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dinu upu, of the Hebrews. Many places of reputed sanctity, such as Same, Samos, Samothrace, Samorna, were denominated from it. Philo Biblius informs us, that the Syrians, and Canaanites, lifted up their hands to Baal-Samen, the Lord of Heaven; under which title they honoured the Sun: 27 Τας χειρας ορεγειν εις εράνες προς τον Ηλιον" τετον γαρ, φησι, θεον ενομιζον μονον ΟΥΡΑΝΟΥ ΚΥΡΙΟΝ ΒΑΑΛEAMHN xaA8vTES. Ephesus was a place of great sanctity: and its original name was - Samorna; which seems to be a compound of Sam-Oran, Cælestis Sol, fons Lucis. We read of Samicon in Elis, 29 xwpion Equixov, with a sacred cavern: and of a town called 30 Samia, which lay above it. The word Eeuros was a contraction of Semanos, from Sema-on; and properly signified divine and celestial. Hence oeuvau Beas, reuern xopa. Antient Syria was particularly devoted to the worship of the Sun, and of the Heavens; and it was by the natives called Shems and Shams: which undoubtedly means the land of Shemesh, from the worship there followed. It retains the name at this s' day.

27 Philo apud Euseb. Præp. Evang. 1. 1. c. 10.

Arabibus Sol Talos, Taros, et Samasa. Lilius Gyrald. Syntag. 7. p. 280.

38 Stephanus Byzant. 29 Pausanias. 1. 5. p. 386. 30 Pausanias. 1. 5. p. 387, 388. 31 Abulfeda. Tab. Syriæ. p. 5. Syria Scham appellata. Dia

l.

In Canaan was a town and temple, called BethShemesh. What some expressed Shem and Sham, the Lubim seem to have pronounced Zam: hence the capital of Numidia was named Zama, and Zamana, from Shamen, Cælestis. This we may learn from an inscription in 32 Reineccius.

Tie 31 JULIO. PROCULO.
O PRÆF. URB. PATRONO..

COL. BYZACENÆ. ET. PA
A TRONO. COLON. ÆLIÆ..
- 33 ZAMANÆ. REGIÆ. .'117'.

nifi editor Ham being the Apollo of the east, was worshipped as the Sun; and was also called Sham and Shem. This has been the cause of much perplexity, and mistake: for by these means many of

viditur Syria in quinque præfecturas, quarum unicuique nomine proprio nomen, Al Scham, scil. Syriæ, commune datur. Excerptum ex Ibn Ol Wardi. p. 176.

Abulfeda supposes, that Syria is called Scham, quasi sinistra. It was called Sham for the same reason that it was called Syria. Συρος γαρ ο ήλιος, the same as Σειριος. Ρerse Συρη Deum vocant. Lilius Gyraldus. Syntag. 1. p. 5. Eugsce bea, i. e. Dea Cælestis. Syria is called at this day Souristan. Suuris from Sehor, Sol, Exigoos of Greece. .

32 Reineccii Syntagma. Class. 6. cxxii. p. 458.

33 El-Samen was probably the name of the chief temple at Zama; and comprised the titles of the Deity, whom the Numidians worshipped. El Samen signifies Deus Cælestis, or Cælorum : which El Samen was changed by the Romans to Ælia Zamana.

VOL. I,

his posterity have been referred to a wrong line, and reputed the sons of Shem; the title of one brother not being distinguished from the real name of the other. Hence the Chaldeans have by some been adjudged to the line of 34 Shem : and Amalek, together with the people of that name, have been placed to the same account. His genealogy is accordingly represented by Ebn Patric. He makes him the son of Aad, and great grandson of Shem. 35 Fuitque Aad filius Arami, filius Shemi, filius Noæ. The author of the Chronicon Paschale speaks of 36 Chus, as of the line of Shem: and Theophilus in his treatise to Autolycus does the same by 37 Mizraïm. Others go farther, and add Canaan to the 38 number. Now these are confessedly the immediate sons of 39 Ham:

34'Issov de or Xandasot ato T8 Enl xatayutas, aš š xas e Alçady. Syncelli Chronograph. p. 98.

35 Eutychii sive Ebn Patricii Hist. vol. 1. p. 60. | đEx TS PHA2; T8 Enu Xous voucTi, ô A10 ok. Chròn. Paschal. p. 36.

37'Etegos de úros 78 Entl -- Ovomatı Mospasõp. Theophilus ad Autolyc. I. 2. p. 370.

38 Alii Shemi filium faciunt Canaanem. Relandi Palæstina. v. 1. p. 7.

39 The sons of Ham; Cush and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan. Genesis. c. 10. v. 6.

Ham is the father of Canaan. Genesis. c. 9. v. 18, 22.

From Sam, and Samen, came Summus; and Hercules Summanus; Samabethi, Samanæi, Samonacodoma.

so that we may understand, who was properly alluded to in these passages under the name of Shem.

MACAR.

This was a sacred title given by the Amonians to their Gods; which often occurs in the Orphic hymns, when any Deity is invoked..

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Many people assumed to themselves this title; and were styled 42 Maxapes, or Macarians: and

various colonies were supposed to have been led · by an imaginary personage, Macar, or 43 Maca

reus. In consequence of this, we find that the most antient name of many cities and islands was

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Macra, Macris, and 4+ Macaria. The Grecians supposed the term Macar to signify happy; whence Μακαρες θεοι was interpreted ευδαιμονες: but whether this was the original purport of the word may be difficult to determine. It is certain that it was a favourite term; and many places of sanctity were denominated from it. Macar, as a person, was by some esteemed the offspring of 45 Lycaon; by others, the son of 46 Æolus. Diodorus Siculus calls him 47 Macareus, and speaks

44 Cyprus was called Managia, with a town of the same name. Ptolem.

Lesbos Macaria. Clarissima Lesbos; appellata Lana, Pelasgia, Aigeira, Æthiope, Macaria, a Macareo Jovis nepote. Plin. 1.5. c. 31. and Mela. 1. 9. c.7. p. 209.

Oogov Archos arw Maraços dos EVTOS Esgyes. Homer. Iliad. 2. v. 544.

Rhodes, called Macaria. Plin. 1. 5. c. 31.
A fountain in Attica was called Macaria. Pausanias. 1.1. p.79.
Part of Thrace, Macaria. Apollonius Rhod. 1. 1. v. 1115.
A city in Arcadia. Marapan. Steph. Byzant.
Maxag, a king of Lesbos. Clement. Cohort. p. 27.

An island of Lycia, Macara. Steph. Byzant. "The Macares, who were the reputed sons of Deucalion, after a deluge, settled in Chios, Rhodes, and other islands. "Diodorus Sic. 1. 5. p. 347.

45 Pausanias. 1. 8. p. 602. He speaks of Macaria the daughter of Hercules. I. 1. p. 80.

46 Pausanias. 1. 10. p. 896. '

47 Diodorus. I. 5. p. 347. Marae ó Kervare. Schol. in Homer. Iliad. N. v. 544.

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