the different pieces should move, chet, or quaver, in each vibration. We the best masters are now at a loss how do not know why this method has to execute them with propriety. For, not been generally used. Perhaps, should the popular tunes, of which when the pendulum is long, it is inthere are many in this collection, be be- convenient, and not easiày managed gun as slow as we now think the nature by unskilful hands. To explain its of the melody will allow, yet the va notation, we give the following table tiations set to them by those masters of corresponding times, as measured increase in difficulty as they go on; by pendulums of different lengths, and and at last become so rapid, that if the the number of Maelzel's metronome, execution of those days did not far ex- or vibrations in a second, which, though ceed that of the present, it must be not mathematically, is sufficiently corimpossible to perform some of them rect. uniformly throughout in equal time.”

7, 10, 12, 14, 17, 30, 39, 56. Mr Bremner endeavours to fix the time

Metronome 160, 110, 120, 100, 90, 80, 90, 60, 50. more precisely in regard to Corelli's concertos, by indicating how many The Maelzel's metronome we have seen seconds or half-seconds were given is itself a species of pendulum, which to each bar by Pasquali, an excellent is made to vibrate different times by violinist and skilful leader of a band, means of a sliding weight upon a porwho was allowed to have entered into tion of the rod continued upwards the true spirit of Corelli's music. Thus, beyond the point of suspension, and

Pend. inches 5.

furnished with a graduated scale upon er counting a few of its vibrations as which is marked the number of beats the pendulum passes the stand. it makes, when the upper edge of the

PHILHARMONICUS. weight is adjusted, so as to be opposite Edinburgh, Sept. 1817. to it. It is furnished with an escapement, and its motion is continued by a weight hung over a pully. The AN ACCOMPT FOR MRS MARGARET scale extends from 50 to 160. This SMYTHE'S WEDDING CLOATHS, DEC. instrumentanswers its purpose in some 1701. respects, but is not without incon- [The following accompt of wedding clothes, veniences. It is somewhat complex,

in the year 1701, forms an appropriand may be put out of order. It is

ate sequel to the View of the Change not portable, but requires to be fixed of Manners among the higher ranks in against a wall, and at a considerable Scotland during the course of the last height. Also the constant loud tick century. (See pages 10 and 111.) The ing which it makes atevery beat, though lady whose matrimonial paraphernalia are perhaps esteemed an advantage by thus minutely given, was a daughter of some, who cannot measure equal

the honourable house of Methven, and portions of time in their mind, is dis

wife of Thomas, afterwards Sir Thomas

Moncrieff of that Ilk, Bart.] agreeable to those who have a real feeling for music, and will render those Imprs. for 20 ells of Holland for six who use it constantly, too mechani shirts

L. 65 2 6 cally uniform in their performance, It. for leace to the six shirts 17 4 0 as it will not permit that judicious It. for linnen to be six shirts 232 acceleration and retardation of the It. for 4 ells of striped mutime according to the genius of the zelon for the shirts passage, in which a great deal of the necks and hands

12 0 expression evinced by a performer of It. for Holland for 6 sute taste consists. A simplified metro of night cloaths 2 12 6 nome, made by Mr Allan, an ingenious It. for muzelon to the night instrument-maker in Lothian Street, cloaths

9 12 0 is free from this objection. It is of a It. for ane head sute and small size, perfectly portable, and is ruffles of cutt work 77 3 6 set upon the top of a piano-forte, a table, It. for another laic'd head or any horizontal surface. It has no sute

68 1 4 escapement, and makes no ticking, and It. for 6 muzlon cravats 33 11 needs no weight to continue the mo It. for camrick for 6 hand tion. In fact, it is nothing but a stand napkins

15 15 0 carrying a short pendulum with the rod It. for muzlon for 3 head protracted upwards beyond the point sutes

12 12 0 of suspension, having the upper limb It. for edgings for 3 head graduated with an adjusting weight, sutes and ruffles 28 30 moveable upon it. It might be made It. for laice for a sute of with a scale of any extent. That which night cloaths

16 10 6 we saw was only graduated from 60 It. for muzlon for four apto 120, or from seconds to half-se rons and keaming conds; but it was easy to apply it to

cloaths

22 2 6 any interval of time by halving it or It. for Holland for 2 aprons 8 3 6 doubling it. Thus, if the direction It. for ane hood and skerff 33 0 was to play at the rate of 140 quavers It. for white dames for in a minute, we have only to adjust toilett to the table 10 16 0 the instrument to 70, which will then It. for ane callego night give the time of the crotchet; or if gown

14 8 0 we are told that the quaver is 50 in a It. for bastin for under minute, 100 will give the time of the petticoats and vestsemiquaver. On the other hand, as coats

11 0 0 this instrument does not tick or beat It. for two pair of worset the time, it will be of no use to per stockins

4 16 0 formers who are irregular in their It. for ane pair of silk time, and is only intended to deter stokins

8 2 0 mine the time in which the movement is to be played, by the perform

Carry over,

L. 479 9 10

NAME OF THE PICTS.

BY FINN

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Brought forward, L. 479 9 10 Brought forward, L. 1044 18, 2 It. for two pair of laic'd

It. to baillie Blackwood shoes

8 9 0 for goun, petticoat, It. for ane pair of maris

and lining, camrick kine shoes and slip

for two best heads pers

3 50

suits, sattin and alaIt, for drink money to

mod for covering her the shoe maker 0 14 6

stayes, and lineing It. for gloves

2 0 0 her toilette and rid. It. for ane silk under coatt 32 8 0 ing cloaths

263 1 6 It. for 2 muzelon hoods 9 15 0 It. to the taylour for makIt. for 2 suitt of ribbans 12 13 8 ing the riding cloaths 11 0 0 It. for brides garters 10 0 0 It. for brides favors 8 5 0

* L. 1318 19 8 It. for a suitt of ribbans

for night cloaths 7 10 6 Endorsed, “ Accompt delivret be It. for ribbans for shoe

Mr David Drummond for Mrs Mara strings

1 9 0 garet's wedding cloaths."
It. for washing of gloves 0 7 0
It. for laices to the stayes 1 13 6
It. for gallouns to the fin-

ON THE ORIGIN OF THE NATION AND est coat

18 0 0 It. for cherry gallouns 14 0 6

MAGNUSEN, PROFESSOR, &c. &c. It. for 2 peasboard boxes 1 12

COPENHAGEN, 1817. It. for powder, knittings, and pins

3 0 0 (Continued from Page 129.) It. for combs

1 10 0

SOMEWHAT later than the Scandians, It. for 2 belts

2 18 0 have Scotts and Attacots crowded from It. for wears

2 4

Ireland into Caledonia, t and subIt. for 2 fans

4 6 6 dued large tracts of the north-westerly It, for silk dames for a

part. They have certainly been more vest coat

7

4 O warlike than the Aborigines, and, It for a lineing to her

therefore, obtained the dominion over

30 13 10 them ; but, as the remaining tracts It. to Mrs Stratton for shewing of the cloaths 20 12' O and powerful Scandians, or chiefs

were already peopled by the valiant It. for her woman in drink

who were in alliance with them, money

2 18 0

and instructed by them in the art of It. to children in the school

war then in use, the Scots were not for sweet meats 24 O able to overturn the states and confeIt. for sarge to a coatt 0 12 0 deracies established by them. TrenIt. to Mr Houp the tayllor 320 0

mor, of the nation of the Scotts or It to the taylour for his

Attacotts, was the first founder of gloves

6 16 0 It. to his man in drink

* That our southern readers may not acmoney

2 18 0

cuse this lady of extravagance, which so It. for four ells of knit

alarming a sum total might seem to justify, tings

0 5 4

we must beg leave to inform them, that the Its to the baxter in drink

money is Scots, the real amount in Stermoney

070 ling being L. 109, 188. 3d. 8-12ths. It. for her pockett att the

+ The Fir-Bolg, or Belgæ, were the mariage, and to the

most powerful nation in Ireland in the musick

34 80 days of Fingal; and hence it may be con. It. given to the wrytter for

jectured, that Trenmor's Celtic tribe was the contract 5 guineas (78 20 where they attained to great power and

driven from that island to North Britain, It to his man halfe a

distinction; and probably he afterwards guinea It to John Hepburn for

reconquered a part of his ancient domi.

nions, and erected it into a kingdom for goun, petticoat and

one of his sons. Their descendants would lining

201 14 0 have been once more driven out by the

Belgic king Cairbar, had not Fingal come Carry over, L. 1044 18 % to the assistance of the Celts.

7

blew gown

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the powerful kingdom of Morven in nent with Great Britain, the simi. the Highlands ; and princes of the larity between the language and mandistricts possessed by the Scandians, ners of the Celts and Scandians, as (such, for example, as Crathmo Craus well as the resemblance remarked by lo,) entered into alliances with him, Tacitus between the Caledonians and or became his feudatories. The Dru- the Germans, (Teutonic or Scandic ids seem, however, to have formerly people,) from whom they are supposed extended their influence over the to be descended, may be easily accountcountry which Trenmor conquered. ed for ; * and if this is granted, it apThe Son of Loda, whom, in the war with him they called to their assist these important occurrences. The mighty ance, was probably from Orkney, volcanic convulsion of Nature, which, aeor some other part where the Scan- cording to Eggert Olafsen, and other nadians had the dominion. The suc- tural historians, heaved up the mountaincour which the Hierarch obtained, ous island of Iceland from the bottom of shews both the agreement of their re

the ocean, must have been sufficient to ligion with that of the Scandinavians, produce the awful deluge which made such and their near neighbourhood to these, havock upon the ncarest coasts. Schioeor others of the same race.

ning has (p. 234) brought forward this If both Jutland and Norway have, conjecture, which appears to me rational,

but which I shall leave to more skilful (aceording to the conjectures of Vedel

geologists to exanıine and decide upon. Šimonson, * and other eminent liter

The separation of Britain from the Con. ati) before the great deluge which, tinent can, best of all circumstances, account about 600 years before the birth of for Dr Borlase's opinion, (Antiquities of Christ, changed the condition of al Cornwall, p. 4,) that the present name of most all Europe, † formed one conti- the island was first conferred by the Phæ

nicians, from the Hebrew BRIT, breaking • In his “ Survey of the oldest and

off or separating, and TAN, which, in the most remarkable periods of our National

Punic, Indian, Persian, and Celtic (and History, Part 1. Vol. II. Copenhagen,

the author might have added, in the old 1813." --Compare Schioening on the "0.

Teutonic) languages, signifies land ; and it rigin of the Northern Nations, Soroe, is remarkable, that the Scandinavian name 1709, p. 232.”

Bretland or Britland, has the same mean+ According to this hypothesis, Jutland ing; as Britia or Brita in Icelandic sig. has been united to England or Scotland by

nifies to detruncate, detach, or break off what is called the Reef of Jutland, and

and divide, and Brit accordingly has the Scotland again to Norway, in the direction

same import as in Hebrew. The voyages in which the Shetland and Orkney granite

of the Phanicians in the North of Europe Tocks stretch across the sea. In like man- began so early in time, that they may have ner, some are of opinion, that England has

had certain knowledge of the separation of been connected with Belgic Gaul. All this the island from the Continent. How being admitted, we may easily conceive many words in the Punie language (prohow such multitudes of Belgæ came to Eng.

bably a mixture of the radical languages of land and Ireland, that the Scandinavians

Sem and Japhet) have a resemblance to spread land-ways even to Scotland, where the Scandinavian, may partly be seen from they met with Celts who had come thither the collection in Rudbeck's Atlantica. from another quarter ; how these different

Sicily was once separated from Italy by nations mixed with each other; and a similar eruption of the sea, according to whence the Cimbri and Celts bore so strong

Claudian : a resemblance to each other in speech,

Trinacria quondam manners, names, &c. Hence also, we may

Italiæ pars una fuit, sed pontus et rstus the more readily comprehend in what man

Mutavere situm ; rupit comfinia Nereus, ner the language of Norway spread itself Victor et abscissos interluit æquore montés. over the whole Lowlands of Scotland, and

De Rapt. Proserp." why the Scandinavians, wlio arrived by sea • “ Rutilæ Caledoniam habitantium at a later period, met with so friendly a re comæ, magni artus, Germanicam originem ception from the inhabitants of the coast, adseverant." In Walker's “ Letter on who were of the same original stock, and the Picts," &c. (in the Archeologia Brio spoke the same language. Thus, the ear. tannica, Vol. I.) among other excellent rely settling of Scandinavians in Scotland marks concerning the different origin of may be supposed to have taken place at the Scotish Lowlanders from the Highlandtwo different periods, and probably at bothers, he has also this, in reference to the times in the same manner. History does forementioned passage in Tacitus: That not reach so far back in time as to furnish “ the Highlanders, with the exception of us with certain information concerning the Hebridians, (who are chiefly of Nor.

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