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cisely of the same purport as Hanes. Of this we are informed by the learned geographer, D'Anville, and others; though the yame, by different travellers, is expressed with some variation. 26 Cette ville presque ensévelie, sous des ruines, et voisine, dit Abulfeda, d'un petit lieu nommé Matarea, conserve dans les géographies Arabes le nom d'Ainsiems ou du fontain du Soleil. A like account is given by Egmont and 37 Hayman; though they express the name Ain El Cham; a variation of little consequence. The reason why the antient name has been laid aside, by those who reside there, is undoubtedly this, Bochart tells us that, since the religion of Maho, met has taken place, the Arabs look upon Hanes as the devil: 28 proinde ab ipsis ipse Dæmon DAJT vocatur. Hence they have abolished Hanes: but the name Ain El Cham, of the same purport, they have suffered to remain.
I have before taken notice of an objection liable to be made from a supposition, that if Hanes signified the fountain of light, as I have presumed,
o dodatel 2593:27. Ora 26 D'Anville Memoires sur l'Egypt. p. 114.
27 Travels. vol. 2. p. 107. It is by them expressed Ain el Cham, and appropriated to the obelisk: but the meaning is plain.
78 Bochart. Geog. Sacra. 1. 1. c. 35. p. 638.
it would have been differently expressed in the Hebrew. This is a strange fallacy; but yet very predominant. Without doubt those learned men, who have preceded in these researches, would have bid fair for noble discoveries, had they not been too limited, and biassed; in their notions: But as far as I ain able to judge, most of those, who have engaged in inquiries of this nature, have ruined the purport of their labours through some prevailing prejudice. They have not considered, that every other nation, to which we can possibly gain access, or from whom we have any history derived, appears to have expressed foreign terms differently from the natives, in whose language they were found. And without a miracle the Hebrews must have done the same. We pro nounce all Éretreh dnames differently from the people of what country: iand they do the same in respect to us. What we call London, they express Londres: England they style Angleterre. What sone call Bázilthey pronounce Ball Munchen, Munich : Mentz, Mayence : Rávenspurg, Ratisbon. The like variation was observable of old. Carthago of the Romans was Carchedon among the Greeks. Hannibal was rendered Annibas : Asdrubal, Asdroubas : and probably neither was consonant to the. Punic mode of expression. If then a prophet were to rise from the dead, and 'preach to any nation, he would make use of terms adapted to their idiom and 'usage; without any retrospect to the original of the terms, whether they were domestic, ori foreignos. The sacred writers undoubtedly observed this vale towards the people, for whom they wrote; and varied in their expressing of foreigąsterms; as the usage of the people varied. 14 For the Jewish nation at times differed from its neighbours, and from itself. We may be morally certain, that the place,' rendered by them Ekron, was by the natives called Achoron; the Accáron, Axxapwv, of Josephus, and the Seventy. What they termed Philistim, was Pelestin: Eleazar, in their own language, they changed to Lazar, and Lazarus: and of the Greek ouvidpoor they formed Sanhedrim. Hence we may be certified, that the Jews, and their ancestors, as well as all nations upon earth, were liable to express foreign terms with a variation, being led by a natural peculiarity in their mode of speech. They therefore are surely to be blamed, who would deduce the orthography of all antient words from the Hebrew; and bring every extraneous term to that test. It requires no great insight into that language to see the impropriety of such procedure. Yet no preju. dice has been more 29 common. The learned Michaelis has taken notice of this 30 fatal attach
29 See page 72. notes.
30 Dissertation of the influence of opinion 'upon längnage, and of language upon opinion. Sect. vi. p. 67. of the translation.
ment, and speaks of it as a strange illusion. He says, that it is the reigning influenza, to which all are liable, who make the Hebrew their principal study. - The only way to obtain the latent purport of antient terms:is. by a fair analysis. This must ibe discovered by: an tapparent analogy; and supported by the history of the place, or person, to whom the terms relate. If such helps can be ob tained, we may determinė very truly the ety, mology of an Egyptian or Syriac name; however it may appear repugnant to the orthography of the Hebrews. The term Hanes is not so uncommon as may be imagined. Zeus was worshipped under this title in Greece, and styled Zeus: Aunoios. The Scholiast upon: Apollonius Rhodius mentions his temple, and terms it 31 Διος Αινησια Γερον και μνημονεύει και Aswu su magittaxon. Anporbarnis av Romert. It is also taken notice of by Strabo, who speaks of a moun. tain Hanes, where the temple stood. ?* Mayısou os opos av auTn Aivos (lege Auns) svw To Te Abos Aruno iz lepov. The mountain of Zeus Ainesius must have been Aines, and not Ainos ; though it occurs, so in our present copies of Strabo. hi The Scholiast above quotes ai verse from Hesiod, where the Poet styles the Deity Aivnios, , - vis
i ne sins
wiAinesus, and Ainesius are both alike from Hanes,
the Deity of Egypt, whose rites may be traced in various parts. There were places named Aineas, and Ainesia in Thrace; which are of the same original. · This title occurs sometimes with the prefix Ph’anes: and the Deity so called was by the early theologists thought to have been of the highest antiquity, They esteemed him the same as 3 Ouranus, and Dionusus : and went so far as to give him a creative 34 power, and to deduce all things from him. The Grecians from Phanes formed Davalos, which they gave as a title both to 35 Zeus, and Apollo. In this there was nothing extraordinary, for they were both the same God. In the north of Italy was a district called Ager 30 Pisanus. The etymology of this name is the same as that of Hanes, and Phanes ; only the terms are reversed. It signifies ignis fons: and in confirination of this etymology I have found the