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guage to begin hymns of praise to this Deity, who was the principal God of prophecy. We have one instance of it in the Nubes of Aristophanes :
Periander is mentioned as beginning a hymn with a like exordium: Αμφι μοι αυθις ανακτα: And Terpander has nearly the same words: οι Αμφι μοι αυθις ανάκθ' έκατηβoλον. Αpollo was so frequently called 'Αμφι αναξ, that it was in a manner looked upon as a necessary proæmium. Suidas observes, Αμφιανακτιζειν το προοιμιαζειν : And Hesychius, Αμφιάνακτα, αρχη νομε Κιθαρωδικε. Much the same is told us in the Scholia upon the passage above from Aristophanes : 62 Μιμείται δε (Αρισοφανης) των Διθυραμβων τα προοιμια συνεχως γαρ χρωνται ταυτη λεξει" διο αμφιανακτας αυτες καλεσι. However, none of these writers inform us why this word was so particularly used; nor tell us what was its purport. In the short hymns ascribed to Homer
this term is industriously retained; and the persons who composed them have endeavoured to make sense of it, hy adopting it according to the common acceptation.
Ajuipi /jiot Efljunao q>i\ov yovov fvviirt, Mso-a.
These hymns were of late date, long after Homer; and were introduced in Ionia, and also in Cyprus and Phenicia, when the Grecians were in possession of those parts. They were used in the room of the antient hymns, which were not understood by the new inhabitants. One of them is confessedly addressed to the Goddess called Venus Ourania, in Cyprus; and was designed to be sung by the priest of that Goddess upon the stated festivals at Salamis.
*' We meet with the like in the Orpkica.
©ufwv, Oiutm Ti. Argonautica. v. 33. So in Pindar: K.s?iaoWi u.oi otjttpi Ti.it v^xt. Fyth. Ode 2. p. 20S. We have the same from the Tripod itself.
Ap^t it rif9u, y.ai Khaem ux-TpuTx <t>t,tQu. Apollo tie defectu Oraculor. apud Eusebium. Prsp. Evang. 1. 5. c. \6. p. 204.
We may perceive, from what has been said, that the word Amphi was a term of long standing, the sense of which was no longer understood: yet the sound was retained by the Greeks, and used for a customary exclamation. In respect to the more antient exordia above quoted, especially that of Terpander, I take the words to be an imitation, rather than a translation, of a hymn sung at Delphi in the antient Amonian language; the sound of which has been copied, rather than the sense, and adapted to modern terms of a different meaning. I make no doubt but that there were many antient hymns preserved in those oracular temples, which were for a long time retained, and sung, when their meaning was very imperfectly known. They were, for the most part, composed in praise of Ham, or the Sun; and were sung by the Homeridæ, and
64 Hymn to Venus of Salamis. See Homer Didymi. vol. 2, p. 528.
The names of the sacred hymns, as mentioned by Proclus in his Xensquabera, were Ilabares, Albufauebos, Adwros, lo Baxxov, ‘YTTOEKOMata, Exxwurse, Evxtixa. Photius. C. 236, p: 983.
lämidæ. They were called after his titles, Ad, Athyr, Amphi, which the Grecians expressed Dithyrambi. They were strains of joy and exultation, attended with grand processions : and from the same term, dithyrambus, was derived thie Opoczne bos of the Greeks, and the triumphus of the 'Roinans. We are informed that triumphs 'were first instituted by 65 Bacchus, who was no other than Chus : the history, therefore, of the 'terin must be sought for from among the Cuseans.
That it was made up of titles, is plain, from its being said by Varro to have been a 6 name; and one that was given by the Amonians among other personages to Dionusus : for they were not in this point uniform. Diodorus takes notice that it was a 'name, and conferred upon the person spoken of: 67'@ps@je Sov de autou wojewolnvar pæor: They șay, that one of the titles given to Dionusus was Thriambus. Ham, in the very antient accounts of Greece, is called Tämus, and his priests läinidæ. "His oracle, in consequence of this, was styled Tämphi, and lämbi, which was the same term as Amphi, of which we have been treating. From
65 Diodorus. 1. 5. p. 213.
64 Idque a Igrepeow Græco, Liberi Patris cognomento. Varro de lingua Lat. 1. 5. p. 58.
67 Diodorus Siculus. I. 5. p. 213.
the naine Iambi came the measure I ambos, lambus, in which oracles were of old delivered. - Hám, among the Egyptians, was called 68 Tithrambo, which is the same name as the Ditherambus of Diodorus. There is a remarkable passage in the Scholia upon Pindar concerning Ham, under the name of Iamus, and also concerning his temple, which is represented as oracular. 69 McVTELOV TV Ev Όλυμπια, και αρχηγος γεγονεν Ιαμος, τη δια εμπυρων μανTEIQ, ý xat pexes T8 vuv or lapidan xewtab. There was in Olympia an antient temple, esteemed a famous seat of prophecy, in which Iamus is supposed to have first presided ; and where the will of the Deity was made manifest by the sacred fire upon the altar : this kind of divination is still carried on by a set of priests, who are called Tamida. Ιαμος αρχηγός was in reality the Deity; and his attendants were 7o Iamidæ, persons of great power