pore; valeat et mecum esse possit. Homo passages, which seem clearly to prove sanctissime, vale.At another place, that Breton, or Armorican lais, were on occasion of the death of a grandson not only well known, but held in high of Fronto, he writes : “ Cum autem in estimation at an early period of French singulis articulorum tuorum doloribus and English literature. They are torqueri soleam, mi magister quid chiefly mentioned by the Norman and opinaris me pati, cum animum doles ; Anglo-Norman authors, in conse nihil conturbato mihi aliud in mentem quence of the dependence in which renit, quam rogare te ut conserves mi- Britany was placed upon Normandy, ki dulcissimum magistrum in quo plura by the treaty with Charles the Simple. solatia vitæ hujus habeo.It would not M. Raynouard, however, considers it appear as if Fronto had gained this as a problem still remaining to be favour by any unworthy subserviency; solved, why, of all these Breton lais, for many of his letters to Antoninus and other poems, not one is now in Pius are in behalf of a friend, Niger existence, while, in England, there Censorius, who had lost the favour of have been preserved so many specithat prince; and in one of them he mens of the Gallic poets who wrote or says, with spirit and elegance, Haud sung at the same time with those of sciam an qui (for quis or aliquis ) din Armorica. cat debuisse me amicitiam cum eo desinere, postquam cognoveram gra- Letters of Wieland to his Friends, tiam ejus apud animum tuum imminutam : nunquam ita animatus fui, im.

from 1751 to 1810. By M. Vanperator, ut cæptas in rebus prosperis

DEKBOURG. (Ibid.) amicitias, si quid adversi increpuisset, These letters are addressed chiefly desererem ... Quem tu minus amabis, to Bodmer, Zimmerman, Gleim, Jamiserum potius quam hostem judica- cobi, and Gessner of Zurich, (not the bo."

poet,) who had married Wieland's There are also fourteen epistles of daughter. They do not throw so much Lucius Verus, and twelve to Marcus light as might have been expected upon Aurelius on the oratorical art. The the literary history of the age, but refragments of orations now discovered late chiefly to the private concerns and are too slight to give us any idea of opinions of the author. They are, in the eloquence of Fronto. All his this view, however, very interesting ; other pieces likewise, including some and M. Vanderbourg takes occasion written in Greek, are of little import- from them to draw a picture of the ance. These letters prove that Fronto life, character, and opinions of a man was an African, and born at Cirta, as who held for so long a time the most Bayle had conjectured, contrary to the conspicuous place in German literacommon opinion, which made him a ture. native of Aquitania.

Wieland was born at Biberach, a

city of Swabia, rather of poor parents. On the Works of the Bards of Armo- He received, however, a good educa

rican Britany during the middle tion, and soon displayed premature Ages. By M. RAYNOUARD. (Ibid.) genius. At the age of fourteen, the

perusal of Bayle, Fontenelle, Voltaire, In this article M. Raynouard ana and D'Argens, shook his religious faith, lyzes a work on the above subject by and he even began to doubt the exista M. de la Rue of Caen. The object of ence of the Deity. The Theodicée that writer is to prove the existence of Leibnitz, on which he accidente of the Breton bards, which had ap- ally lighted, induced a revolution in peared doubtful, from no remains of his sentiments, which was complettheir works being in existence. He ed by a mystical and platonic love conceives them to have been the suc which he conceived for a female coucessors of the Gallic bards, and to sin, Sophia, afterwards Madame la have created the machinery of fairies, Roche, who, though married to an

giants, enchanters, &c. which act só other, remained his best friend through • conspicuous a part in the romances of life. At this time he entered into a

chivalry. These propositions M. Ray- correspondence with Bodmer, author nouard considers as still remaining to of Noah and other poems, the subject of be proved. He quotes, however, from which is drawn from the Sacred ScripDe la Rue, and adds himself, many tures. Bodmer enjoyed then a high


reputation in Germany, and was wor other pieces in the same free and shipped by Wieland with all the showy style. In 1766, he married. warmth of a young enthusiast. His After having adored three young lasentiments at this time must appear dies successively as goddesses, he striking to those who knew what they united himself to a plain mortal, who afterwards became. He preferred Vir- had never read one of his works, but gil to Homer, Klopstock to Milton ; who proved herself an affectionate, he could find no words adequate tó prudent, and excellent wife. In her express his admiration of Young; he society he forgot all his mystic transspoke with contempt and abhorrence ports, and dreams of romantic bliss ; of Boccacio, La Fontaine, Crebillon he became the father of a numerous the

younger, and of all free-thinkers; family, to whom he performed faithyet he himself was one day to write fully all the parental duties. tales as licentious as those of the au In 1769, Wieland was called to the thors mentioned, and to carry the office of first professor of philosophy in freedom of his religious opinions to the University of Erfurt. In 1772, the utmost height.

he was invited by the Duchess of About 1756, Wieland became ac Weimar to superintend the education quainted, and soon after intimate, with of her son, Charles Augustus, the Zimmerman, a man of the world, and reigning Duke. A service of three tinctured with French philosophy. Une years secured to him a pension for life. der his auspices, a rapid change took The German Mercury, which he set place in his sentiments, of which the on foot, augmented his wealth, and he letters enable M. Vanderbourg to trace began to draw considerable profit from the progress. It begins to appear in his works. He spent the rest of his March 1758, when he professes him- days in easy circumstances, and was self to be only a moderate platonist. even able to purchase a small properTwo months after, he abjures Young, ty, called Osmanstædt, near Weimar. thinks him enough to turn the head The character of Wieland, as exhiand to corrupt the taste of young per- bited in his letters, is thus drawn by

November, he criticises se M. Vanderbourg.“ The letters of verely the Messiah, which he had Wieland paint him as much happier ranked above all modern epics. Fe- in the second, than in the first half of bruary 1759, he admires Diderot, his life; we must except, however, D'Alembert, and the other Encyclo- the two or three years of his youthful pædists. Lastly, in April, the con illusions and early love; and he himsummation arrives; he considers Bod- self speaks afterwards of these as being mer as having become a poet in spite only a delightful dream. As long as he of nature, and as possessing scarcely lived in tliat solitude so dear to enthuany merit but that of good intention. siasts, we remark in him an extreme He concludes with declaring that he sensibility, which degenerates even will no longer show himself the Bod- into irritability. Friendship, with merian and fanatic, but will appear to him, is a passion almost as exalted as the world in his true colours.

love, and equally liable to storms. Wieland had hitherto procured a The friend to whom he writes is alprecarious livelihood by teaching, and ways an incomparable man ; his soul by the slender profits of his writings; always the most beautiful, his talent but he now obtained a profitable ap- the most perfect, that ever existed. pointment in the little republic of Zimmerman, Gleim, Jacobi, by turns, his birth. This brought him, for the present the standard of ideal excelfirst time, into practical contact with lence in morals and poetry; but the men ; and, besides his avocations in more he expects from his friends, the the town, he paid frequent visits to more he is irritated, when he thinks the château of Count Stadion. Our they fail in their duty to him ; yet he author, cameleon-like, took always is soon appeased. Distrust of himthe colour of the last food on which self was a prominent feature at an early he fed. He now assumed quite period of his life, though it did not the character of a gay man of the exclude that vanity with which poets world, though he never fully acquired are generally reproached. There its tone. The fruits of this new turn are moments,' said he one day, 'when of mind were Agathon, Musarion, the I doubt whether I am a man of genius, Comic Tales, the New Amadis, and or a contemptible writer.' That viva



city of imagination which is so apt to licly exhibited the whole interior of infiate and depress by turns, is usual- his house and garden illuminated with ly accompanied by levity; nor was carburetted hydrogen gas, conducted Wieland exempt from this fault; we by tubes from the great reservoir to see him neglect for years, and even the lamps. He established a similar wholly forget, men to whom he had apparatus in the Theatre de Louvois, said a hundred times, that his happi- where M. Biot recollects having seen ness depended in passing his life with the flame, which was perfectly white, thein.

very calın, and of such brilliancy, that

the eye could scarcely support it. Mr Stewart's Outlines of Moral Phie Lebon, however, did not derive any losophy. By M. Cousin. (Ibid.)

profit from his invention, so that his

example was not followed, and the M. Cousin begins with giving a ra- thing was soon forgotten. It is only pid sketch of the progress of moral in England that it has been establishand intellectual philosophy among the ed advantageously, and on a great moderns, from Descartes and Leib- scale; and from England it is now nitz to Reid. He then proceeds as proposed to introduce it into France.

A commission has been named by the Among the successors of Reid, Prefect of the Seine, to inquire into Mr Dugald Stewart is one of those the propriety of its adoption. M. who have done most honour to the Biot conceives, that it cannot be eliScottish school, and is indisputably gible for private use, on account of the the individual who has deserved best great expence of the apparatus even of psychology, in his Philosophical Es- on the smallest scale; but wherever says, where he has so well combated a number of lights are required, the Locke and his disciples, and in his saving will be great; and when the admirable work on the Philosophy of arrangements are properly made, there the Human Mind, where, after hav can be no doubt of the beauty and ining attempted the analysis of many tensity of the light, of its equability, important faculties, which Reid had and the absence of all smell. In an too much neglected, he concludes establishment of four hundred lamps, with establishing the new logic which the expence of lighting by gas will be the labours of the Edinburgh school about a third of that by oil. The folwere gradually preparing. But it is lowing is an estimate made by a friend chiefly in morals that Mr Stewart has of M. Biot, of the expence of such an happily filled up the blanks which establishment, where the original mahad been left by Reid, Smith, and chinery had cost 25,000 francs. Ferguson. Guided by the examples

Interest on the capital, 1500 francs. of his predecessors, rich in that mul

Coal used,

3000 titude of observations which had been brought forward on all sides by the Keeping up and working method of the Scottish school, among

the machinery, 1520 men to whom the talent of observing

Annual expence,

6020 cannot be denied, Mr Stewart has composed a work which, comprising then all

, ingeniously and methodical 6000 lbs. tar (goudron) ly distributed in a comprehensive sys- Ammoniacal liquor,

at 30 fr. per 100, 1800

200 tem, may be considered as the most

5000 lbs. coak, at 26 fr, 1300 perfect work on morals which has yet appeared in England."


M. Cousin then continues through
several numbers an analysis of Mr
Stewart's system of morals.

Expence of lighting 400

On Lighting with Gas. By M. B10t.

On Lithography, or Printing from

Stone. "By M. QUATREMERE DE M. Bior says, that, in 1799, the engineer Lebon 'first conceived the

Quincy, (Ibid.) idea of this application of gas. He car This art, which is only beginning ried it into practice at Paris, and puba to be known in Britain, was invent

ed, and has been carried to great per 3. Steyermark

800,093 fection, in Germany. Aloys Senne 4. Carinthia

161,550 selder, a singer in the theatre of Mu, 5. Bohemia

3,137,495 nich, was the first who observed the 6. Noravia and Silesia 1,709,403 property possessed by calcareous stones 7. Galicia

3,309,813 of retaining lines made by a thick 8. Hungary

7,450,000 ink, and of transmitting them in all 9. Sclavonia

496,000 their purity to paper, applied with a 10. Part of Croatia

333,000 strong pressure to the surface of the 11. Transylvania

1,645,121 stone. He observed besides, that the same effect may be repeated by mois

Reconquered Provinces. 12. Circle of Villach

118,217 tening the stone, and applying to the sanse lines a new dose of printing 14. Austrian Friuli

13. Carniola


121,103 black. In 1800, he obtained from

15. Trieste and Istria 120,156 the King of Bavaria an exclusive pri

16. Cracou

22,617 vilege for the use of his


during the space of thirteen years; and, 18. Dalmatia with Cattaro

17. Rest of Croatia

457,779 in concert with the Baron d’Aretin, 19. Venice to the Etsch

299,412 he formed at Munich a lithographic 20. Milan, with Mantua

1,762,622 establishment, where music, and col

1,337,610 lections of models of different kinds, Restored Provinces. are still engraved.

21. Tyrol

620,854 This invention has made few pro- 22. Vorarlberg

79,487 selytes in Paris, and would perhaps 23. Innviertel

125,549 be still unknown there, but for the 24. Part of the Hausruckviefforts of M, Engelmann. It would ertel

95,061 be too tedious to describe the whole 25. Saltzburg

170,818 process, but the following are the 26. Berchtolsgaden

10,680 principles on which it depends : 1. A line traced with a crayon, or a

Provinces now first added.

27. The rest of Venice thick ink, upon stone, adheres so

760,378 28. Ragusa

58,000 strongly, that mechanical means are necessary in order to efface it. 2. All the parts of the stone not Patrimony of the Second

27,151,176 covered with this substance receive,

Son. preserve, and absorb water. 3. If, over the stone thus prepared,

1,140,536 there be passed an oily and coloured

Austrian Este. substance, it will attach itself to the Modena, Massa, Carrara, lines drawn by the ink or crayons,

and Garfagnana

368,364 and will be repelled by the moisiened parts.

28,660,076 In a word, the lithographic process depends on this, that a stone moisten- Number of Students in the Austrian Heed with water repels ink, while the

reditary Dominions, same stone, covered with an oily sub

Pub. Priv. Tot. stance, repels water, and absorbs ink. Austria under the Ens 1223 114 1337 Thus, when a sheet of

Austria above the Ens



pressed upon the stone, the greasy


17 683 Carinthia


282 coloured lines will be transferred to


3995 112 4107 it, and will present a copy of the de- Moravia aud Silesia 2332198 2530 sign drawn upon the stone.








10,457 484 10,941 (Erneuerte vaterlandische Blatter für den osterriechischen Kaiserstaat.) *

Of which there are in

898 103 1001 Population of the Empire, according Prague

1119 25 1144 to the Treaty of Paris. Central Provinces. | Population. * This was transmitted, by the Arch 1. Austria under the Ens 1,088,115 duke John, to Dr Duncan, Junior, as the 2. Austria above the Ens 433,247 best periodical work published at Vienna.



His heart was wedded w his glen, Suggested by a Tragical Event which lately And home the word that pleased him then,

And those he left behind. occurred in a Highland Glen.

In dreams he walked these scenes among, 'Twas noon--and not a cloud let fall

Or joineil his Mary's evening song ; A shadow on the mountains tall

Or in his pinnace skimmed along That yon sweet lake embay ;

The breast of the glassy lake. And not a wandering breath of air

Then her lovely form would beckon him o'er, Wrinkled its placid forehead fair ;

And as the light keel struck the shore, But like an evening sky unrolled,

He sprang to her arms, and she melts away Or a broad plate of burnished gold,

Like a shadow touched by the finger of day The sparkling mirror lay ;

He starts, and weeps awake! And all its lonely margin round,

Now feels he, like a burning thirst

The love of home ; in every thought, No sight of living thing, or sound, The gazer turned away,

In every prayer, that word is first; Prom where, within its bosom bright,

It seemed to parch his tongue with The heavens reposed in diamond light,

droughtAnd mimic banks of freshest green,

Home, home was raging in his brain, And cak-clad hills abrupt were seen,

And swelled his very throat with pain. laviting still the unsated gaze, Like fancy's dreams of future days,

Returned, he scarcely knew the spot ! And as sincere as they !

'Twas not the image in his mind :

He comes a stranger, half forgot Amid the deep light slumbering,

By the dear friends he left behind : A bark has spread its idle wing,

He almost weeps to see the change But sleeps as motionless and still

That time has on his playmates wrought;

Their looks, their very souls are strange, As snow wreath on a frozen rill. It seems a self-suspended thing

And truth a mocking vision seems Between the heavens that laugh above,

To the fond exile, when he sought
And the fairy world and downward sky,

The substance of his foreign dreams.
That fair beneath it seem to lie,
In smiles of answering love.

But to thy father's home repair,
Though thou art changed, no change is

there : Why dips not the rower his slender oar,

That reverend face is still the same,
Nor longer wait the breeze?
His friends expect him on the shore,

And her's that to her bosom prest
All gaily convened at his cottage door,

Thee parting, ere she sob thy name, Embowered ’mong yonder trees.

Or weep upon thy thrilling breast, The pipe has waked its briskest note,

Gives back the picture worshipped many And o'er the green the dancers float;

a day, The mountain nymph, with broach of gold, Which filial love had fashioned far away. And sash with many a silken fold, Trips by her swain so true and bold,

“ But Mary !"-Scarce the word is said, All in their best array ;

When, bounding like a hunted fawn, For young and old are banded there,

He sees his own, his chosen maid,

In loveliness undreamed arrayed,
The spousal feast, and glee to share,
Of Angus' bridal day.

Spring breathless o'er the lawn.
His mother's heart is light and glad,
And his little sister wild with joy,

Sweet Mary! ne'er a truer heart
And his father blesses his wandering boy,

Beat in a warmer breast than thine,

And since the hour that bade you part, Dear to his heart when far away, And boasts of his favourite lad.

And sent thee back alone to pine,

This earth so fair, these heavens so bright, For Angus has a traveller been,

Seemed a foul dungeon void of light. And many a tedious year has spent, Slow creep the moments clogged with woe, And looked on many a foreign land, When expectation dims the eye, Since he bedewed his native green

And sickens at the heart; the snow With salt tears as he went.

Descending through a frozen sky, But still where'er he roamed, this strand Falls not more chill upon the breast Was pictured in his mind;

Than those dark days of joyless rest. The richest climes had nought for him ; Poor lone forsaken thing! I see The regions of the sun were dim; Thy light form glide by fount or tree,

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