being dispersed over the whole coun eager to embark, and to participate. try, seemed at first to threaten the For a few years past, the prevailing dissolution of the local monopoly of fashion has been to consider it as a the manufacture around Glasgow. But trade rapidly declining, and so unthe improvement of Mr Watt upon prosperous, that few cautious and unthe steam-cngine fixed the locality involved capitalists would choose to more closely than ever to his native venture their property within its vorcity. Distance from the only market tex. Both opinions contain some where the produce of milis was in truth, mixed with a degree of exagdemand, and the expence of transport- geration bordering on romance. ing bulky commodities, absorbed more Experience has proved the cotton capital than steam-engines—waterfalls manutacture to be a trade capable of were soon disregarded; and the site great extension, and productive, with, of acotton-mill was, and is now, valued in due limits, of important national in proportion to its contiguity to the and individual wealth ; but the same market.

infallible guide has unequivocally de The manufacturers of yarn into monstrated that it may, and that it cloth have chiefly resided in Glasgow has been pushed too far; that it has and Paisley ; although these manu attracted more than its legitimate profacturers have, in prosperous times, portion of public attention, and that it employed operative weavers, resident has absorbed more than its merited in almost every county of Scotland, share both of capital and of industry. from Aberdeen to the Border.

Under unparalleled depression, thereThe spinning and weaving departe fore, it continues at the present moments of the cotton manufacture have ment not only to exist, but to be been generally conducted as distinct forced to an extent not much less branches of trade, although some few than it had attained, even in its more companies have combined both these prosperous and seductive periods. It operations. Besides these two great has ceased for a time to remunerate divisions, many subsidiary establish- the workman, or to be lucrative to his ments may now be considered as employer, merely because it has greatattached to, and almost exclusively ly overstepped the natural and sponforming branches of, the cotton ma taneous demand. nufacture. These are the works of The marketable prices have cerbleachers, dyers, printers, cloth-lap- tainly declined, in a degree unprecepers, &c.; and to these again are at- dented in any other manufacture of tached dry-salters, vitriol manufac- large extent, during an equal lapse turers, and many other practical che- of time; but the cost of production mists, whose preparations are used has also experienced a great, alin the various processes of the bleach- though certainly not an equivalent, ing, dyeing, and printing departments. declension. Much of the reduction of We may add machine-makers, loom cost is fairly to be ascribed to the imand shuttle-inakers, turners, and many provement of machinery, the division other mechanical tradesmen who are of labour, and the gradual increase of employed exclusively, or extensively, practical skill and dexterity ; but in forwarding the operations of the much has also been abstracted from cotton trade.

the profits of stock, and probably About thirty-two years have now more has been wrung from the wages elapsed since this manufacture began of labour. to excite general attention in Scot In the degree of depression, howland; and a period of equal dura- ever, the spinning and weaving detion, so eventful in political, commer- partments have been very differently cial, and manufacturing vicissitudes, affected, both in relation to manuhas never as yet occupied the page of facturers and operatives. The spinner history. In these vicissitudes, this may be said to have suffered little, traffic, from its rapid and unparalleled when his state is compared with that extension, has been deeply involved. of the weaver. The causes which

In its infant and early stages, the have produced this inequality are public opinion seemed to regard it as easily developed ; and some of them opening a new mine of unexplored are peculiarly interesting to the fue and inexhaustible wealth, in which ture prospects of the British manufacadventurers of all descriptions were turer, and of the country generally,

in so far as it is interested in the pro- least as much as those of the weavers, sperity of the cotton trade.

Yet, singular as the fact must appear, In order to erect and complete an a spinner can still earn 30s. per week, establishment for spinning, cotton- by fewer hours of labour than a weava yarn, upon a scale sufficiently exten- er can earn 10s. sive to obtain the reduction of labour The solution of this seeming parawhich is indispensably necessary, two dox is simple, although curious and considerable, or rather large capitals, important. The proprietors of cottonare required. The first is sunk in spinning manufactories found their buildings, machinery, and utensils; interest to lie in improving that mathe second is kept floating, in order to chinery which was their own propermeet the outlays for wages, purchase ty, and which was known to be susof raw materials, and contingent ex- ceptible of immense improvement. pences. Hence the competition is Hence they were enabled to reduce limited to those who are already af- their prices of labour, with very little fuent, or can command capital, and diminution of the actual wages of the who are willing to embark that capi- workman. tal in a manufacturing speculation, The tools, looms, or machinery, of from which, whether prosperous or the weaving department, abandoned not, they can seldom withdraw it with- by the manufacturer exclusively to out incurring great and certain loss. the workmen, have been very little

The weaving branch of the cotton improved. These proprietors, it must manufacture, on the contrary, has be obvious, have not time, nor ca. been at all times more accessible to pital, nor education, sufficient to fit persons of small or of no capital, than them for the intense anul unremitted perhaps any other manufacture what- study of economical improvement, ever. There are no buildings or ma- which would be necessary to reduce chinery to erect, and scarcely any tools prices without lessening wages. or implements to provide. Work The unfavourable contrast between shops are built or rented, and utensils the relative situations of the spinner are provided exclusively by the ope- and the weaver will naturally excite ratives themselves. From these faci- the inquiry,-Why has the latter lities of introduction, an immense branch been so prodigiously overnumber of small manufacturers con stocked ? In the earlier and more stantly enter into the competition, prosperous years of the cotton manuvery many of whom certainly neither facture, the mode of conducting it succeed, nor can long maintain the was such, as to render the situation of position into which they have thrust a weaver uncom

commonly alluring to the therselves. Still, however, succes- operative class of mankind. A weaver sors have been always found willing, was limited to no precise residence, in their turns, to try their fortunes, nor confined to the hours of a regular to hope for the best, and to encounter manufactory. He could generally the worst which can happen.

procure a loom and utensils, at least Although an influx of this kind partly, upon credit; and his propormust, of necessity, have greatly in- tion of a shop-rent rarely exceeded jured regular competitors possessing 12s. or 15s. annually. Whenever a capital, yet the constant demand for certain quantity of work was finished, yarn, which it has created and sup- he could carry it instantly to the ported, must, upon the whole, have warehouse, on any lawful day, and he greatly overbalanced, to the spinner, as instantly received payment, or a sum the losses to which it has subjected to account, frequently exceeding what him, by occasional bad debts. he had actually earned. Thus he was

The influence of this demand has sole and uncontrolled master of his constantly tended to raise the prices of own time, could make a holiday when yarn, even under very great depressions he chose, and repair his loss by workof the prices of cloth; and, upon the ing a few extra hours upon other ocwhole, the trade of spinning has al- casions. If active and frugal, he had most uniformly afforded profit, and it in his power, by working hard, to sometimes great profit. The prices of accumulate money ;-—if fond of recreayarn in the market have indeed sunk tion, he could indulge his propensity, almost inconceivably low, and the to a moderate degree, without serious wages of the operative spinners, rec- injury or inconvenience. Nor was koned by the quantity, have fallen at his labour of that fatiguing kind which

requires great strength, or produces subject of consideration at some fu. great exhaustion. Many descriptions ture period.

R. JAMIESON. of goods could be woven by boysof only eight or ten years of age. Hence poor

Section First. people, with large families, eagerly The poetical narratives of Ossian, crowded their children into a business compared with the histories of the by which they were able, in a very times which he has celebrated, shew few months, 'not only to maintain the great power of the northern men themselves, but to assist their parents at sea, and their warlike expeditions and relations. Masters were easily to the British Islands, even long befound willing, without any fee or fore the days of Fingal. " In other premium, to teach apprentices for a days,” said Carril, in the introduction moiety of their earnings ; and to bind to Swaran's Invasion of Ireland,“ came them only three, or, at the utmost, the sons of Ocean to Erin. A thoufour years; and many young men, 80 sand vessels bounded on waves to Ul. instructed, became independent in in- lin's lovely plains. The sons of Income, and their own masters, at the nisfail arose to meet the race of darkearly age of 15 or 16 years. The brown shields.” In several passages trade was long, indeed, very attractive, in the poems, mention is made of such especially in some species of fancy- invasions, both of Ireland and More work. šo late as 1800, the writer of ven, by the men of Lochlin or Scanthis article had occasion to see a legal dinavia, long before the times of the proof taken, by which it appeared, poet. Connal had often fought with that a weaver, by overlooking and them. 66 The fleet of Ocean comes. teaching six apprentices, had earned, Connal falls. His tomb is seen by on an average of six months, above the mariner from the waves of the L. 4, 12s. weekly for his moiety, and north." A hereditary feud between had in a few years amassed property the young Fingal and the Northern to the extent of upwards of L. 500. men seems to have continuerl, without These advantages will fully account interruption, till about the year 211, for that overstock of operatives, to as the bords, after Caracul's retreat, which the present depression is solely


“Our delight will be in the war attributable.

of the ocean ; our hands shall grow (To be concluded in our next.) red in the blood of Lochlin.” Men of

Scandinavian extraction had, long before this, made themselves masters of

a part of North Britain. MAGNUSEN, PROFESSOR, &c. &c. cestors of Dubh, or Duth Maruno,

had, as we see, for many years, posCOPENIAGEN, 1817.

sessed territories there. The ScandiMR EDITOR,

navian Culgorm, who is called king, The following is a translation, Aed thither from Ithorno, expelled by from the Danish, of a dissertation of his father, who was prince of the the learned Professor Magnusen of country, as Rolf, the conqueror, and Copenhagen. It is only an appendix the founder of the royal house of Norto a larger work by the same author, mandy, was driven out of Norway by in which his profound knowledge of Harald Haarfager. * Duthmaruno and the language and antiquities of his his successors are by the bard denonative country, (Iceland,) and of minated chiefs of Cromcharn, and Scandinavia, has enabled him to bring kings of Crathmocraulo. He himself forward many learned, ingenious, and adhered to the religion of his fathers. interesting illustrations of the poems ascribed to Ossian. The two reinaining sectious of the Treatise on the the founder of a race of powerful dukes and

The Norman Rollo, or Rolf, became Picts shall follow in the subsequent

kings. Einar, one of his brothers, was numbers of your Miscellany, if you prince of the Orkneys, a distinction which consider them as worthy of insertion.

was enjoyed by his descendants ; while an. The remarks on Ossian may be the other of his brothers, called Firollaug, died

a poor peasant in Iceland ;--so different Mr Magnusen is one of the most distin. were the fortunes, in those days, of Northguished of the Icelandic literati. Vide Sir ern men of the same rank and family, a, George Mackenzie's Travels, p. 318. mong their expatriated countrymen !



The an

In the war against Starno and Svaran, renowned as he was, is seldom menwhich is described in Cathloda, he was

tioned in Fingal's expeditions, he the chief leader of the Fingalians, pro seems to have been his ally, but not bably because, being of Norwegian his subject. As to the rest, Duthmadeseent, he was better acquainted with runo gave powerful assistance in the the country and its inhabitants. He conflict with the race of Morni, and is described as a warrior without fear, probably also was, in no small degree, a mighty hunter, and an adventurous instrumental in preserving to Fingal Seaman on Crum Thormoth's wave. the throne of his fathers ; Duthma

Concerning him and his forefathers, runo seems, therefore, to have been mentioned by Ossian as mighty cham- one of the most powerful princes of pions, his father Starnmor, and his the Caledonians in his day. son Ceandona, (i. e. head of the peo

Beside this celebrated northern faple,) the Scois still have many popu- mily, who had, as we see, so early eslar tales, although, according to Mac- tablished a dominion in Scotland, it pherson, the poems on which they are appears to me that there are traces founded are long since lost. Õuth- of many others to be met with in the maruno's territory was in the north of tales of Ossian. Scotland, over against the Orkney Is

In the bard's own time, the town lands, and consequently in the vici- of Balclutha, Alcluithe, or Alclyde, apnity of Caithness. As he, brave and pears to have been in the possession

of a people of Scandinavian origin, Thormod or Thormoth, a genuine old and to have been the capital of one of Scandic name, by which many brave men

their kingdoms in Britain. It lay a were designated, where it occurs in Ossian, little to the north of the wall of Ana must be understood to refer to Scandinavian toninus, on the east coast of Scotland. men, or places inhabited by them. The Bede says, that the name of the town, Gaelic Mod or Moth, according to Shaw, in the British language, signifies like the Icelandic Madr, or Mathr, signi- Clyde's Rock. The same denominafies “ a man.” The Welsh term Modwor, tion would, in old Norse, be Hallr a king, or ruler, probably had originally

Klydar. The name of the river the same meaning ; and Thormoth may (šlydà or Klythà) may also be dehere mean Nor-mon, many of whom con

rived from the same language. It nected the name of Thor, their chief object of worship, with their own,

and might, with has several large and steep fulls, from reason, call themselves Thor's Men, (as in the din and roaring of which it might fact they are called by the Pagan Scald well be called Klyda or Klydà. "In Einar Skalaglam, in the poem called Vel- Icelandic, at present, the noise of a lekla, quoted by Snorro in Oluf Tryggve- torrent or waterfall is called Klidr (or son's

's Saga, cap. 16,) as those of them who Klydr) and Ar klidr. In this city were afterwards baptized called themselves was born Gildas, + the eldest British Christ's Men, and Cross Men, as we see in historian, late in the fifth, or early in the unpublished History of Saint Olaf, and the sixth century. His own name, the battle of Stiklestad. If we are right in this conjecture, Crum Thormoth will sig; be of Scandinavian origin. Accord

as well as that of his father, seems to nify simply " the Nor-men's bay, or gulf,” as crum has the same meaning in the Go- ing to some writers, his father was thic as in the Celtic dialects; and it may called Caunus, and according to others, here designate a bay then called Thor's Navus. The names Kuun and Neji Men's-bay, a name which, in all likeli. hood, it derived from the inhabitants of the Thòrsej, ( Thor's-isle,) Thórsvich, ( Thor'sneighbourhood being from the north. cove,) and Thorsdalr, ( Thor's-dale.)

+ According to Ralph Higden, Mat. Balklyda, ( Dalklytha or Ballk!ytha, ) thew of Westminster, and others, Caithness, either from Bali, a height, or Ballr, a hill the first settlement of the Picts in Scotland, or cliff, would bear nearly the same signi. was conceded to them by the Britons. It fication. There is a brook in Iceland calis also very probable that they came hither led Ballarà, from which a country house in over the adjacent Orkney Islands, from the neighbourhood has its name. Accord those that were

more distant, and from ing to Macpherson, bul here means a build. Norway. The names of the oldest towns ing or place of abode, and the Icelandic in the county of Caithness, such as Wick, ból, bæli, has the same import, as has also Tleurso, &c. are Scandinavian ; and in the the Greek monks. History of Orkney (Orknejinga Saga) we + According to Pinkerton's “ Enquiry find many places denominated after the into the History Scotland," &c. Vol. 1. god Thor, such as Thörså, ( Thor's-brook,) Part II. cap. 15.

VOL. 1.


were in use in the north in the ear I am also of opinion, that the Scanliest times of which we have any ac- dic inhabitants of the maritime parts count, but have since been laid aside. of Scotland are celebrated in the

poem Two or three centuries before Beda's of Lathmon and .Oithona. Macphertime, reigned in the same city of Bal son thinks that Lathmon, (perhaps clutha, or Alclyde, the princes cele- Lathmondr, or Ladmondr,)son of brated by Ossian in the poem of Car. King Nuath, ( Knut ? ) who reigned thom, Reuthair, (properly Reida- in Dunlathmon, (which, in the Norse mer or Hreidmar, whom Fingal slew,) language, would have been called Tun and his daughter's son Carthon. Ladmundar or Ladmunds Tun,) was

It is worthy of remark, that their a Pictish prince from the east coast of kingdom is called “ The Stranger's Scotland. Several circumstances inLand,” and Carthon himself and his duce me to suppose that he was of followers, the “Sons of the Strangers," northern origin. He seems, at first, and the “ Sons of the Sea.” The last- to have been in close alliance with mentioned hero invaded Morven with Dunrommath, a prince or chief of a numerous fleet, to revenge the death the Orkney Islands, as he accompaof Reuthamir and the destruction of nied him in a warlike expedition aBalclutha. He fell in this expedition. gainst Fingal's kingdom. They there His mother was called Moina. Speak- lost a great battle. Dunrommath saved ing of her visits to the grave of Car- himself by flight; but Lathmon was thon, the poet says,

“She is seen, not made prisoner, and was under the nelike the daughters of the hill; her cessity of accepting peace on such terms robes are from the Stranger's Land, as the conqueror chose to impose upand she is still alone.” Macpherson on him. This, no doubt, put an end describes the people of Morven, and to the good understanding between the other Britons, as perfectly re- Lathmon and Dunrommath; and the sembling each other in manners; but latter, shortly after, when Lathmon here Moina seems to have worn a cos was gone to “ the wars of his fathers, tume quite different from that of the to the moss-covered rock of Duthorwomen of Morven; and the circum- moth,” + attacked his castle, put to stance of her being still alone, gives death those who defended it, and care us to understand that she belonged to ried off Oithona, (perhaps Oithuna, or a people of different origin and man- Auduna,) who was betrothed to Gaul,

It is, moreover, remarkable, Fingal's general. Lathmon's confe that the dying Carthon breaks out in- deracy with a prince of Orkney against to the following lamentation :-“A Fingal, and the pure northern word foreign tomb receives, in youth, the Thormod, from which either his falast of Reuthamir's race. Darkness thers or their possessions were denodwells in Balclutha: the shadows of minated, clearly indicate their Scangrief in Crathmo.” From this last dic extraction. The dying Oithona passage, one may conclude that he was calls her fathers “the race of the nearly related to the fore-mentioned mighty," and speaks of their castle as Scandinavian family which ruled in large, and well fortified. Crathmo Craulo. +

I suspect that the families of Duthmarunos, Carthon, and Lathmon, like

most of the other inhabitants of the • This name the hero received from the Orkneys and Shetland, were of Scanstorm that drove his father Clessamor from Balclutha, and is said by Macpherson to signify " the murmur of waves." The fifth century, the kingdom of Strathclyde, Scandinavian Kárdunr (perhaps of old in which Alclyde lay, is said to have had pronounced Kurthonr, the accusative case British Kings, whose names, nevertheless, of which is Kurthon) means “ the storm's seem of Scandinavian origin. Their vicinoisc," or din.

nity to the Romans, and the Britons un+ Carthon was the last of Reuthamir's der their dominion, made them also, in race; and his kingdom probably devolved time, be considered as Britons. to his countrymen of Scandinavian descent.

* Probably the Scandinavian DunroSome historians are of opinion that Alclyde, madr, Dunromathr, or Dunromudr, one which is also called Dinclyde, (i. e. Clyde. that has a thundering voice ; a thundering town,) with the adjacent territory, was in warrior. the possession of the Picts from the middle + This name signifies either Thormods. of the second till the fifth century. In the burgh, or Normensburgh.


« 上一页继续 »