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and repute. Ex ÓU moduxAsimov xah' 'Elnavos yevos Iapidw. Pindar. Tämus was immortal, and was therefore named alavatos.

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From hence we may be assured, that he was of old the real Deity of the place. .

I have mentioned, that in the sacred processions in early times the Deity used to be carried about in a shrine; which circumstance was always attended with shouts, and exclamations, and the whole was accompanied with a great concourse of people. The antient Greeks styled these celebrities the procession of the 72 Pomphi, and from hence were derived the words topin, and pompa. These originally related to a procession of the oracle: but were afterwards made use of to describe any cavalcade or show. In the time of Herodotus the word seems in some degree to have retained its true meaning, being by him used for the oracular influence. He informs us that Amphilutus was a diviner of Acharnan; and that he

71 Pindar. Ibidem. p. 51. 72 Pi is the antient Egyptian prefix.

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MYTHOLOGY. 323 came to Pisistratus with a commission from heaven. By this he induced that prince to prosecute a scheme which he recommended. 73 Evtauta θειη πομπη χρεωμενος παρισαται Πεισισρατω Αμφιλυτος.

Ein Troje in is a divine revelation, or commission. Ham was the Hermes of the Egyptians, and his oracle, as I have shewn, was styled Omphi: and when particularly spoken of as the oracle, it was expressed Pomphi, and Pompi, the top rn of the Greeks. Hence Hermes had the name of Tou T 2105, which was misinterpreted the messenger, and conductor: and the Deity was in consequence of it made the servant of the Gods, and attendant upon the dead. But mounasos related properly to divine influence; and trouten was an oracle. An ox, or cow, was by the Amonians esteemed very sacred, and oracular: Cadmus was accordingly said to have been directed πομπη βοος.

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73 Herodotus. I. 1. c. 62. p. 30.
14 Apollonius Rhodius. 1. 3. v. 1180.

An ox or cow from being oracular was styled Alphi as well as Omphi. Hence Plutarch speaks of Cadmus: 'Ov Paor to anpa FAYTW apotažas. dice to Doininas stw rahew tov Ger. Sympos. Quæst. 9. 3.

Many places were from the oracle styled Pom. pean; and supposed by the Romans to have been so named from Pompeius Magnus; but they were too numerous, and too remote to have been denominated from him, or any other Roman. There was indeed Pompeia in Campania : but even that was of too high antiquity to have received its name from Rome. We read of Pompeiæ among the Pyrenees, Pompion in Athens, Pompelon in Spain, Pompeditha in Babylonia, Pomponiana in Gaul. There were some cities in Cilicia and Cappadocia, to which that Roman gave the name of Pompeipolis: but upon inquiry they will be found to have been Zeleian cities, which were oracular : so that the Romans only gave a turn to the name in honour of their own countryman, by whom these cities, were taken..

Besides the cities styled Pompean, there were pillars named in like manner; which by many have been referred to the same person. But they could not have been built by him, nor were they erected to his memory: as I think we may learn from their history. There are two of this denomination still remaining at a great distance from each other: both which seem to have been raised for a religious purpose. The one stands in Egypt at' Alexandria; the other at the extreme point of

"In insulâ Pharo. Pliny. I. 36. c. 12.

the Thracian Bosporus, where is a communication between the Propontis and the antient Euxine sea. They seem to be of great antiquity, as their basis witnesses at this day : the shaft and superstructure is of later date. The pillar at the Bosporus stands upon one of the Cyanean rocks : and its parts, as we may judge from * Wheeler, betray a difference in their æra. It was repaired in the time of Augustus: and an inscription was added by the person who erected the column, and who dedicated the whole to that Emperor.

3 DIVO. CAESARI. AUGUSTO.
E.. CL... ANDIDIUS. ...
L. F CL. ARGENTO...

We may learn from the inscription, however mutilated, that this pillar was not the work of Pompeius Magnus; nor could it at all relate to his history : for the time of its being rebuilt was but little removed from the age in which he lived. The original work must have therefore been far prior. The pillar in Egypt is doubtless the same which was built upon the ruins of a former, by Sostratus of Cnidos, before the time of Pompeius :

2 Wheeler's Travels. p. 207.
* Wheeler. p. 204. Sandys's travels. p. 32.

so that the name must have been given on another account. The inscription is preserved by + Strabo.

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The narrow streight into the Euxine sea was a passage of difficult navigation. This was the reason, that upon each side there were temples and sacred columns erected to the Deity of the country, in order to obtain his assistance. And there is room to think, that the pillars and obelisks were made use of for beacons, and that every temple was a Pharos. They seem to have been erected at the entrance of harbours; and upon eminences along the coasts in most countries. The pillars of Hercules were of this sort, and undoubtedly for the same purpose. They were not built by him ; but erected to his honour by people who worshipped him, and who were called Herculeans. SEbos yang παλαιον υπηρξε το τιθεσθαι τοιέτες ορες, καθαπερ οι Ρηγινοι την σηλιδα εθεσαν, την επι τω πορθμα κειμενην, πυργον τι.

* Strabo. I. 17. p. 1141. 5 Strabo. l. 3. p. 259.

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