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" Vascaniæ in Hispania FONTI DIVINO.

. How much it prevailed among the Romans we learn from Seneca. + Magnorum fluviorum, capita veneramur- coluntur aquarum calentium fortes; et quædam stagna, quæ vel opacitas, vel immensa altitudo sacravit. It mattered not what the nature of the water might be, if it had a pe culiar quality. At Thebes, in Ammonia, was a fountain, which was said to have been cold by day, and warm at night. 'H sepnum 13 xQXEITQI 18

Nix. It was named the fountain of the Sun. In Campania was a fountain Virena; which I should judge to be a compound of Vir-En, and to signify ignis fons, from being dedicated to the Deity of fire, on account of some particular quality. I accordingly find in 14 Vitruvius, that it was a medicinal spring, and of a strong vitriolic nature. The Corinthians had in their Acropolis a 's Pirene, of the same purport as Virena, just mentioned. It was a beautiful fountain sacred to Apollo, whose 15 image was at the head of the water within a sacred inclosure. · We read of a Pyrene, which was a fountain of another nature; yet of the same etymology, however differently expressed. It was a mountain, and gave name to the vast ridge called Saltus Pyrenæi. It is undoubtedly. a compound of 10 Pur-ain, and signifies a fountain of fire. I should imagine, without knowing the history of the country, that this mountain once flamed; and that the name was given from this circumstance. Agreeably to this, I find, from Aristotle de Mirabilibus, that here was formerly an eruption of fire. The same is mentioned by Posidonius in Strabo ; and also by Diodorus, who adds, "? Tæ per ogn dix to oupe @enxos xamónvar Iluenuose. That the mountains from hence had the name of Pyrenæi. · Mount Ætna is derived very truly by Bochart from Aituna, fornax; as being a reservoir of molten matter. There was another very

** Gruter. Inscript. vol. 1. p. xciv. 12 Senecæ Epist. 41.

13 Herodotus. 1. 4. c. 181. The true name was probably rene, or Curane.

44 Vitruvij Architect. 1. 8. p. 163.
ss Plany. l. 4. C. 4. p. 192. Ovid. Metamorph. 4. 2.

.." Pausanias. I. 2. p. 117. Est ye ön xat Arondwvos ayanya teges on Margnon, xas tegobonos esov.

Pirene and Virene are the same name.
16 Pur, Pir, Phur, Vir: all signify fire.
»? Diodorus Siculus. 1. 5. p. 312.


antient name, Inessus; by which the natives called the hill, as well as the city, which was towards the bottom of it. The name is a compound of Ain-Es, like Hanes in Egypt; and sig. nifies a fountain of fire. It is called Ennesia by Diodorus, who says that this name was afterwards changed to Ætna. . He speaks of the city; but the name was undoubtedly borrowed from the mountain, to which it was primarily applicable, and upon which it was originally conferred : 18 Και την νυν ουσαν Αιτνην έκτησαντο, προ τετε καλεμένην Evonoidv. Strabo expresses the name Innesa; and informs us, more precisely, that the upper part of the mountain was so called, O. de ' 19 Altvasos παραχωρησαντες την Ιννησαν καλεμενην, της Αιτνης ορεινην, wxnoar. Upon this, the people, withdrawing them. selves, went and occupied the upper part of Mount Ætna, which was called Innesa. The city Hanes, in Egypt, was of the same etymology; being denominated from the Sun, who was styled Hanes, Ain-Es, fons ignis sive lucis. It was the same as the Arab Heliopolis, called now Matarea. Stephanus Byzantinus calls the city Inys : for that is manifestly the name he gives it, if we take away the Greek termination.

18 Diodorus Siculus. 1. xi. p. 57.
19 Strabo. 1. 6. p. 412.

40 'Ivusoos, morus 'Aryunty: but Herodotus, 21. from whom he borrows, renders it lënis. It would have been more truly rendered Dorice länis; for that was nearer to the real name. The historian, however, points it out plainly, by saying, that it was three days journey from Mount » Casius ; and that the whole way was through the Arabian desert. This is a situation which agrees with no other city in all Egypt, except that which was the Onium of the later Jews. With this it accords precisely. There seem to have been two cities named On, from the worship of the Sun. One was called Zan, Zon, and Zoan, in the land of Go-zan, the 23 Goshen of the scriptures. The

buio o zi soithutia ST ti moito

of busa gw be r latara ad Jo . 9 Bon so Stephanus says that it was near Mount Casius : but Herodotus expressly tells us, that it was at the distance of three days journey from it.

" Απο ταυτης τα εμπορια τα επι "θαλασσης μεχρι Iηνισε πoλιος επι Te Agaboxs. Herodotus. 1. 3. c. 5.

2. Tοδε μεταξυ Ιηνισε πoλιος, και Κασιε τε ερεος, και της Σερβωνιδος Dojens, 609,84 oregor xwesov, ana OJAN ETS tress, nuspas odor, andgoy 85 deurwą. Ilerodotus. ibidem. ...!

23 Go-zan is the place, or temple, of the Sun. I once thought that Goshen, or, as it is sometimes expressed, Gozan, was the same as Cushan: but I was certainly mistaken. The district of Goshen was indeed the nome of Cushan; but the two words are not of the same purport. Goshen is the same as Go-shan, and Go-zan, analogous to Beth-shan, and signifies the place of the Sun. Go-shen, Go-shan, Go-zan, and Gau-zan, are all varia.

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other was the city On in Arabia; called also Hanes. They were within eight or nine miles of each other, and are both mentioned together by the prophet ** Isaiah. For his princes were at Zoan, and his ambassadors came to Hanes. The name of each of these cities, on account of the similarity of worship, has by the Greeks been translated 1S Heliopolis; which has caused great confusion in the history of Egypt. The latter of the two was the Ian is, or Iano-o?, of the Greeks; »so called from Hanes, the great fountain of light, the Sun; who was worshipped under that title by the Egyptians and Arabians. It lies now quite in ruins, close to the village Matarea, which has risen from it. The situation is so pointed out, that we cannot be mistaken: and we find, moreover, which is a circumstance very remarkable, that it is at this day called by the Arabians Ain El Sham, the fountain of the Sun; a name pre


■ tions of die same name. In respect to On, there were two cities so called. The one was in Egypt, where Poti-phera was Priest. Genesis, c. 41. v. 45. The other stood in Arabia, and is mentioned by the Seventy: fiv, i iri» "HXtairo^f. Exodus, c. 1. v. 11. This was also called Onium, and Hanes, the Ianisus of Herodotus.

•♦Isaiah. c.30. v. 4.

as See Observations upon the Antient History of Egypt, p. 124. -p. 157.

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