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notes, ibid., X., 97-109; Pierce's notes, ibid., III., 310-334. The bibliography of the letters written by the leaders of the Philadelphia convention appears in J. Franklin Jameson, “Studies in the History of the Federal Convention of 1787" (American Historical Association, Annual Report, 1902, I.), which also contains very important treatment of the convention. Of service to the investigator is William M. Meigs, Growth of the Constitution in the Federal Convention of 1787 (1900). Luther Martin's “Letter,” or “Genuine Information,” is in Elliot, Debates, I., 344-389. On “the law of the land ” and powers of the judiciary, see Brinton Coxe, Essay on Judicial Power, etc. (1893); William M. Meigs, “The Relation of the Judiciary to the Constitution" (American Law Review, 1885, 175-203); J. B. Thayer, Cases, I., 48-94; Austin Scott, “Holmes vs. Walton: the New Jersey Precedent” (American Historical Review, IV., 456– 469). For Pinckney's plan, see ibid., IX., 735–747; also American Historical Association, Annual Report, 1902, I., 111-132. On the compromises, see Max Farrand, “Compromises of the Constitution” (American Historical Review, IX., 479-489).
THE ADOPTION OF THE CONSTITUTION
For bibliography, see Paul L. Ford, Bibliography and Reference List, mentioned above; and J. Franklin Jameson, in American Historical Association, Annual Report, 1902, I. The most essential material is included in Jonathan Elliot, Debates, II., III., IV. Ample treatment in George Bancroft, History of the Constitution, II., and G. T. Curtis, History of the Constitution, II. A few works treating the subject monographically or containing special collections of sources are indispensable, notably J. B. McMaster and F. D. Stone, Pennsylvania and the Federal Constitution, 1787-1788 (1888); Samuel B. Harding, The Contest Over the Ratification of the Federal Constitution in the State of Massachusetts (Harvard Historical Studies, 1896), a thoroughly satisfactory monograph with a good bibliography; Orin G. Libby, The Geographical Distribution of the Vote of the Thirteen States on the Federal Constitution, 1787– 1788 (University of Wisconsin, Bulletin, Economics, Political Science, and History Series, I., No. 1, 1894), containing a good bibliography. Use can be made of Debates and Proceedings in the Convention of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 1788 (1856); Joseph B. Walker, A History of the New Hampshire Convention ... 1788 (1888); Belknap Papers (Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, 5th series, vols. II. and III.; 6th series, vol. IV.); Debates and other Proceedings of the Convention of Virginia (2d ed., 1805); “Letters on ... the Federal Constitution in Virginia" (Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings, 2d series, 1903).
The most important material showing the differences of opinion concerning the Constitution is to be found in Paul L. Ford, Essays on the Constitution of the United States, Published during its Discussion by the People, 1787-1788 (1892); Paul L. Ford, Pamphlets on the Constitution of the United States, Published during its Discussion by the People, 1787–1788 (1888). Twenty-two of these essays and pamphlets appear in E. H. Scott, The Federalist and Other Constitutional Papers (2 vols., 1894). For a discussion of the movement for a second convention, see the essay by E. P. Smith, in Essays in the Constitutional History of the United States in the Formative Period, 1775-1789, edited by J. F. Jameson (1889), which contains a number of other essays helpful on this period.
There are several editions of The Federalist besides those contained in the collections of Hamilton's writings; the best edited by P. L. Ford (1898); a good one edited by H. B. Dawson (1863); another edited by E. G. Bourne (1901); another edited by E. H. Scott (1894). The authorship of the disputed numbers of The Federalist is discussed by E. G. Bourne and P. L. Ford in the American Historical Review, II., 443-460, 675-687. Important for studying the origin of the Constitution are James H. Robinson, “The Original and Derived Features of the Constitution" (American Academy of Political and Social Science, Annals, I., 203– 243); Alexander Johnston, "The First Century of the Constitution” (New Princeton Review, IV., 175-190); W. C. Morey, “The Genesis of a Written Constitution” (American Academy of Political and Social Science, Annals, I., 529557); Charles E. Stevens, Sources of the Constitution of the United States Considered in Relation to Colonial and English History (1894).
THE CHARACTER OF THE CONSTITUTION
The books and articles on this subject are legion. Attention may be called especially to the able treatment in J. I. C. Hare, American Constitutional Law (2 vols., 1889), the earlier chapters; Roger Foster, Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States (1 vol. published, 1895-). Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution (Cooley's or Bigelow's ed., 1873 or 1891, 2 vols.). For the statesovereignty interpretation, the best treatments are Alexander H. Stephens, A Constitutional View of the Late War between the States (2 vols., 1868-1870); John R. Tucker, The Constitution of the United States (2 vols., 1899). The contemporary notion of the Constitution as a compact analogous to the social compact is given in A. C. McLaughlin, “Social Compact and Constitutional Construction" (American Historical Review, V., 467-490).
ABDRAHAMAN, Tripolitan am- Barbary States, depredations,
90; demands, 106.
sioner, 6; in Holland, 7; ne-
Belknap, Jeremiah, on finan-
Bibliographies of period 1781-
attempts at, 53-55, 79, 82-86, stitution, 318, 334.
in Constitution, 283, 288,
179-181; call, 181; meeting, 1788, 320-322.
Boone, Daniel, in Kentueky,
Boundaries, peace negotiations,
II, 24, 27-29; French atti-
tude, 14; West Florida, 27,
29, 91, 92.
vention, 190, 255.
representation, 233; on grand Chase, Samuel, Anti-Federal.
Cincinnati, Society, 67; oppo- posed amendments, 332. See
also Commerce, Finances,
ate impost, 83; Anti - Fed-Congress, Federal, Virginia plan
of, 192; proportional repre-
227-239; bicameral, 199, 226;
election for House, 199, 204;
origin of legislation, 201; pow-
tion for Senate, 205; commer-
of judicial interpretation,
ter, 336. See also Federal
trol over legislation, 152, 250.
tions to peace commission-
47;, powers, 47-50, 53; why government, 47; and army,
pany, 119; agent before Con.