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ing constitute our very essence; flesh and blood being our dwelling only
Hence, obtaining a knowledge of the laws of mind, and putting this knowledge in practice, constitute the highest objects that can possibly engage the attention of man. As pleasure constitutes the end of man's creation, that is the most important which most effectually promotes this end. A knowledge of mechanics, chemistry, navigation, astronomy, geography, natural philosophy, &c., are important in proportion to their capability of administering to human happiness--the end of creation—but no farther. This is the only true measure of virtue; and especially of that of knowledge. Grossly ignorant is he who knows not how to live so as to be happy, though his mind is stored with all the literary lore of past ages, together with all the learned trash of the present age. Most wise is he who knows himself, who understands and obeys these laws, be he ignorant of every thing else. And this is the main centre of man's ignorance. Many know how to read Greek, to predict eclipses, to make money, apply and regulate machinery, discuss politics, kill each other scientifically, and perpetrate a world of learned foolery ; but alas ! few know how to live, or even how to eat, or sit, or walk.
Man's almost utter ignorance of the laws of his nature is as deplorable as it is fatal to his happiness and productive of misery. Every thing else is studied, but this is neglected; yet this should be learned, even though all other kinds of knowledge be neglected.
These principles show in what education consists. If happiness be the end of all creation, education of course consists in knowing the conditions of happiness, and wisdom, in applying them—the former, in understanding the laws of our being, and the latter, in fulfilling them. Let it be remembered by all, especially by parents and teachers, that the one distinctive and only end of all education should be to expound these laws and enfore their obedience. Let parents, teachers, authors, lecturers, clergyinen, editors, politicians, physicians, and all public men or leaders further remember, that they stand at the fountain head of those streams of happiness and misery which tlood mankind; and also, that by teaching
these laws in regard to society, government, property, medicine, religion, morals, science, and especially physiology and phrenology, and inculcating their obedience, they aid in bringing out and ripening up to maturity all that is fair, and lovely, and happy, in our nature; but that, in omitting this sng'e duty, and especially by leading the youthful or the public mind on in their violation, they help to swell that overErwing tide of sin and misery which is bearing on its dark waters all the sighs, groans, pains, diseases, and premature
daths that scourge mankind. Ah! little do public inen re• 2.:ze the responsibility of their station, or consider that they
give tone and direction to the public mind, and thereby further or retard the great object of man's creation !
Lt us then enter upon the great inquiry, what are some of the most prolific causes of happiness and misery, that we may curse the former and escape the latter? In other words. What are some of the most important laws of our physical and men:al nature, that we may obey them and enjoy their delie::sus fruits ?
In answering this most important question, the author will take fue his guide the lights of Physiology and Phrenology. The former embodies all the laws of man's physical nature-ail the conditions of life and health, while Phrenology is the science of man, and especially of man's mind; and the two together evolve all the elementary principles of his Tuture, thereby embodying all the laws of his being, all the coutions of his happiness, and all the causes of all his sufferin128, as well as the origin of all the evils that afflict societyan i ail so plainly, that “he that runs may read.” By deFriping fully and clearly the primitive or elementary nature a:.i constitution of man, and that, too, in all its ramifications, a arrains before the tribunal of that nature, every thing appertaining to man that can be named or conceived ; approving w.slever harmonizes with it, but condemning whatever con....is therewith-thereby furnishing the only true test and tuchstone by which to try every doctrine of the age; and uderd, of all past, all coming time-every doctrine of metaIses, every theory of society, every question of ethics, of 1.1.5, of logic, of equity, and even of religious creeds and
practices. The nature of man is perfect—is all that it should be, and every way calculated to make mankind perfectly happy. To be perfectly virtuous and happy, we have therefore only to follow that nature; to do which, we must obtain a knowledge of that nature. This knowledge these Sciences furnish, and thereby constitute our only proper guide to virtue and happiness.
To be great or good, a man must first become an excellent animal.
If man had been created a purely spiritual being without any body, this world, with all its adaptations to man-all its contrivances and facilities for promoting his happiness; the life-giving sun and health inspiring breeze; with the beautiful sky over our head and the limpid stream flowing at our feet; with the rain and the dew of heaven, and all the fruits and the bounties of prolific earth-would have been entirely unfit for his abode, as well as utterly useless to him.
Or, if he had been merely a lump of lifeless matter, unendowed with life and soul, all his present capabilities for enjoyment would have had no existence. But, far from either, is the constitution of man. In order to secure the highest possible enjoyment of man, God has seen fit to compound his nature of both flesh and blood on the one hand, and of mind and soul on the other. Wonderful-the workmanship of a God-is this combination of mind and matter, but in the highest degree promotive of human happiness.
Nor are these natures strangers to each other ; but, so closely related is each to the other, by the action and reaction of certain physiological and phrenological laws, that every condition of each exerts a powerful and perfectly reci
procal influence upon the other. Indeed, all we know of mild in this world, we learn through the instrumentality of the body; and every advance of intellect, as well as all virtue and vice, coincide with, and in part depend upon, corresponding physiological changes and conditions of the body. Thus, Intemperance, which consists solely in a physiological derangement, causes vice in almost every variety and aggravaLon of form; nor can a pure and holy mind dwell in a body soaked in liquor. That every given condition of either, induces a perfectly corresponding condition of the other, is a matter of daily and continual experience with every member of the human family. Thus, a clear, cold morning, or a heavy mizzy atmosphere, oppressive heat, &c., by throwing the body into different states, have directly opposite effects upon the mind. A high fever increases the feelings and mental manestations; but hunger, fatigue, and bodily weakness, proportionally enfeeble them. Dyspepsia induces gloom, irritabuty, peevishness, and wretchedness of feeling, and totally reverses the character, converting friendship into misanthropy, and the blessings of hope into the bitterness of despair, and turning happiness into misery.
Piysical inaction induces mental sluggishness; while bodi. ly exercise clears the mental horizon of those clouds in which sthfulness or confinement envelopes it, producing a delightfu, filow of thought and feeling. Food and sleep, or their abserce, affect the intellect and feelings powerfully, yet very d. rently; and a sufficient dose of arsenic produces death. Sickness enfeebles the mind, while health strengthens it; and List of our constantly occurring changes of feeling and mena action are caused by the different states of the body. Expience has taught many of our ablest speakers and writers to prepare their minds for vigorous effort, by practising abstinence. Alcoholic drinks operate upon the body, and through 1. afect the mind. Certain kinds of food excite some of the animal passions, but other kinds increase our ability to think api study. The inspired Paul embodies this doctrine in the 511, “I beseech you, therefore, brethren, by the mercies of Gd, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceilable unto God:” clearly implying, that purity of body
promotes holiness of mind; but that an inflamed or impure body, kindles the animal passions. Both the religious feelings and the talents are more affected by the various conditions of the body, and especially of the stomach—by food, drink, physical habits, sickness, health, &c.,--than most people suppose. Hence, fasting promotes piety ; fulness of bread kindles sinful desires ; inflammation of the brain produces insanity; and its inaction causes stupor, &c. When the pious Christian, or the profound thinker, has eaten too much, or induced a severe cold or fever, or in any other way clogged or disordered his bodily functions, the former can no more expect to be “ clothed with the spirit,” or to be borne upward on the wings of devotion, nor the latter to bring his mental energies into full and efficient action, than they can make the sun stand still, or the water to run upwards. “A strong mind in a healthy body," beautifully and forcibly expresses this truth, and also embodies the experience of past ages and of all mankind. In short, as soon may we question the evidence of our senses, as controvert the position that mind and body each powerfully and reciprocally affect the other; for every member of the human family constantly feels this truth.
Again: these relations between body and mind are governed by certain invariable laws of cause and effect, certain conditions of the one inducing and causing the corresponding states of the other. The principle, that whenever a part of a given class of phenomena are governed by laws of cause and effect, every phenomenon of that class is governed by these same laws, is a universal principle of nature, and may be relied upon in every conceivable application. If a part of the phenomena of vision be governed by the laws of optics, every phenomenon of vision experienced by man or brute since the creation, has been governed by the same laws. If a few bodily motions are caused by muscular contraction, all are caused by the same contraction. Should millions of dag. gers be driven through the hearts of as many human beings, they would in every instance, produce death. Let any or every member of the human famly take opium, or its compounds, and one and all will experience its legitimate effects. These illustrations will apply to emery lair of nature. That