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Menelaus says to his brother Agamemnon, 6? Tipfl*
zrut, H9e»£, xofua-a-iai; And 68 Tj7tt£ Juci, HStm xipaA»,
frvji fjAnAaflaf, are the words of Achilles to the shade of his lost Patroclus. HOno?, in the original acceptation, as a title, signified Solaris, Divinus, Splendidus: hut, in a secondary sense, it denoted any thing holy, good, and praiseworthy. ** Aax« pw HfifioK xxXtu y.xt wrtpw Covtk, says Eumaeus, of his long absent and much honoured master. I will call him good and noble, whether he be dead or alive. From this antient term were derived the »fiof and »iflix« of the Greeks.
I have mentioned that it is often compounded, as in Athyr: and that it was a name conferred on places where the Amonians settled. Some of this family came, in early times, to Rhodes and Lemnos: of which migrations I shall hereafter treat. Hence, one of the most antient names of 7° Rhodes was Aithraia, or the Island of Athyr; so called from the worship of the Sun: and Lemnos was denominated Aithalia, for the same reason, from Aith-El. It was particularly devoted to the God of fire; and is hence styled Vulcania by the Poet:
<7 Homer. Iliad. K. v. 37.
<8 Homer. Iliad. Y. v. 94.
'9 Homer. Odyss. S. v. 147
Ath-F.l among many nations a title of great honour.
70 Plin. Nat. Hist. 1. 4. c. 31.
71 Summis Vulcania surgit Lemnos aquis.
Ethiopia itself was named both 7*Aitheria, and Aeria, from Aur, and Athyr: and Lesbos, which had received a colony of Cuthites, was reciprocally styled 75iEthiope. The people of Canaan and Syria paid a great reverence' to the memory of Ham: hence, we read of many places in those parts named Hamath, Amathus, Amathusia. One of the sons of Canaan seems to have been thus called: for it is said, that Canaan was the father of the 7* Hamathite. A city of this name stood to the east of mount Libanus; whose natives were the Hamathites alluded to here. There was another Hamath, in Cyprus, by the Greeks expres.sed. A/AoeSaf, of the same original as the former. We read of Eth-Baal, a king of " Sidon, who was the father of Jezebel; and of 75Athaliah, who was her daughter. For Ath was an oriental term, which came from Babylonia and Chaldea to Egypt; and from thence to Syria and Canaan. Ovid, though his whole poem be a fable, yet copies the modes of those countries of which he treats. On this account, speaking of an Ethiopian, he introduces him by the name of Eth-Amon, but softened by him to Ethemon.
** Valerius Flaccus. 1. 2. v. 78. The chief city was Hephaestia. 11 Universa vero gens (^thiopum) /Etheria appellata est. Plin. 1.6. c.30.
73 Plin. 1. 5. c. 31.
74 Genesis, c. 10. v. 18. c. 11. v. 1
75 l Kings, c. 16. v. 3r.
7f 2 Kings, c. 11. v. 1. , .: . .
77 Instabant parte sinistra Chaonius Molpeus, dextra. Nabathceus Ethemon.
Ath was sometimes joined to the antient title Herm; which the Grecians, with a termination, made 'Ef/*»?. From Ath-Herm came &e^aa, ©f^o?, etfpxma. These terms were sometimes reversed, and rendered Herm-athena.
Ad is a title which occurs very often in composition, as "in Ad-Or, Ad-On; from whence was formed Adorus, Adon, and Adonis. It is sometimes found compounded with itself; and was thus made use of for a supreme title, with which both Deities and kings were honoured. We read of Iladad, king of 73 Edom: and there was another of the same name at Damascus, whose son and successor was styled 79 Benhadad. According to Nicolaus Damascenus, the kings of Syria, for nine generations, had the name of *° Adad. There was a prince Hadadezer, son of Rehob, king of 8l Zobah: and Hadoram, son of the king of Si Hamatb. The God Rimmon was styled Adad: and mention is made by the Prophet of the mourning of Adad Rimmon in the vallev of *' Megiclrlo. The feminine of it was Ada; of which title mention is made by Plutarch in speaking of a H queen of Caria. It was a sacred title, and appropriated by the Babylonians to their chief '5 Goddess. Among all the eastern nations Ad
77 Ovid. Metamorph'. 1. 5. v. 1(52.
"Sb in" Virgil. Comites Sarpedonis ambo,
Et clarus Ethemon Lycia comitantur ab alt&. Or,'ClaruserEthemon. jEneis. 1.10. v. 126.
n 1 Kings, c. 11. v. 14. Adad, the fourth king of Edom. Gen. c. 36. v. 35.
79 1 Kings, c. 20. v. t.
*° Nicolaus Damasc. apud Josephuiu Antiq. 1. 7. c. 5.
11 2 Samuel, c. 8. v. 3.
•* 1 Chron. c. 18. v. 10.
*3 Zechariah. c. 12. v. 11. ■ There was a town of this name in Israel. Some suppose that the Prophet alluded to the death of Josiah, who was slain at Megiddo.
64 Plutarch. Apothegmata. p, 180. One of the wives of Esau was of Canaan, and named Adah, the daughter of Elon the Hittile. Gen. c. 35. v. 2.
85 A&x, iihtri' x*t i?ro £cttv>*mu> i Hj«. IJesychlU*.
was a peculiar title, and was originally conferred upon the Sun: and, if we may credit Macrobius, it signified One, and was so interpreted by the Assyrians: s6 Deo, quern summum maximumque 'venerantur, Adad nomen dederunt. Ejus nominis interpretatio significat unus. Hunc ergo ut potissimum adorant Deum.—Simulacrum Adad insigne cernitur radiis inclinatis. I suspect that Macrobius, in his representation, has mistaken the cardinal number for the ordinal; and that what he renders one should he first, or chief. We find that it was a sacred title; and, when single, it was conferred upon a Babylonish Deity: but, when repeated, it must denote greater excellence: for the Amonians generally formed their superlative by doubling the positive: thus Rab was great; Rabrab signified very great. It is, indeed, plain from the account, that it must have been a superlative; for he says it was designed to represent what was esteemed summum maximumque, the most eminent and great. I should, therefore, think that Adad, in its primitive sense, signified Tfurof, and wgUtivm: and, in a secondary meaning, it denoted a chief, or prince. We may by these means rectify a mistake in Philo, who makes Sanchoniathon say, that Adodus of Phenicia was king of the country. He renders the name, Ado
86 Macrobii Saturnalia. 1. 1. c. 23.