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progress would have been greatly retarded. His care likewise, and attention, in many other articles, afford instances of friendship which I shall ever gratefully remember.
I HE materials, of which I purpose to make use in the following inquiries, are comparatively few, and will be contained within a small compass. They are such as are to be found in the composition of most names, which occur in antient mythology: whether they relate to Deities then reverenced; or to the places, where their worship was introduced. But they appear no where so plainly, as in the names of those places, which were situated in Babylonia and Egypt. From these parts they were, in process of time, transferred to countries far remote; beyond the Ganges eastward, and to the utmost bounds of the Mediterranean west; wherever the sons of Ham under their various denominations either settled or traded. For I have mentioned that this people were great adventurers; and began an extensive commerce in very early times. They got footing in many parts; where they founded cities, which
VOL. I. B
were famous in their day. They likewise erected towers and temples: and upon headlands and promontories they raised pillars for sea-marks to direct them in their perilous expeditions. All these were denominated from circumstances, that had some reference to the religion, which this people professed; and to the ancestors, Avhence they sprung. The Deity, which they originally Worshipped, was the Sun. But they soon conferred his titles upon some of their ancestors: whence arose a mixed worship. They particularly deified the great Patriarch, who was the head or their line; and worshipped him as the fountain of light: making the Sun only an emblem of his influence and power. They called him Bal, and Baal: and there were others of their ancestry joined with him, whom they styled the Baalim. Chus was one of these: and this idolatry began among his sons. In respect then to the names, which this people, in process of time, conferred either upon the Deities they worshipped, or upon the cities, which they founded; we shall find them to be generally made up of some original terms for a basis, such as Ham, Cham, and Chus: or else of the titles, with which those personages were, in process of time, honoured. These were Thoth, Men or Menes, Ab, El, Aur, Ait, Ees or Ish, On, Bel, Cohen, Keren, Ad, Adon, Ob, Oph, Apha, Uch, Melech, Anac, Sar, Sama,
Samaïm. We must likewise take notice of those common names, by which places are distinguished, such as Kir, Caer, Kiriath, Carta, Air, Col, Cala, Beth, Ai, Ain, Caph, and Cephas. Lastly are to be inserted the particles Al and Pi; which were in use among the antient Egyptians.
Of these terms I shall first treat ; which I look upon as so many elements, whence most names in antient mythology have been compounded; and into which they may be easily resolved : and the history, with which they are attended, will, at all times, plainly point out, and warrant the etymology.
HAM or CHAM. The first of the terms here specified is Ham; at different times, and in different places, expressed Chain, Chom, 'Chamus. Many places were from him denominated Cham Ar, Cham Ur, Chomana, Comara, Camarina. Ham, by the Egyptians, was compounded Am-On, Aμων and Αμμων. He is to be found under this name among many nations in the east; which was by the Greeks expressed Amanus, and ‘Omanus. Ham, and Cham are
go *Called also Chumus. Lilius Gyraldus speaks of the Phenician God Chumus. Syntag. 1. p. 7.
? Of Amanus, and Omanus, see Strabo. 1. 11. p. 779. and 1. 15. p. 1066. He calls the temple ‘Ieçox Opavě,
words, which imply heat, and the consequences of heat; and from them many words in other languages, such as ? Kaupa, Caminus, Camera, were derived. Ham, as a Deity, was esteemed the 4 Sun: and his priests were styled Chamin, Chaminim, and Chamerim. His name is often found compounded with other terms, as in Cham El, Cham Ees, Cam Ait: and was in this manner, conferred both on persons and places. From hence Camillus, Camilla, Camella Sacra, Comates, Camisium, Camirus, Chemmis, with numberless other words, are derived. Chamma was the title of the hereditary priestess of Diana : and the Puratheia, where the rites of fire were carried on, were called Chamina, and Chaminim, whence came the Caminus of the Latines. They were sacred hearths, on which was preserved a perpetual fire in honour of Cham.. The idols of the Sun were called by the same ’name: for it is said of
3 Et Solem et calorem non Chammha vocant (Syri.) Selden de Diis Syris. Syntag. 2. c. 8. p. 247.
4 The Sun in the Persic language, Hama. Gale's Court of the Gentiles. v. 1. c. 11. p. 72. . Camisene, Chamath, Chamane, Choma, Chom, Cuma, Camæ, Camelis, Cambalidus, Comopolis, Comara, &c. All these are either names of places, where the Amonians settled ; or are terms, which have a reference to their religion and worship.
Plutarch. Amatorius. vol. 2. p. 768. i ? 2 Chron. c. 34. v. 4. Ngov siwdaos Kasjao re gorayogevely. Plutarch. Isis et Osiris. vol. 2. p. 374.