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tiana: wherein were about twelve capital 84 cities. Some of that antient and sacred nation, the Hyperboreans, are said by Posidonius to have taken up their residence in these parts. 85 Tas 'Tep Bopexo-GIMÉLY TEPI Tas ANTTess Tng Itanics. Here inhabited the. Taurini: and one of the chief cities was Comus. Strabo styles the country the land of ** Ideonus, and Cottius. These names will be found hereafter to be very remarkable. Indeed many of the Alpine appellations were Amonian; as were also their rites : and the like is to be observed in many parts of Gaul, Britain, and Germany. Among other evidences the worship of Isis, and of her sacred ship, is to be noted; which prevailed among the Suevi. 87 Pars Suevorum et Isidi sacrificat: unde causa et origo peregrino sacro, parum comperi; nisi quod signum ipsum in modum Liburnæ figuratum docet advectam religionem. The ship of Isis was also reverenced at Rome: and is marked in the 88 calendar for the month of March. From whence the mystery was derived, we may learn from $9 Fulgentius. Navigium Isidis Ægyptus colit. Hence we find, that the whole of it came from Egypti The like is shewn by 9° Lactantius. To this pur: pose I could bring innumerable proofs, were I not limited in my progress. I may perhaps hereafter introduce something upon this head, if I should at any time touch upon the antiquities of Britain and Ireland; which seem to have been but imperfectly known. Both of these countries, but especially the latter, abound with sacred terms, which have been greatly overlooked. I will therefore say so much in furtherance of the British Antiquarian, as to inform him, that names of places, especially of hills, promontories, and rivers, are of long duration; and suffer little change. The same may be said of every thing, which was esteemed at all sacred, such as temples, towers, and high mounds of earth; which in early times were used for altars. More particularly all mineral and medicinal waters will be found in a great degree to retain their antient names: and among these there may be observed a resemblance in most parts of the world. For when names have been once determinately affixed, they are not easily effaced.

84 Pliny. 1. 3. c. 20. Cottianæ civitates duodecim. 85 Scholia upon Apollonius. 1. 2. v. 677.

36 TxTwx de ego xao ý to Ideowy yn, xar to KOTT:8. Strabo. I. 4. p. 312.

. (87 Tacitus de Moribus Germanorum. " 88 Gruter. vol. 1, p. 138. *9 Fulgentius: Mytholog. 1. 1. c. 25. p. 655.

III

90 Lactantius de falsa Relig. vol. 1. 1. 1. c. 11. p. 47.

To these instances add the worship of Seatur, and Thuth, called Thautates. See Cluverii Germania. 1. 1. c. 26. p.'188, and 189.

The Grecians, who under Alexander settled in Syria, and Mesopotamia, changed many names of places, and gave to others inflections, and terminations after the mode of their own country. But Marcellinus, who was in those parts under the Emperor Julian, assures us, that these changes and variations were all càncelled: and that in his time the antient names prevailed. Every body, I presume, is acquainted with the history of Palmyra, and of Zenobia the queerr; who having been conquered by the emperor Aurelian, was afterwards led in triumph. How much that city was beautified by this princess, and by those of her family, may be known by the stately ruins which are still extant. Yet I have been assured by my late excellent and learned friend Mr. Wood, that if you were to mention Palmyra to an Arab upon the spot, he would not know to what. you alluded: nor would you find him at all more acquainted with the history of Odænatus, and Zenobia. Instead of Palmyra he would talk of Tedmor; and in lieu of Zenobia he would tell you, that it was built by Salmah Ebn Doud, that is by Solomon the son of David. This is exactly conformable to the account in the scriptures: for it is said in the Book of Chronicles, 91 He also (Solomon) built Tadmor in the wilderness. The

$ 2 Chronicles. c. 8. v. 4.

Grecian name Palmyra, probably of two thousand years standing, is novel to a native Arab.

As it appeared to me necessary to give some account of the rites, and worship, in the first ages, at least in respect to that great family, with which I shall be principally concerned, I took this opportunity at the same time to introduce these etymological inquiries. This I have done to the intent that the reader may at first setting out see the true nature of my system; and my method of investigation. He will hereby be able to judge beforehand of the scope which I pursue; and of the terms on which I found my analysis. If it should appear that the grounds, on which I proceed, are good, and my method clear, and warrantable, the subsequent histories will in consequence of it receive great illustration. But should it be my misfortune to have my system thought precarious, or contrary to the truth, let it be placed to no account, but be totally set aside: as the history will speak for itself; and may without these helps be authenticated.

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London, Printed for J.Nunn, Great Queen Street, Lincolns Inn Fields, 1807.

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