图书图片
PDF
ePub

.40

the full strength of a man, it is im- six years past. It is calculated from possible to overstock it, like the weav- a comparison of drawbacks, allowed ing, with an influx of boys and chil- during the respective years, for madren.

nufactures subjected to the duties of Although many other manufactures excise. Articles have been selected are carried to a great extent in the for which there has been the most rewest of Scotland, both for home con- gular demand, and of those descripsumption and export, all of which tions in which there appeared the must have been partially, and at times least propensity to extend them too severely depressed, none have exhi- far. The maximum, as in the forbited vicissitudes, either in market mer table, is fixed at unity, and the prices or in wages, in any respect ratio of decrement is exhibited by the comparable with those experienced by decimals. the cotton trade. Amongst these may

.46 be enumerated the respective manu

Rate of quantities in 1812, factures of iron and brass founding,

1813, .88

1814, .65 of leather, shoes, boots, gloves, and

1815, 1.00 saddlery, of glass and earthen ware, of soap and candles, brushes, and

1816, .60

1817, many other articles, necessary where a great population exists, and which The present year not being comhave been considerably extended by a plete, the ratio is assumed from a constant exportation, though to an ex view of the first six months. In getent always fluctuating. These ma- neral, it will be observed that this nufactures have rather kept pace with, table rises and falls nearly at the same than preceded the actual demand ; and dates as the former. The chief difhence their depression has been sel- ference is in 1815. In this year the dom particularly remarkable either for exports were very extensive; but the severity or continuance.

prices of cotton weaving were not The mechanical professions, spe- raised. It had plainly tended, howcially employed to supply the home ever, to keep them up; for, when the market, have also kept a tolerably exportation declined in 1816, they insteady course, as those of the smith, stantly fell above 20 per cent., and carpenter, turner, mason, bricklayer, have continued to decline with the slater, plasterer, &c. The extension exports, until the present month, both of machinery and building has when they have revived a little. continued unabatéd, notwithstanding Upon the prospects of revival a few every depression ; and, even in the remarks may be hazarded. They de present year, immense piles of build- pend, however, upon contingencies so ings, nay whole streets, are going on various, and so widely extended, that with the usual activity. This seems we can reach little beyond mere conto warrant the conclusion, that sus- jecture. The reasons being explicitly pension of demand, in most trades, is stated, every reader will be enabled to still more severely felt than actual judge for himself how far the concluabsence of funds; and that capital issions are warranted by the premises. to be readily found wherever it is in It seems proper to divest the quesvited by a prospect of profitable in- tion of all political considerations of

ambition or jealousy in any European The state of the great manufactures state, such as might lead, at an early is intimately blended with, and affect- period, to the revival of hostilities, ed by, that of external commerce; and to view the question solely as conthey act reciprocally upon each other, nected with a peace establishment, and generally flourish or suffer to- although probably not with a totally gether. When manufactures are great- unrestricted commercial intercourse. y overstocked at home, foreign mar- In this situation, the policy of each kets are always glutted in a short state will naturally suggest the protime, either by the speculations of motion and extension of its own trade,

or by the consignments of whether the means shall be judiciousmanufacturers themselves.

ly or injudiciously selected. The following proportional table It seems morally impossible to bemay afford a pretty fair view of the lieve that the cotton weaving branch relative extent of the export trade for can maintain its extended state long,

vestment.

merchants,

PRESERVING THE HEALTH OF MA

THE BAD EFFECTS OF THE INHA-
LATION OF DUST AND HURTFUL

MASK.

under the existing depression of wages.

ACCOUNT OF DR Gosse's METHOD OP Either the demand must be increased, or the supply will certainly, though NUFACTURERS AND OTHERS FROM perhaps gradually, diminish, until the rate of labour shall resume nearly its natural level, and place the weaver VAPOURS, BY MEANS OF A SPONGE upon an equality with other artisans. But many obstacles present themselves to the fulfilment of this prospect. In The preservation of the health of many parts of the Continent, lower our manufacturers and artisans is an money wages will procure an equal or object of the highest importance, not a greater supply of necessaries or com- only to those immediately interested, forts. Hence the British wages must but also to the community at large, be influenced by the competition. who participate in all the advantages Nor has mechanical improvement in resulting from the successful exertion the weaving branch so far distance of their industry. The inhalation of foreigņ competitors as to counteract a noxious substances is one of the causes great difference of prices.

of disease the most difficult to guard In spinning the case is different; against, because respiration cannot be although it is now fully ascertained suspended even for a few minutes that not only very extensive, but well without danger, and never without regulated, cotton-mills do exist at inconvenience. The noxious subRouen and other parts of France. stances which are capable of operating Some of the most extensive spinners on the body through the medium of in Scotland have actually visited and the air we breathe, sometimes act examined these works, and admit the merely by mechanical irritation, such fact. Still, however, the great capi- as all kinds of fine dust and fibres sustal already vested in spinning esta- pended in the air and carried along with blishments in Britain,--the matured it into the lungs, but more commonly superiority of machinery,-practical they exist in a state of solution or indexterity acquired by long habit, timate combination, and act as poisons and the minute division of labour,– by their inherent deleterious properand, above all, the security of proper- ties. ty,--must continue, for a long time, Various means have been imagined to operate powerfully in favour of the to preserve workmen whose occupaBritish spinner.

tions oblige them to work in contamiThe exportation of cotton-yarn to nated air. In some cases they have the Continent is a great and extend been supplied for respiration, by means ing trade. The probability, there- of tubes, with a purer air brought from fore, is, that Britain will be much some distance. But, from the very more rapidly rivalled in her weaving nature of the apparatus required for than in her spinning manufacture, this purpose, it is of very limited apand may export large quantities of her plication, both on account of its esyarn long after she shall cease to ex- pence, and its being altogether incomperience any considerable demand for patible with the free exertions of the her cloths, unless important improve- workmen. ments in weaving machinery shall Masks of different kinds worn over create a new superiority, as Sir Rich- the face are exposed to inconveniences ard Arkwright's inventions opened an of another description. A piece of entirely new trade at the conclusion dry linen, for example, applied over of the American contest.

the mouth, may serve to exclude, in a Upon the whole, it may probably great measure, dust and other powders be assumed with truth, that both the mechanically suspended in the air, commerce and manufactures of Glas- but has no effect in correcting the gow wear an aspect somewhat more poisonous properties of the deleterious promising than they have exhibited gases. Moist linen is certainly prefor some years past; but it would cer- ferable ; but it oppresses the breathtainly be too sanguine to predict a ing when closely applied, and admits speedy restoration of all the vigour the noxious gases when it does not fit which they have possessed in former exactly, and, besides, it corrects the times.

D, qualities but of few of them, and that Glasgow, Sept. 1817.

in a slight degree only.

1817.) Dr Gosse's Method of preserving the Health of Manufucturers, fc. 219 Dr Macquart first proposed, in the outside with fine sponge.

When

proarticle Medicine in the French Ency- perly fitted, it is to be moistened in clopédie, to counteract animal emana- water or other Auid proper for cortions, by filling the nostrils with small recting the poisonous quality of the sponges imbibed with some aromatic emanations, and tied over the mouth liquor ; but this method leaves the and nose, so that no air can be remouth undefended.

ceived into the lungs but what passes M. Brizé Fradin invented an appa- through its pores. ratus, with the same object in view, This contrivance is free from almost and published an account of it, with all the objections to which the others a plate and description, in a French are liable. From the porous and elasperiodical work, (Annales des Arts et tic nature of sponge, it is easily made Manufactures. Paris, 1811. Vol. L. to apply closely round the edges, P. 203.). Its principle consists in while it permits the air to permeate making the air to be inhaled by the it freely, and thus does not impede mouth pass through a layer of cotton either respiration or speech. It is less moistened with the liquor best calcu- inconvenient when used even for a lated to destroy its hurtful properties. length of time, than could be imaIt is, however, too complicated, and gined, and does not at all interfere somewhat inconvenient in its use; with the motions of the head or the and it only guards the mouth, exertions of the workman. It is not and leaves the access by the nostrils costly, and is easily kept clean. Still free. Besides, cotton, by being mois- its use is sometimes exposed to objectened, loses its elasticity, gathers into tions. It keeps the inspired air ala mass, and does not allow the air to ways moist, which Dr Gosse thinks pass through it without great difficul- might be prejudicial to persons disty; and, if not sufficiently wetted, is posed to catarrhal affections; and the permeable to the emanations intended Huid with which it is necessary someto be corrected.

times to moisten it, discolours the These inconveniences induced Dr skin. Also in violent exertion, causGosse of Geneva to resume some ex- ing repeated and deep inspirations, it periments on

the employment of may excite a transient difficulty of sponges begun by his father in 1785, breathing. But these inconveniences, and applied by him to the manufac- trifling in themselves, compared with ture of hats. The success of these the evils which it is capable of counexperiments was so great, as to render teracting, become almost entirely rethem deserving of being generally moved by practice, and may in a great known, with the hope that they may measure be avoided by taking care attract the notice of those manufac- not to use the solutions with which tarers whose workmen suffer from the sponge is moistened, in too coninpure emanations, and may thus be centrated a state, and in removing it the means of prolonging the lives of from time to time to breath the fresh many useful and industrious citizens. air, and to wash the face with cold

Dr Gosse's method consists in the water. application of a mask of fine sponge. The sponge mask merely soaked It should be selected as much as pos- with water is sufficient to guard the sible of the shape of a hollow cone, wearer against the effect of any powand should be sufficiently large to co der whatever, and is therefore appliver the greater part of the nose, all cable to the grinders of colours, drugs, the mouth, and even the chin. It and stucco, stone-cutters, cotton-spinshould apply closely by its margin to ners, feuther-cleaners, wool-carders, the cheeks and chin, while the mouth hatmakers, &c. &c. and point of the nose lie in the hollow Water will also serve the purpose of the cone, and, if it be not naturally of condensing mercurial vapours, and hollow enough to leave the lips free, the more easily that the rapid eit must be kept from them by cross vaporation which takes place lowers slips of whalebone. When sponges the temperature. For the same reaof sufficient size and fineness cannot son, the wet sponge mask enables the be got of the required shape, the

mask face to support the heat of an intense may be made of several pieces joined fire, to which some professions are extogether ; and even a sponge of infe- posed, gilders upon metal, lookingTot quality may be covered on the glass manufacturers, goldsmiths, baro

or

meter-makers, glass-blowers, assayers, head, they are easily fitted quite tight metal-custers, enamellers, &c. &c. around the orbits. Water will serve

For water we may substitute a so in most cases to wet these sponge lution of salt of tartar, in the propor- frames, but sometimes it may be tion of one ounce of the salt to eight slightly acidulated alkalized. of water, to neutralize most of the acid Sponge moistened spectacles would, vapours or gases which affect the therefore, be of great service to nightmanufacturers of nitrous acid, aqua men employed in cleaning soil-pits, fortis, muriatic and oxymuriatic acid, manufacturers of acid, and in ral bleachers, chemists, engravers, &c. &c. all workmen exposed to irritating van

Water acidulated with vinegar, a pours and great heat. mineral acid, or even oxymuriatic acid, The real advantages to be obtained may be used to counteract the mias- from the methods here proposed, can ma to which physicians are exposed only be ascertained by long experience; in visiting infected places, anatomists but the following experiments made in performing juridical dissections, by Dr Gosse prove, that they are enand gravediggers, or those employ- titled to some confidence, and deserve ed to bury the dead in times of pes- the attention of those to whose protilence.

fessions they are adapted. A solution of sugar of lead in the With a sponge mask soaked in proportion of one ounce and a half water, Dr Ĝosse stood beside the to two pints of rain water, may be workman in a hatmaker's while enused when the workman is exposed to gaged in the process of bowing sulphureous or ammoniacal vapours, the hair. The dust, which is very as they are speedily decomposed by irritating, and contains dried blood the saturnine solution. Accidents and nitrate of mercury,

rose in from this cause are not very common in such quantity, that a person could this country, but several men perish- scarcely be distinguished at eight ed at Leadhills from inhaling sulphu- paces distance. The workman, alretted hydrogen gas on the 1st March though exposed to a current of air, 1817. In Paris, however, it is a very coughed a great deal, could not speak, frequent cause of accidents to the and suffered from a headach, which men employed in emptying the soil- obliged him to interrupt his occupapits.

tion from time to time. In faet, the The exposure to carbonic acid gas bowers are subject to various nervous for a short time may be rendered less and pulmonary disorders, and all die dangerous by wearing the mask soak- young. But Dr Gosse remained two ed in lime-water.

hours in this place without any inconMany vapours have a local effect on venience; wishing, however, to take the eyes, which is the more trouble- off the mask for a little, he was seized some, that the light then becomes a with catarrh and sore throat, which new source of irritation. It is, there- lasted till next day. The outside of fore, not wonderful to see in some the mask got covered with a thick manufactories incurable ophthalmias, coating of dust and hair, which was weakness of sight, and blindness, à easily removed. This experiment was frequent consequence. The means often repeated in workshops where the hitherto employed to prevent these, far air was loaded with injurious dust, from being of use, rather aggravate and always with the same results. the evil, and incommode the vision. Dr Gosse also exposed himself, It is impossible to make spectacle- guarded by the wet sponge, to the vaframes to fit closely around the eye, pour of mercury, raised by heating and if they be guarded with any kind four ounces in a crucible. To asof cloth, the heat of the confined air certain whether the mercury, penebecomes insupportable, and the glasses trated the mask, he lined it with goldsoon grow dim. The sponge furnishes leaf. In ten minutes an ounce and a us with a valuable means of obviating half of mercury were evaporated. Dr these inconveniences. By cutting oval Gosse's hair and the sponge were rings of it, it serves for the frame, covered with a grey powder, which, upon the fore part of which the glasses on being washed, collected into meare to be fixed by pitch, or some tallic globules. His respiration was other cement, insoluble in water, and not affected, and the gold was not tarhy means of ribbons tied around the nished, except in one spot exposed by

mistake. The experiment was repeat- cident, he felt a slight giddiness, and he ed with perfect success.

attempted to cry for help and reach the The sponge mask and sponge ladder, but he fell back suffocated. He mounted spectacles also succeeded in was immediately drawn up, and repreventing any bad effects from the covered his senses when he got to the vapour of burning sulphur. Six open air. The accident which occura ounces of bruised sulphur were thrown red in this last experiment was entireupon a brazier in a close apartment. ly owing to the displacing of the The fumes were very abundant, and mask, and is rather a confirmation of nobody could enter the room without its efficacy, especially in cases where the risk of being suffocated. But it is not necessary to remain long in guarded by the sponge, wet with a such pits. It is on this account that solution of alkali, Dr Gosse remained Dr Gosse particularly recommends the exposed to the fumes for half an hour use of his inasks to those who descend without inconvenience.

into foul air to attempt to save others In 1816, one of the inspectors of who are already overcome by it. health of the city of Paris invited Dr From my own experience I can tesGosse to make a trial of the efficacy of tify that these masks can be worn his sponge mask and spectacles. The without any inconvenience; and I soil-pit was in a bad state, or plombée, would have no hesitation to expose as it is called by the French. Fire myself, when protected by one of had been employed to expel the car- them, to the most noxious fumes. I bonic acid gas. Two workmen who had therefore feel a pleasure in making gone down successively felt the presence known in this country of manufacof the mephitism, and could scarcely tures, in which Sir H. Davy's life-preremain three minutes. They cough- server has proved of such inestimable ed, had difficulty of breathing, and value, the discovery of an ingenious their eyes were much irritated. Dr foreigner, which will be found also Gosse descended after them into the an efficacious life-preserver in dangers pit, with the sponge soaked in a solus of a different kind. tion of sugar of lead, and his ears stop

ALIENUS. ped with a little moist cotton, and al Edinburgh, Sept. 1817. though he stirred up the soil with a shovel, he remained a quarter of an hour without inconvenience, or have EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM COUNT ing his breathing affected. The smell

MONTLOZIER, AUTHOR of the sulphuretted hydrogen gas was

OF AUVERGNE, ON destroyed, and his eyes even were not

BOURHOOD OF EDINBURGH. affected either by it or the ammoniacal vapours. Hé made a second trial It is only since I visited Edinburgh of his apparatus in another soil-pit, that I have been able to form a true which the workmen had been obliged conception of the nature of the mounto desert the evening before, notwith- tain rock I had so often heard of unstanding fires were constantly kept up. der the name Whinstone, and to which The morning that Dr Gosse made his the denomination Greenstone has been experiment in it, three workmen had in my opinion improperly applied. It been drawn out of it with ropes in a differs from greenstone in formation, state of commencing asphyxia. He greenstone being entirely primitive, descended without taking the precau

whereas whinstone is of a secondary tion of putting cotton in his ears; and formation : Further, it associates with to identify his situation as much as limestone, coal, and sandstone, minepossible with that of the workmen, herals with which greenstone is not contried to work himself. But the la- nected. Calcareous spar, too, forms bour, to which he was not accus an ingredient of whinstone, but not tomed, united to the keenness with of greenstone ; and, lastly, greenstone which he performed it, and the heat is scratched with difficulty with the of the place, caused a good deal of suf- knife, but whinstone easily. The fering, and he was obliged to rest two whinstone of Scotland appears to be a or three times. He had been in a Neptunian production. It does not ocquarter of an hour, when, in stooping, cur in the volcanic regions of Auvergne, bis mask came off, and he could not in the Vivrais, in Italy, nor, in genereplace it exactly. Soon after the age ral, in Germany, but it has a resem

VOL. I.

OF THE
MINERALOGY
THE MINERALOGY OF THE NEIGH

« 上一页继续 »