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Sama; so we find places, which have a reference to this term, in Elis. A town of great antiquity was named 7 Samicon, which signifies Coeli Dominus. Here was also a temple of Poseidon Samius, surrounded with a grove of olives; and there were festivals observed, which were called Samia. There was likewise of old a city named Sama, or Samos : which Strabo imagines, might have been so named from its high situation: for high places were called Samia. It certainly sig, nifies in some degree high; but the true meaning of Sama was heavenly, similar to Sam, Sham, Shamem, of the eastern nations. Hence Same, Samos, Samothrace, Samacon, were denominated on account of their sanctity. Strabo supposes, that the city Samos in Elis was situated in the Samian plain : it therefore could not well have this name from its high situation. · It is moreover inconsistent to suppose regions called xudd, or cava, to have been denominated from Sama, high. In short both terms have been mistaken: and Coilus in the original acceptation certainly signified heavenly: whence we read in Hesychius, as also in Suidas, Kolorns, ó 'Iepeus. By which we learn, that by Coioles was meant a sacred or heavenly person; in other words, a priest of Cælus.
7 Strabo. 1. 8. p. 529. * Strabo. I. 8. p. 534.
In Coioles there is but a small variation from the original term; which was a compound from CoiEl, or Co-El, the Coelus of the Romans.
Concerning the term Ccel in Ennius, 'Janus Gulielmus takes notice, that this poet copied the Dorians in using abbreviations, and writing Coel for Coelus and Caelum. But herein this learned person is mistaken. The Dorians were not so much to be blamed for their abbreviating, as the other Greeks were for their unnecessary terminations, and inflexions. Tbe more simple the terms, the more antient and genuine we may for the most part esteem them: and in tbe language of the Dorians we may perceive more terms relative to the true mythology of the country, and those rendered more similar to the antient mode of expression, than are elsewhere to be found. We must, therefore, in all etymological inquiries, have recourse to the Doric manner of pronunciation, to obtain the truth. They came into Greece, or Hellotia, under the name of Adorians; and from their simplicity of manners, and from the little intercourse maintained with foreigners, they preserved much of their antient tongue. For this there may be another additional reason obtained from Herodotus; who tells us, that they were more immediately descended from the people of the "east. The antient hymns, sung in the Prataneia all over Greece, were "Doric: so sacred was their dialect esteemed. Hence they cannot hut afford great help in inquiries of this nature. What was by others styled AQvn, they expressed A9«va: Cheops they rendered Chaops: Zeen, Zan: Xx^rtvn, Xx^xvtx.: Mw, Mocv: Menes, Manes: Orchenoi, Orchanoi: Neith, Naith: I*in<ro?, Ianj-o;: Hephaestus, Hephastus: Caiete, Caiate: Demeter, Damater: all which will be found of great consequence in respect to etymology. And if they did not always admit of the terminations used by their neighbours: the}' by these means preserved many words in their primitive state: at least they were nearer to the originals. They seem to have retained the very term, of which I have been treating. It was by them styled Xa«, Cai; and signified a house, or cave: for the first houses in the infancy of the world are supposed to have been caves or grottos". They expressed it Cai, Caia, Caias, similar to the cava, cavws, and caveaofthc Romans. When these places were of a great
9 Janus Gulielmus Laurenbergius, Antiquarius. Herod. 1. 6. c. 54.
Of their original and history I shall hereafter givo a full account. Qirocra, fft atfovaiv ts Tw TlpvTtziHw, (puvrt f/.ev tr* Kvtuv Vi &ucw. Pausanias. 1. 5. p. 4l6.
11 Turn primum subicrc domos; domus antra fuerc.
Ovid. Metamorph. 1. 1. v. 121.
depth, or extent, they were looked upon with 'a kind of religious horror.' A cavern of this sort was at Lacedæmon, with a building over it; of, which in aftertimes they made use to confine malefactors. It was called Karadns, or as the Spartans expressed it, Kavadas, the house of death. "3 Karadas deruwonerovT0 Tapa Aaneda sportois. Cai signified a cavern: Adas, which is subjoined, was the Deity, to whom it was sacred, esteemed the God of the infernal regions. He was by the Ionians, &c. expressed Ades, and Hades; and by other nations Ait, and Atis. Hence these caverns were also styled Καιετες, and Καιετοι. The author above quoted gives us the terms variously exhibited : 14 KALET 01. — 'Oi amo TWV CELO MW pwxmos KOIETOL λεγονται. Και Καιάδας το δεσμωτηριον εντευθεν, το παρα Aaxedaspeonions, canalov. Hesychius renders it in the plural, and as a neuter: xalata, opuypsta. Whether it be compounded Cai-Ait, Cai-Atis, or Cai-Ades, the purport is the same. The den of Cacus was properly a sacred cave, where Chus was worshipped, and the rites of fire were 's prac
13 Strabo. 1. 8. p. 361. It is Imentioned by Thucydides: Ες τον Καιάδαν, υπερ τας lausęyos embarassy ew@sugav. (á Aaxedaipovtos.) 1. 1. c. 134.
It is expressed Koedoes by Pausanias ; who says that it was the place, down which they threw Aristomenes, the Messenian hero. 1. 4. p. 324.
14 Strabo. Ibidem. . is Huic monstro Vulcanus erat pater: illius atros . .
tised. Cacus is the same name as Cuscha iii Ethiopia, only reversed. The history of it was obsolete in the days of Virgil; yet some traces of it still remained.
Strabo says that many people called these caves
Kwoi. Ewoi xtoouj ftxXXov Ta ToiavTtx. xoiXwjU.«Ta Xtyitr
6ai faa-tv. Hence he very truly explains a passage in Homer. The poet, speaking of Theseus, Dryas, Polyphemus, and other heroes of the Mythic age, mentions their encountering with the mountaineers of Thessaly, whom he styles <pn^ ofja-jpooi:
OfEa-j^uoc signified a person, who lived in a mountain habitation; whose retreat Avas a house in a mountain. Co, and Coa, was the name of such house. Strabo says that this term is alluded to by Homer, when he styles Lacedasmon ,8 AxxsSxipovx wruiira-xv, for it was by many thought to have been so called on account of their caverns. From hence we may fairly conclude, that xnruero-x was
Ore voraens ignes, magna se mole ferebat. Virgil. Mn. 1. 8. v. 193.
"Strabo. 1.8. p. 564.
"Iliad. 1.1. v. 266.
18 Iliad. B. v. 581.
Odyss. A. V. 1. '©(£' gov KOIAHN Aaxs&n^ow KHTJJEXZAN.