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'HERE is perhaps no department of literature in which there is more need of authentic notes, or which is more apt to raise perplexing queries than that which relates to anonymous and pseudonymous works.

On all questions of testimony, whether historical or scientific, it is a consideration of the position and character of the writer which chiefly enables us to decide on the credibility of his statements, to account for the bias of his opinions, and to estimate the entire evidence at its just value.

It will no doubt astonish many of our readers to learn that of the number of works of this class it has been estimated that in French literature it amounts to something like one-fourth of the whole mass, whilst in English literature it cannot be less than one-sixth, perhaps more.

Whatever may really be the case, the collection and arrangement of all that is discoverable is essential to the perfection of literary history, of literary biography and of bibliography, and we earnestly appeal to readers to assist us in our endeavour to make this department of our journal of real service, by contributing notes of their successful attempts to get behind the mask of an assumed name, or to penetrate the veil of anonymity.


"Arizona" [anon.], is by JONATHAN BURWELL FROST.

"The Army and Navy of the United States, 1776-1898" [anon.], is by W. WALTON.

"The Civil War in Portugal, and the Siege of Oporto; by a British Officer of Hussars,” London, 1836, is by HUGH OWEN who wrote the work in Portuguese.

"Le Compère Mathieu; ou les Bigarrures de l'Esprit humain" [anon.], Londres or Malte, 1766; 3 vols., and frequently reprinted, is by the ABBÉ HENRI Joseph DuLAURENS, the avowed enemy of the Jesuits. "Flora domestica; or, the portable flower-garden," London, 1823, and "Sylvan sketches; or, a companion to the park and the shrubbery," London, 1825, are by MRS. ELIZABETH KENT, not by Henry Phillips as given in the Dictionary of National Biography.

"The King's message," by the author of " Our family ways," in collaboration with Grace H. Pierce, is by SISTER KATHERINE EDITH, and GRACE H. PIERCE.

"The making of a millionaire" [anon.], is by A. B. MONTGOMERY. "Miss Toosey's Mission" and its successors which Allibone in his Supplement attributes to Mrs. Elizabeth Thomas Meade Smith, are, upon the authority of the publishers, Little Brown & Co., erroneously attributed to that lady. It is the author's express wish that the name be withheld from publication.

"Music and poetry of Norfolk [Conn.]" [anon.], is by CARL STOECKEL. "A patriotic primer for the little citizen" [anon.], is by G. T. BALCH.


“A. E.," author of "The earth breath," is the pseud. of GEORGE W.


"ARCHIBALD (Mrs. George)," author of "A dozen good things that Georgiana and Dolly had," is the pseud. of ANNIE C. PALMER. "C. 3. 3," author of "The ballad of Reading Gaol," is the pseud, of OSCAR WILDE.

"CARTER (Nicholas)," author of "Among the Nihilists, or a plot against the Czar," and "The man from India," is the pseud. of JOHN RUSSELL CORYELL.

"CHESTER (Norley)," author of "Stories from Dante," London, 1898, and "Dante Vignettes," London, 1895, is the pseud. of Miss EMILY UNDERDOWN.

"DAVIS (Capt. Musgrove)," author of "In a Bowery regiment," etc., is the pseud. of C. O. SHEPARD.

"GRAY (Maxwell)," is the pseud. of M. G. TUTTIETT, author of "The house of hidden treasure".

"HAMONG (Comte de)," author of "The hand of fate, or a study of destiny," is the pseud. of LEIGH WARNER.

"HOYLE," author of "The game in Wall Street, and how to play it successfully," is the pseud. of W. E. FORREST.

"HURD (Nicholas)," author of "Kaeso: a tragedy of the first century," is the pseud. of the Rev. BLOMFIELD JACKSON.

"AN IDLER," is the pseud. of ELIOT GREGORY, author of "Worldly ways and by-ways".

"IOTA," author of "Poor Max," is the pseud. of Mrs. KATHLEEN MANNINGTON CAFFYN.

"KERR (Joe)," author of "The cheery book," is the pseud. of W. MELVILLE KERR.

"LEWIS (S. A.)," author of "My heart is thine," is the pseud. of LEWIS AUSTIN STORrs.

"LIN (Frank)," is the pseud. of Mrs. GERTRUDE FRANKLIN ATHERTON, author of "The Californians".

"MADGE," author of "A word to women," is the pseud. of Mrs. C. E. HUMPHRY.

"MERRIMAN (Henry Seton)," author of " Roden's Corner," is the pseud. of HUGH S. SCOTT.

"OLMIS (Elizabeth)," author of "Theodora and other stories," is the pseud. of ANNIE ELIZABETH LOOMIS.

"Oris (James)," is the pseud. of JAMES OTIS KALER, author of "An amateur fireman".

"REDWING (Morris)," author of "On the anxious seat," is the pseud. of J. A. MERRILL.

"REID (Christian)," is the pseud. of Mrs. FRANCES C. FISHER TIERNAN, author of "The chase of an heiress ".

"SABLAZO," author of "Blood and blight," etc., is the pseud. of ESTHER


"SWIFT (B.)," author of "The destroyer,"

pseud. of W. R. PATERSON.

99.66 Nancy Moon," etc., is the

"THANET (Octave)," is the pseud. of ALICE FRENCH, author of "The heart of toil".

"TRAVERS (Graham)," author of " Mona Maclean, medical student," is the pseud. of Dr. MARGARET TODD, who has recently written a new story called "Windyhaugh ".

"WARNEFORD (Lieut.)," author of "The adventures of a naval officer," is the pseud. of ARCHIBALD CLAVERING GUNter. "WERNER (Elizabeth)," is the name under which ELIZABETH BÜRSTENBINDER has published a number of well-known novels, most of which have been translated into English. Cushing in his first series of Initials and Pseudonyms gives the pseudonym as ERNST WERNER; references to Heinsius's Allgemeines Bücher-Lexicon, and to the title pages of several of the original novels show the name to be ELIZABETH Werner.

"X. (S. M.)," author of "Wonders will never cease, and other stories," is the pseud. of MARY XAVIER QUEEN.

"YECHTON (Barbara)," author of “A lovable crank," is the pseud. of LYDA FARRIngton Krause.

"ZACK" is the pseud. of Miss GWENDOLIN KEATS, author of "Life is life, and other tales and episodes".


Dr. Ernst Schultze of Bonn University Library, the author of an exceedingly interesting and recently published little pamphlet, of 32 pages, on the public libraries of this country entitled Englische Volksbibliotheken, whose acquaintance was made by many members at the Southport meeting of the Library Association, has again made a stay in England for the purpose of visiting and further studying the methods of the public libraries with a view to recording the results of his observations in a much more exhaustive work, of which the little pamphlet just referred to is but the advance guard; in the hope that by so doing he will give stimulus to the movement for establishing municipal libraries in his own country.

Dr. Schultze has asked us to make known the fact that he will much appreciate the kindness of any librarian who will assist him in this direction by forwarding to him copies of annual reports and any other papers of similar interest, including, if possible, photographs of the library buildings. Especially would he like to have the reports of each public library in London. Will the members of the Library Association therefore assist a fellow-worker by sending such publications addressed to Dr. Schultze at Berlin, S.W., 12 Kochstrasse 72 ?


'Conducted by JOHN J. OGLE.)

UESTIONS on the subjects included in the syllabus

of the Library Association's examinations, and on matters affecting library work generally are invited from assistants engaged in the larger, and librarians of the smaller libraries. All signed communications addressed to Mr. J. J. OGLE, FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY, BOOTLE, will, as far as possible, be replied to in the pages of The Library Association Record. A pen name should be given for use in the "Corner".

[Librarians will greatly oblige by bringing the “Corner” under the notice of their Junior Colleagues.]


It is clear that if our professional organ is to really serve our interests well, many must make large sacrifices of time and effort to make it what it ought to be. The writer has therefore consented to conduct this Corner notwithstanding the increasing pressure of his other duties. It is hoped our junior colleagues will take an interest in it on its own account, and that they will in large numbers submit their answers to questions for criticism here, although it is not intended to offer prizes. The suggestion of useful topics for general treatment is also invited.

Librarians and Teachers.

The long delayed publication of the Education Department on the subject of the relationship between elementary schools and public libraries will probably have been received by all English librarians before this issue of The Record. May I hope that all senior assistants in libraries will endeavour to read it, if only for the purpose of seeing how different are the ideals of our professional cousins of America from

our own.

Librarians and teachers are beginning to see that they are true yoke-fellows in tilling the field of popular ignorance. Woe to the future of librarian or teacher who fails to see the signs of the times! The librarian's attention to serious and to recreative reading must be in inverse proportion to their present popularity. One scholar is better

deserving careful attention and help than several mere readers of current fiction. Every librarian ought to realise that the seed of thought in a book which he may supply to a single poor student may give rise to a tree of profitable industry sheltering a thousand, or develop into an organisation or institution capable of far-reaching beneficence. such a view included in Milton's fine saying: "A good book is the precious life-blood of a master spirit embalmed and treasured up on purpose to a life beyond life" ?

Is not

The true democrat gives great attention to the few, irrespective of rank or birth, who have it in them to benefit largely the many. He recognises the aristocracy of combined talent and character. Similarly the true aristocrat and his friends do not fear the rise of an educated plebs mindful of the duties attaching to their rights. It is to the advantage of all to cast the nets of education widely. The public library is one of the best and strongest of these nets, but useless or nearly so if not managed by a skilful fisherman.

If old and weak books of science, unattractive editions of the poets, badly illustrated works on art, superseded digests of philosophy, indiscriminate treatises on religion, be the main stock of a lending library, the net is made of weak twine and will break and let the would-be scholar slip; or if fiction and fiction readers are the constant objects of thought to the managers, the meshes of the net will be so wide as to let through all that are ever caught.

To make the net well one's twine must be strong and well-tested. Good bibliographical tools and critical journals are the testing engines used by the true librarian in regions where his personal scholarship fails-and for all of us this fails as to nine books in every ten at least. Books are our twine and method our mesh. Let our mesh be knotted well with

(1) Consideration for the young.
(2) Consideration for the ignorant.
(3) Consideration for the scholar.

Annotations, etc.

The publication of children's lists, annotated catalogues, and special bibliographical lists ought therefore to form a part of every public library administration.

Let no assistant run away with the idea that the preparation of any of these things is an easy work. Each requires a combination of catholic knowledge and of personal restraint for its successful doing. Take the subject of annotations for instance: the conscientious preparation of a good annotated list is an education in itself. Remembered reading, conversations with experts, careful examination of reviews, of prefaces, of contents-tables, and of specimen pages must be brought to bear in settling the matter of one's notes. And the work is then only half-through, for in expressing the knowledge gained for the public use, one must necessarily leave much untold and compress into clear English that which one's judgment declares to be most useful to one's clients, or most likely to attract the attention of the indifferent.

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