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racter of Tubalcain, 9° who teas an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron. Upon the same principles Philo Biblius speaking of Chrusor, a person of great antiquity, who first built a ship, and navigated the seas; who also first taught husbandry, and hunting, supposes him to have been Vulcan; because it is farther said of him, 91 that he first manufactured iron. From this partial resemblance to Vulcan or Ilephastus, Bochart is induced to derive his name from Tin tP"Q, Chores Ur, an artificer in 9lfire. These learned men do not consider, that though the name, to which they refer, be antient, and oriental, yet the character, and attributes, are comparatively modern, having been introduced from another quarter. Vulcan the blacksmith, who was tho master of the Cyclops, and forged iron in Mount jEtna, was a character familiar to the Greeks, and Romans. But this Deity among the Egyptians, and Babylonians, had nothing similar to this description. They esteemed Vulcan as the chief of the Gods the same as the Sun: and his name is a sacred title, compounded of Baal-Cahen, Belus sanctus, vel Princeps; equivalent to Orus, or Osiris. If the name were of a different original, .

f Genesis, c. 4. v. 25.

91 Philo apud Eusebium. Praep. Evan. 1. i.e. iO.

-*1 Bochart. Geograph, Sacra. I. 2. c. 2. p. 700".

yet it would be idle to seek for an etymology founded on later conceptions, and deduced from properties not originally inherent in the personage. According to 93 Hermapion he was looked upon as the source of all divinity, and in consequence of it the inscription upon the portal of the temple at Heliopolis was 'HpX15W TW Otwv late. To Vulcan the Father of the Gods. In short, they who first appropriated the name of Vulcan to their Deity, had no notion of his being an artificer in brass or iron : or an artificer in any degree. Hence we must be cautious in forming ideas of the antient theology of nations from the current notions of the Greeks, and Romans; and more especially from the descriptions of their poets. Polytheism, originally vile, aud unwarrantable, was rendered ten times more base by coming through their hands. To instance in one particular: among all the dæmon herd what one is there of a form, and character, so odious, and contemptible as Priapus? an obscure ill-formed Deity, who was ridiculed and dishonoured by his very votaries. His hideous figure was made use of only as a bugbear to frighten children; and to drive the birds from fruit trees; with whose filth he was generally

93 Marcellinus. I. 22. c. 15. He was also called Elous. Elwos, Hpaisos naça Awpievow. Hesych. The Latine title of Mulciber was a compound of Melech Aber, Rex, Parens lucis.

besmeared. Yet, this contemptible God, this scarecrow in a garden, was held in high repute at Lampsacus, and esteemed the same as 94 Dionusus. He was likewise by the Egyptian's reverenced as the principal God; no other than the Chaldaic 95 Aur, the same as Orus and Apis: whose rites were particularly solemn. It was from hence that he had his name: for Priapus of Greece is only a compound of Peor-Apis among the Egyptians. He was sometimes styled Peor singly; also Baal Peor; the same with whose rites the Israelites are so often % upbraided. His temples likewise are mentioned, which are styled Beth Peor. In short, this wretched divinity of the Romans was looked upon by others as the soul of the world: the first principle, which brought all things into light, and ' being. 97 Tipintos á xoqueos, in o opacows aute Moroso

The author of the Orphic hymns styles him 98 Tipwrogovor—-yeveo u pedese rews, Buntwv e’ arbewowy. The first born of the world, from whom all the immor

94 Tιμαται δε παρα Λαμψακηνοις ο Πρίαπος, και αυτος ων το Διονυσα. Athenæus. l. 1. p. 30.

96 To ayanjce II ponte, 78 xat 398 Tog' Asyuntiois. Suidas.

96 Numbers. c. 25. 1. 3. Deuteronomy. c. 4. v. 3. Joshua. c. 22. v. 17.

Kircher derives Priapus from 770 710, Pehorpeh, os nuditatis. 97 Phurnutus de naturâ Deorum. c. 17. p. 205.

58 Orphic Hymn 5. to Protogonus, the same as Phanes, and Priapus. See verse 10.

VOL. I.

tals, and mortals were descended. This is a character, which will hereafter be found to agree well with Dionusus. Phurnutus supposes Priapus to have been the same as Pan, the shepherd God: who was equally degraded, and misrepresented on one hand, and as highly reverenced on the other.

"Iirwf S1 av Outo; x«» o ]Tfni7ro? tin, xxQ' ov Ttooium Ei? pwt

Ta rravrix,' rwv xw&tte* F Ekti AaijUrOvw^. Probably Pan is no other than the God Priapus, by whose mean all things were brought into light. They are both Deities of high ,0° antiquity. Yet the one was degraded to a filthy monster; and of the other they made a scarecrow.

"Phurnutus. c. 17. p. 204.

nag* AiyvvTiinn ie Tlan pen a^atoraro;, xai rut Oxth TW vguTm bcyopivuT Qtat. Herodotus. 1. 2. c. 145. Albae Juliae Inscriptio. PRIEPO PANTHEO.

. Gruter. v. 1. p. xcv. nil.

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IT may be proper to take some previous notice of those writers, to whose assistance we must particularly have recourse; and whose evidence may be most depended upon, in disquisitions of this nature. All knowledge of Gentile antiquity must be derived to us through the hands of the Grecians: and there is not of them a single writer, to whom we may not be indebted for some advantage. The Helladians, however, from whom we might expect most light, are to be admitted with the greatest caution. They were a bigotted people, highly prejudiced in their own favour; and so devoted to idle tradition, that no arguments could wean them from their folly. Hence

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