Engraving on wood isin all probabili. Savage have shown the very extensive ty of a much earlier origin than either uses to which it may be applied. By printing or copperplate engraving. increasing the number of blocks, he According to Heinekin, it was first has been able to give representations, practised by the makers of playing in colours, of the works of some of cards, and subsequently applied to the best artists in London, in a manthe purpose of representing figures ner so exquisitely beautiful and acof Saints, or subjects taken from curate, as to dety ordinary observation Scripture history, which, at that to discover the copy from the original. early period, were in request among The exact similarity of one impresthe pious who could not read. The sion with another, is also a circumcards seem to have consisted of only stance of the greatest consequence ; an outline printed from the wood, for, by the ordinary methods of printthe proper colours being afterwards ing in colours from copperplates, the filled in by the hand. The figures difficulty (it might be said impossiof the saints, &c. of which the Poor bility) to attain this uniformity is well Man's Bible is one of the most cele- known. brated examples, were executed in a The description of the process &style little superior to the knave and dopted by Mr Savage is very simple. the other figures on the modern cards, Upon a piece of smooth boxwood, the having a few lines of hatching, and first tint is sketched out. That part commonly a verse of poetry illustra- of the wood which is not marked with tive of the subject also cut in the the tint, is then cut away with the block. In these we find the origin of common instruments used by engravletter-press printing.

ers on wood; when that is done, only The historical compositions of Al- the part of the wood from which the bert Durer and Lucas van Leyden tint is to be taken remains. A proof is form a new era in the art, and to the then thrown off by a printing-press, present time, their bold drawing, truth and if the subject be a landscape, the of expression, and painter-like feeling first tint will be a light grey. The of their subject, stand unrivalled. second tint is then drawn, and is The greater delicacy and smoothness carefully transferred to another block of the works of modern artists in this of wood, and the part of the wood department cannot be denied, but not marked cut away as formerthey must yield to Albert Durer in ly. An impression from this block variety, richness, and freedom of is made upon the same paper which touch. But however excellent were had received the first tint. Two tints the works of those artists, they only of the landscape are thus produced, consisted of imitations of hatched and the remaining tints are supplied drawings in Indian ink, without any in the same manner successively by attempt at the representation of co- separate blocks, till the complete eflouring. Engraving in chiaro was fect is obtained. Several excellent probably invented by Mair about specimens of landscapes by Mr Sa1490. His works consist of two dis- vage, in colours, sepia, and Indian ink, tinct tints of shadow thrown off by are in the possession of Mr John two separate blocks, with the outline Ruthven of this place, a gentleman etched on copper ; these were exe- well known for his new and improvcuted with great neatness and deli- ed printing-press. These afford excacy. Soon after, the early Italian art- anples of what may be expected from ists, Ugo da Carpi, Andrea Andreani, Mr Savage's publication of landscapes &c. executed many works which pos- from the pictures of the best artists in sess great boldness of effect, but with- London, which is now, I believe, out ihe neatness and delicacy so re- nearly ready, and cannot fail to be a markable in the works of Mair. They very interesting work. consist generally of the outline, and The advantages resulting from this of three separate tints of shadow, method of copying pictures or draweach printed by a separate block of ings must, upon a little consideration, wood, shaped or engraved of the form required. Although this method has

* We understand that no press is so been occasionally practised, down to well adapted for this purpose as that lately the present period, by Zanetti, Jack- invented by Mr John Ruthven of this son, Pond, and others, it received no place, and which is the one used by Mr; improvement till the discoveries of Mr Savage.

be obvious to every one.

The certains Alice Whitworth, a married woman, ty with which it is done, the durabi- aged 22, residing near Oldham, on the lity of the colours, (being mixed up 21st February 1815, consulted Mr with oil,) and the moderate expence Wood, on a case of severe pains shootcompared with that incurred in any ing through the right side of her head. other means of colouring hitherto dis- She was relieved by an opiate liniment; covered, are among the most re- but on the 24th was affected by a viomarkable. When we consider the in- lent agitation of the muscles, which adequacy of language to convey almost was succeeded by involuntary motions any idea of colours, more particularly of the right leg and arın, accompanied of those employed in pictures, the value by beating with her feet. These moveof this discovery must be duly appre- ments continued for three hours, afciated. It is in vain to treat of the ter which she became easier, and passubject of colouring without the aid sed a quiet night. On the 26th, the of examples to refer to; and artists affection returned, and continued who have it not in their power to ex- through the day for two hours at amine the paintings of the great mas- a time, with intervals of an hour. ters, feel the want of a work of the On the 26th, the symptoms became kind. It has also been adopted, with more violent ; 'she flew into every complete success, in works on Bota- corner of the room, striking violently ny, Natural History, &c.

with her hand the furniture and I shall conclude these observations, doors, the sound of which appeared to with expressing a hope that Mr Sa- afford her great satisfaction. On the vage, as soon as his leisure permits, 27th, the violence of the symptoms will give to the world a set of engrav- still increased, and we shall now deings from the works of the best colour- scribe them in Mr Wood's own words. ists amongst the ancient masters, am- She now struck the furniture ple materials for which are to be found more violently and more repeatedly. in London. The engravers on wood, Kneeling on one knee, with the hands of the present day, possess abilities upon the back, she often sprung up capable of accomplishing the work in suddenly and struck the top of the a style of excellence which would be room with the palm of the hand. To completely satisfactory.

L. do this, she rose fifteen inches from Edinburgh, 4th Sept. 1817. the floor, so that the family were un

der the necessity of drawing all the nails and hooks from the ceiling. She frequently danced upon one leg, hold

ing the other with the hand, and ocMR EDITOR,

casionally changing the legs. In the In the seventh volume of the Trans- evening, the family observed the actions of the Medico-Chirurgical So- blows upon the furniture to be more ciety of London, there is a communi- continuous, and to assume the regucation by Mr Kinder Wood, Surgeon, lar time and measure of a musical air. respecting a malady of so peculiar a As a strain or series of strokes was nature, that a short abstract of its concluded, she ended with a more symptoms may be as interesting to violent stroke or a more violent spring the common as to the medical reader.

or jump. Several of her friends also It is considered as a very peculiar at this time noticed the regular meaform of the malady called Chorea sure of the strokes, and the greater Sancti Viti, or St Vitus's Dance. It regularity the disease was assuming; appears to me that it may more pro- the motions being evidently affected, perly be considered as a form of Ta- or in some measure modified, by the rantism, or of that peculiar disease sup- strokes upon the surrounding bodies. posed to be produced by the bite of She chiefly struck a small slender the Tarantula. To the same class door ; the top of a chest of drawers; probably belongs the louping (leap- the clock; à table ; or a wooden ing) disease, to which the inhabitants skreen placed near the door. The afof the county of Forfar are liable. fection ceased about nine o'clock, The phenomena of that malady are when the patient went to bed. very curious, and would deserve more “ February 28. She arose very elucidation than they have yet obtain- well at eight. At half-past nine the ed from medical observers.

motions recommenced ; they





now of a more pleasant nature; the 'motions again reappeared, when the involuntary actions, instead of pos- drum and tife began to play the air, to sessing their former irregularity and which she had danced before, viz. the violence, being changed into a mea- · Protestant Boys,' a favourite popusured step over the room, connected lar air in this neighbourhood. In whatwith an air, or series of strokes ; and ever part of the room she happened she beat upon the adjacent bodies as to be, she immediately turned and she passed them. In the commence- danced up to the drum, and as close ment of the attack, the lips moved as as possible to it, and there she danif words were articulated, but no ced till she missed the step, when the sound could be distinguished at this involuntary motions instantly ceased. period. It was curious, indeed, to The first time, she missed the step in observe the patient at this time, mov- five minutes ; but again rose, and ing around the room with all the vi- danced to the drum two minutes and Facity of the country dance, or the a half by her father's watch, when, graver step of the minuet; the arms missing the step, the motions instanta frequently carried, not merely with ly ceased. She rose a third time, and ease, but with elegance. Occasionally, missing the step in half a minute, the all the steps were so directed, as to motions instantly ceased. After this, place the foot constantly where the the drum and fife commenced as the stone flags joined to form the floor, involuntary actions were coming on, particularly when she looked down- and before she rose from her seat; wards. When she looked upwards, and four times they completely checkthere was an irresistible impulse to ed the progress of the attack, so that spring up to touch little spots or holes she did not rise upon the floor to in the top of the ceiling ; when she dance. At this period, the affection looked around, she had a similar pro- ceased for the evening. pensity to dart the forefinger into lit- « March 1. She arose very well tle holes in the furniture, &c. One at half-past seven. Upon my visit hole in the wooden skreen received this morning, the circumstances of the point of the forefinger many hun- the preceding afternoon being stated, dred times, which was suddenly and it appeared clear to me that the atinvoluntarily darted into it with an tacks had been shortened. amazing rapidity and precision. There “ As I wished to see the effect of was one particular part of the wall to the instrument over the disease, I which she frequently danced, and was sent for at noon, when I found there placing herself with the back to her dancing to the drum, which she it, stood two or three minutes. This continued to do for half an hour withby the family was called the mea- out missing the step, owing to the suring place.'

slowness of the movement. As I sat “ In the afternoon the motions re- counting the pulse, which I found to turned, and proceeded much as in the be 120, in the short interval of an atmorning. At this time a person pre- tack, I noticed motions of the lips, sent, surprised with the manner in previous to the commencement of the which she beat upon the doors, &c. dance, and, placing my ear near the and thinking he recognised the air, mouth, I distinguished a tune. Afwithout further ceremony began to ter the attack, of which this was the sing the tune; the moment this beginning, she informed me, in anstruck her ears, she turned suddenly swer to my inquiry, that there always to the man, and dancing directly up was a tune dwelling upon her mind, to him, continued doing so till he was which at times becoming more presout of breath. The man now ceased sing, irresistibly impelled her to coma short time, when, commencing again, mence the involuntary motions. The he continued till the attack stopped. motion ceased at four o'clock. The night before this, her father had At half-past seven the motions mentioned his wish to procure a drum, commenced again, when I was sent for. associating this dance of his daughter There were two drummers present, with some ideas of luusic. The avi- and an unbraced drum was beaten till dity with which she danced to the the other was braced. She danced tune when sung as above stated, con- regularly to the unbraced drum, but firmed this wish, and accordingly a the moment the other commenced she drum and fife were procured in the instantly ceased. As missing the evening. After two hours of rest, the time stopped the affections, wished

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the measure to be changed during the " This woman, previously to her
dance, which stopped the attack. It complaint, could never dance, even a
also ceased upon increasing the rapi- country dance; and yet I saw her ex-
dity of the beat, till she could no longó ecute steps which could not be taught
er keep time; and it was truly sur- without difficulty. At times she
prising to see the rapidity and violence would rise upon the toes, and move
of the muscular exertion, in order to forward, alternately advancing each
keep time with the increasing move- heel into the hollow of the opposite
ment of the instrument. Five times I foot ; at other times, poising the body
saw her sit down the same evening, upon one foot, with the heel raised,
at the instant that she was unable to she would beat time with the toe and
keep the measure; and in consequence heel of the other.
of this, I desired the drummers to “In this case there was no wan-
beat one continued roll, instead of a dering of the intellect, either during
regular movement. She arose and the paroxysm, or in its absence. The
danced five minutes, when both drums perception and judgment were accu-
beat a continued roll; the motons rate and just, and all questions were
instantly stopped, and the patient sat answered correctly. During the in-
down. "In a few minutes the motions termission, she did many household
commencing again, she was suffered affairs, nursed her child, '&c. &c. al-
to dance five minutes, when the drums though the troublesome curiosity of
again began to roll, the effect of which her numberless visitors undoubtedly
was instantaneous; the motions ceas disturbed her ease. There was a con-
ed, and the patient sat down. In a stant wish to recover, a just know-
few minutes the same was repeated ledge of her situation, and of the ad-
with the same effect. It appeared vantage she received from the agency
certain that the attacks could now be of the instrument, with an anxious
stopped in an instant, and I was de- desire to continue its use.
sirous of arresting them entirely, and “ This disease appears to have con-
breaking the chain of irregular asso- sisted in an highly irritable state of
ciations which constituted the disease. the mind, with which the organs of
As the motions at this period always voluntary motion became associated;
commenced in the fingers, and pro- and the cure was effected by inter-
pagated themselves along the upper rupting this irregular association. It
extremities to the trunk, I desired is probable, that the noise of the in-
the drummers, when the patient a- strument in a room scarcely six yards
rose to dance, to watch the commence- square, was very advantageous, by in-
ment of the attack, and roll the drums terrupting the chain of musical ideas,
before she arose from the chair. Six impressed upon the highly excited
times successively the patient was mind, and re-establishing the ordinas
hindered from rising, by attending to ry relation of the mental operations
the commencement of the attection; with external things. The voluntary
and before leaving the house, I desir- muscles also early associated them-
ed the family to attend to the com- selves with the instrument, as was
mencement of the attacks, and use shown by the instant cessation of their
the drum early.

unnatural actions, when the time
“ March 2. She arose at seven could no longer be kept.”
o'clock, and the motions commenced She continued free from any attack
at ten; she danced twice before the for six weeks, but, in April, began to
drummer was prepared, after which be affected with agitations in the mus-
she attempted to dance again four se- cles of the face, particularly the eyes
veral times ; but one roll of a well- and eyelids. She recovered, however ;
braced drum hindered the patient but in May was repeatedly seized with
from leaving her seat ; after which affections siinilar to those which oc-
the attacks did not recur. She was curred in the first attack. They were
left weakly and fatigued by the dis- always removed by the drum, which
ease, but with a good appetite. In she at length began to beat herself.
the evening of this day, an eruption After some repetition of attacks, she,
appeared, particularly about the el- on the 2d of August, recovered en-
bows, in diffused patches of a bright tirely, and has continued perfectly
red colour, which went off on the well ever since.

Edinburgh, Sept. 2, 1817.


third day.


France. By LADY Morgan. 2d edit. with which an English minister is said 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1817. lately to have threatened them, may they

boldly resent and timely oppose every effort This book appears to us to hold a

made by domestic oppression or foreign in. sort of intermediate rank between vasion, which may tend to bring 'them works of truth and fiction, and to be dis- back to that state in which they were detinguished by the more common

faults clared, by the law of the land, to be, * un of both, without possessing the attrac- a miséricorde !""

peuple sers, corvéable et taillable, à merci et tions of either. It is made up, for the most part, of incidents that are quite But it will be necessary, in the first trivial and uninteresting, -of anec- place, to notice the contents of this dotes often improbable, sometimes in- work generally, and then to submit a' credible, and which never gratify the few more extracts to justify the opinion expectation which the mention of the we have given of it. It is divided into names to which they relate is calcu- eight books, of which the first has the lated to excite, -of common-place re- title of“ Peasantry;" the two next that marks, to which the author attempts in of “ Society;" the fourth, fifth, and vain to give some interest, by an af- sixth, treat of “ Paris ;” the seventh fected lottiness of language ; and hasty of the “ French Theatre ;” and the generalizations founded on a few in- eighth of “ Eminent and Literary sulated facts, viewed through the me- Characters.” To these are subjoined dium of the most wilful and inex- an appendix by Sir Charles Morgan, cusable prejudice. The ennui with “ On the State of Law,-Finance, which we have been oppressed, in the Medicine,--and Political Opinion in perusal of these volumes, has some- France." times, indeed, been relieved by pages After a preface, in which nothing is of lively narrative, observations more so remarkable as the author's irritabijust than original, and interesting no- lity—and some just remarks on the optices of a few celebrated characters; pressed state of the peasantry under but it has far oftener been broken in the old regime, we are introduced to one upon by sentiments of disgust and in- of the most Utopian scenes which the dignation at the language which this imagination of the novelist has ever learned lady employs, when speaking attempted to pourtray. By means of the of the most important concerns of Revolution, the French peasantry have mankind,-their interests and duties, been rendered happy, and indepenreligious, moral, and political; and, dent, and enlightened ;-relieved from notwithstanding a clumsy apology, at the oppression of their superiors, and the utter want of nationality, and (lis- from the terrors of superstition, their regard of truth, which could dictate minds and manners have become highsuch sentences as the following. She ly refined; their domestic comforts apis speaking of the French peasantry. proach to the elegant enjoyments of

“ But that long-enduring race have now rank and fortune ;-and no other passed away ; their children are proprietors, painful emotions disturb their hours where they were vassals. The torture no of peaceful and contented industry, or longer exists, to feed a spirit of brutal fe- of gaiety and repose, save a universal rocity by its horrible exhibitions. Bigotry sentiment of aversion to the Bourbons, no longer presents them with idle forms for -of regret for the fall of Napoleon,real principles ; they have nothing to fear of contempt for the established relifrom the droit de chasse;' the corvée;"gion, and its ministers, and ceremothe taille,' the 'gabellé.' They have tasted a practical freedom, not less perhaps of their conquerors. Yet with

all this

nies,—with a deep-rooted abhorrence than that enjoyed by the people of England ; they are moral as the people of Scot to recommend the condition of a pealand; and, notwithstanding the recent ra. sant, this sensitive lady cannot refrain vages, they are more prosperous perhaps from commiserating the fate of those than either. Oh! may they long continue whom peace has withdrawn from 80; and in spite of that · scourge of fire,' plunder and bloodshed, and restored to



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