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mime of the relations existing between mind and body are
Turned by laws of cause and effect, is slef-evident: therefite all are equally so: and every condition of either, throws - niher into its corresponding state. If in any one instance, az. Ten condition of either body or mind causes, or is caused by, that of the other, then every state of either, causes, or is
by, the corresponding conditions of the other. Either th: re exist no relations of cause and effect between the two, CIA-e it is all cause and effect-all antecedent and con5:2 lit; for nature always makes thorough work, or does
HIce, we can at any time throw either mind or body into any desired state, by putting the other into its corresponding Ole; and we can no more put either into any given state,
ut thereby throwing the other into its corresponding 05., then we can arrest the operation of any other law of na
.nl since the brain is the instrument of thought and f... its conditions influence the mind more powerfully than
of all the other portions of the body united. To excite C::cuity or orgın, is to excite the other; and as the stomia'. I brain are intimately related, its state also powerfully ....!! that of the mind.
Ti... ;!.!.iple shows how to operate on mind, namely, by sop's... on the boily-how to improve the mind, namily, ";I:10.1the body; how to study mind, namely, through
al organ, the body. For centuries--ever since the C. nf inan-mind has been studied, has been operated
21. Idently of its organization, and without the least Optice lu it. The stuly of mind by means of those meta
2. syurms tl. at have bewilded and beclouded that
to ter since the days of Plato, and are still hanging like 2. V upon our falsely so called " seats of learning," :. Ik spuited, never can result, in imparting a correct 1.5*1e of mind; while it is conceded on all hands, that
****** 11 * of Phrenolony, in less than half a century, has :? ne for mental science than all that has ever been done 11. tte since the mind has been made a subject of study.
• The very meaning of the term metaphysics, is beyond, independent of 1.94***, it being compounded of the Greek preposition “meta," beyond,
And if this be true of the study of mind, how infinitely more true is it of the means of operating on mind. To attempt to operate on mind-to reform mankind, educate mankind, produce moral purity in man's feelings or conduct, by means of motives and appeals addressed to the mind merely, will be comparatively a failure. The first step towards making mankind wiser or better-towards disciplining their minds, purifying their motives, diminishing their vices, promoting virtue and happiness, &c.—is to rectify their physiology. As long as it is in an inflamed, or rather enfeebled or diseased condition, to attempt to elevate man in the scale of moral or in. tellectual excellence, is as vain as to sow blasted seed upon the barren rock, or plant tropical flowers in Siberia. It is like operating with feeble weapons upon effects, yet allowing their causes to remain in full force. Preach to men ever so eloquently, ever so piously, ever so prayerfully, and add revivals and all the means of grace, while their bodies are soaked in alcoholic liquors—as well attempt to stay the fierce winds by raising your puny hands or will against them, or arrest the flowing tide by the voice of command. Moralists and reli. gionists have yet to learn that reform must begin and be continued, by throwing the body into a healthy condition,
If this doctrine be so construed as to imply the doctrine of materialism, be it so. This inference will not alter the fact of the existence of these relations. Besides, those who insist on the correctness of this inference, as drawn from these premises, are themselves the main advocates of materialism; for, as to the correctness of these premises, there cannot be the least possible question. They are matters of daily and constant experience and obserration. Whichever be the cause, and whichever the effect, however-whether the organization and physical condition be the cause, and govern, and the mental state be the effect; or whether the mental constitution be the cause of organization, and govern that organization, -affects neither the correctness nor importance of the inference; and let not so valuable a truth be discarded-so valuable a means of improving the mind and augmenting our happiness as this principle unfolds, because of this inference, whichever way it may be decided.
ORGANIZATION.- ITS INFLUENCE ON MIND.
Hering established the fact of the existence of reciprocal relations between the body and the mind, we pass naturally to the consideration of the important question, what conditions of the one produce given states of the other? What conditions of the body, cause or occasion particular qualities, states, capabilities, and manifestations of mind ? and what scates of mind produce their corresponding effects on the boly?-questions among the most momentous that can possiby engage the attention of mankind. Though we find a great rariety of organizations among men, yet they can generally be classed under three heads, including the varieties produced by their combinations in their various degrees of development. Shape is the first great index of the tone, power, and other characteristics of this organization. That is, different casts of organization give different dispositions and capabilities, which capacitate their possessors for different occupations, and these different casts assume different shapes, according to the qualitie-s they impart. Thus, the organization of the tiger is in keeping with his habits and characteristics; that of the shark, with his element and wants, and so of all that live and grow in the vegetable and animal kingdoms.
I! thus be so, it is a great, an invaluable truth. If the qualities, both mental and physical, be as the organization, and the shape be also adapted to, and in keeping with, the organization, and therefore characterizes, it surnishes us with a simple and yet an unerring guide in our observation of character and qalities.
To be still more specific. A coarse, roughly organized body, - always be found to accompany coarse, rough, harsh feelizs; while a fine, light, exquisite organization, goes along with fine, soft, delicate feelings, keen susceptibilities, and groiness of disposition. In other words, the organization, texture, and characteristics of the brain, are as those of the
body, and of course those of the mind are as those of the brain, so that the general form, contour, texture, and other qualities of the body will serve as a faithful index of the physical, mental, and moral character of the person or thing observed.*
To promote perspicuity, and facilitate our understanding of the subject, we will employ the word temperament as synonymous with the term organization. The body is composed of three principal classes of organs, the predominance or deficiency of each of which gives very different organizations and mental characteristics, which are then greatly diversified by their almost innumerable combinations.
They are, first, the vital temperament, or the NUTRITIVE apparatus, embracing the entire system of inside organs which manufacture vitality, sustain animal life, and re-supply the brain, nervous system, and muscles with that vital energy which their every action compels them to expend, and include the heart, lungs, digestive apparatus, blood, viscera, and all the internal organs, being analogous to those removed from the inside of animals in fitting them for the table. The second is the MOTIVE apparatus, or bilious temperament, embracing the bones, muscles, sinews, tendons, &c., which constitute the frame-work of the system, give it its size and shape, and produce bodily motion, physical strength, &c. The third is the MENTAL organization, or nervous temperament, which embraces the brain and nervous system, the exercise of which produces thought, feeling, sensation, memory, talents, &c.t
* See a more full elucidation of this subject in a series of articles in the Journal, Vol iv., p. 12. This important truth seems never to have been fully caught or presented by Physiologists, yet the author has a work now in press, which will be issued probably in June, entitled “ Physiology, mental and physical,” in which this subject will be carried out fully, along with many others merely stated in the earlier portions of this work. Physiology, heretofore, has been studied and written upon, separately from its effects on mind. We now require a work in which the in fluences and effects of various states and conditions of body on the mind shall be fairly stated. This the author designs to do, thus entering upon an almost entirely untrodden field of philosophical inquiry.
† For a full description of these temperaments, and their accompanying mental manifestations, see "Fowler's Practical Phrenology," pp. 10 to 29.
These temperaments or organizations may be better expruced by calling the vital or nourishing temperament the BE AD OR ANIMAL organization; the motive temperament, the PR VINENT or the strong organization; and the mental temperament, the SHARP OR ACTIVE organization. We then have worls expressive of the meaning and character of the temparanents.
1. THE VITAL TEMPERAMENT, OR THE BROAD, ANI. MAL' organization. Apply the tongue to the larger portion of a god egg, and it will be perceptibly warmer than any ober, because the vital property of the chick is located there; but if this part be cold, life is' extinct, and the egg spoiled. $1), "et this egg to the process of incubation for a short time, ani temire the coverings from this end, and you will see the h:10 pa.pitating, and the blood vessels formed, the yelk supping the heart with the required nutrition. The first portion of the animal economy formed is the heart and its appurtena:-5, or the internal system of organs, by which matter is deposited here and there for the formation of the balance of te bly. This same vital apparatus also supplies the materais required for the growth and nutrition of all the parts re93.1.: either, and is far more active during infancy and
2** duan any other class of organs, as is indicated by their Pianetite, and love of physical action.
T.. aparatus not only originates vitality, but also sustains file we animal economy. It constitutes the fountain head of 21. power and vital energy; manufactures animal warmth; Tom.co.id and heat, disease and death; and re-supplies the 1:1.", Derves, and inuscles with those vital energies which
are compelled to expend whenever exercised. It is to te min what the fire, wood, water, and steam are to the en
-Ile - ris animx"'--the “primum mobile”—the alpha 21:.comga of the animal economy.
I: 10 uls the entire system of internal organs located in 1,-thoax and ab lomen, namely, the heart, lungs, stomach,
wil, i.rer, viscera, &c. Its predominance may be known,
Toe term animal is used here to signify, not wicked or vicious propen.. bu metly tha: vitality and animal life, by which the system is sup
wih an.mal power or physical vigor.