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be amiss barely to allude to the amount of commerce there some sixty years ago, as compared with recent dates. In 1776, the number of vessels which entered the port of Cadiz, was 949, of which 265 were French. In 1777, there were 935, of which 280 were French. In 1835, there were 2,699 arri. vals at Cadiz, of which 2,176 were Spanish vessels, most of them of a small class; — 286 were English ; 79 were from the United States; 22 were French; 34 Russian, and the rest from other nations of Europe. In 1834, there were 240 English vessels in Cadiz, carrying 31,899 tons, and manned by 1,968
During the same year, there were 71 vessels from the United States, with a tonnage of 20,630, and manned by 941 seamen.
After leaving Cadiz, early in the year 1836, we sailed to Gibraltar, and from thence to Lisbon. From Lisbon, we went to Mahon, to Toulon, in France, to Italy, Sicily, and Greece.
CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF SPAIN.
Rev. Mr. Rule ; his History, Labors, Journal. – Sabbath at Cadiz. - Journey
to Seville. - Religious Condition of the City. - Priest of St. Gil. - Students. – Infidelity. – Journey to Madrid. - Bishop of Astorga. - Spanish Versions of the Bible. Union of the Spanish and English Churches.Augustine Monk ; his Views of Spain. - Prohibited Books. – Opposi. tion to Papacy. – Prisoners. Señor Potia. - Friars. - Public Morals and Religion. - Spanish Hymns.- Circulation of the Bible in Spain : Missions there. – Feelings of the People. — Facilities for Social Intercourse. - Liberty of the Press. — Religious Laws. - Bishop of Cadiz. - English Influence. - Versions of the Scriptures. - Catechisms. - Infidel Books. Catholic Works. - - Thoughts on Popery. - Education in Spain. - Emigrants, - Governors of Cadiz and Barcelona. - Archbishop of Toledo. Spanish Schools and Colleges.
DURING one of our earlier visits to Gibraltar, I became acquainted with the Rev. Mr. Rule, who for several years had been laboring among the Spanish population there, under the patronage of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society in England. He had originally been destined as a missionary to Jerusalem, and resided for a time at Malta, to acquire a knowledge of the Italian and Arabic languages. He was there a fellow-student of the Rev. Eli Smith, missionary from the United States, and favorably known to the literary and religious public, as joint author with the Rev. Mr. Dwight of a valuable work on Armenia, the result of their travels in that country. Mr. Rule, besides the knowledge which he acquired of the Arabic, became so familiar with the Italian, that he could preach in it extempore with the greatest facility. He is now able to do the same in Spanish, having two public services in that language on the Sabbath, and, when we were at Gibraltar, he and his lady gave gratuitous instruction to fifty or sixty bright-looking Spanish children during the week. He has read the Hebrew Bible through, is quite at home in Latin, Greek, Syriac, and Rab binical Hebrew, and, in addition to preparing a hymn-book, tracts, and larger works in Spanish, is engaged in a new translation of the New Testament, with a commentary in the same language. So accurate is his knowledge and pronun
ciation of the language, that Spaniards, who care little for the truths he utters, have been among his hearers merely from the pleasure which it gave them to listen to the fulness and melody with which he speaks their native tongue. In addition to a choice and valuable library of theology, he has the best English and German works in philology and sacred criticism. I have spoken thus freely of this gentleman, not so much from the fact of my having spent many hours of pleasant social intercourse with him, as because he is a highly important witness as to the religious condition and prospects of Spain. Early in 1835, Mr. Rule made a tour through Spain, visiting Madrid and other important cities; and some extracts, which he permitted me to make from his copious journal, having been published in the United States, excited much interest in behalf of Spain, both there and in England. His familiar knowledge of the language, and his free intercourse with men of high standing in the Catholic church in Spain, placed within his reach important sources of information, which at a later period, when making a similar tour, owing to the distracted state of the country, were not open to me. I shall therefore here avail myself to some extent of extracts from his journal, to show the strong hold which infidelity has gained in Spain, as also the strong opposition there is in the Catholic church there to the claims of the Pope. These extracts are as follows: “January 11th, 1835. - At Cadiz.
At Cadiz. It is the Lord's Day, yet all is business. The market is crowded, and the shops, with very few exceptions, open. Along the narrow balconied streets all is life and bustle, and the Alameda, Plaza, and other public places are thronged with people in holyday dress.
January 12th. This morning called on Mr. Hortel, the principal bookseller in Cadiz, who has for some time past been waiting to receive copies of the Scriptures in Spanish for sale in his shop. He is perfectly willing and even desirous to receive them. Yet the circumstance that the Bible, except when printed with notes approved by the church, is a prohibited book, and the fact, that an ecclesiastic is always posted at the Custom-House, to prevent contagion from being introduced into the kingdom by prohibited books, must lead us to employ the utmost caution as to their introduction.
January 13th. - Left Cadiz for Seville. At Xerez five students of the law entered the diligence to proceed to the University of Seville. We had some brisk conversation on
subjects of doctrine, produced by their questions as to the faith and practice of the Protestants. I spoke as freely as if I had been in England, not having any reason to shroud the truth, no, not even in Spain. Spaniards themselves speak freely, even to licentiousness, and therefore it becomes our duty to speak freely also. So far from taking offence they appeared to be gratified at receiving information.
January 14th. -Reached Seville. Went to call on Don Juan Ramon Ramirez, who had called on me repeatedly at Gibraltar. One Sunday evening, after the Spanish sermon, he came to me and requested an interview. The next morning he called again. He told me that he was like a ship without helm or pilot, disgusted with his own priesthood, and yet quite uninformed on the subject of religion. I was pleased with his frankness, and advised him to read a Bible which he purchased, and invited him to call again. He did
When I called at his house, his mother instantly conjectured who I was, and on calling a second time, for then he was not at home, he told me that my bed was ready for me, and that his house was to be my home. He has numerous family connexions in this city, who he states will be ready to declare themselves Protestants as soon as the religion so desired by the people shall have been proclaimed. He says, that the population of Seville is 90,000, of whom 70,000 do not go to mass, nor yet confess. These 70,000 then are chiefly abandoned to infidelity, or sunk into indiffer
A comedy entitled “The Devil Preacher' is to be exhibited this evening, in which it is said friars will be personated on the stage. This is done openly in one of the chief towns in Spain, an Episcopal see, and the residence of a Cardinal Archbishop. None prevent it, for none can.
“January 15th. -Ramirez went with me to see the parish priest of St. Gil. He is a frank and pleasant man, but lax in his religious sentiments. Speaking of the affairs of Spain, he coolly asked me, if I thought that God meddled with such trifles as the quarrels of such insignificant creatures as we are. At our Vice-Consul's I had a conversation with a very intelligent gentleman. Speaking of the immense possessions of the monastic bodies, he was led to notice the friars, which he did with the utmost contempt. He stated that of late none of respectable families have taken the habit, and he predicted the rapid abolition of monasticism.
" January 16th. — I have had a long conversation to-day
with parties of students, who asked me a variety of questions as to the doctrines and practices of the different religious sects in England. They tell me, that there are 3,000 students of law, medicine, and divinity in the University; the greater part of whom are, it is to be feared, infidels. A number of them brought me their books, which had on their covers the titles of devotional works, but which, upon opening them, proved to be the writings of Voltaire, and others of the same class.
January 22d. - Reached Madrid. Towards the close of the journey, I had a conversation with a gentleman of wealth and intelligence, by the name of Hernandez. He spoke of monkery with the utmost contempt; but says, that even in the convents there are some learned men of liberal minds, who now desire the abolition of monasticism. He considers the toleration of the Protestant religion as a measure of government, so necessary to the commercial prosperity of Spain, that it will be impossible longer to avoid it.
“This morning I called on Mr. Razola, a bookseller, with whom I had corresponded before. He is friendly to the great object of disseminating the truth by means of the press, and desires to receive, if possible, Bibles for sale in his shop.
“January 23d. - This morning I called on Don Felix Torres Amat, Bishop of Astorga, Translator of the Scriptures into Spanish. He is a truly amiable man. He said that he had received kind assistance from Englishmen, in reference to his version of the Bible, and recounted the services they had rendered him. He said that he acknowledged the Protestants to be true Christians, and knew many of them to be actuated by the most pious and generous sentiments. He dwelt with great apparent interest on the incidents of an early friendship formed with an English gentleman in Spain, many years ago, when both were young, with whom he has lately renewed correspondence, and who has been his agent in sending his version of the Bible to America. In compliance with a request that he would give information of the versions of the Bible published in Spanish, by the Bible societies, he has transmitted to Rome an assurance that, having seen all, as he believes, of these versions, and examined the principal passages cited in controversy between us, he has not detected the slightest corruption in any one instance.
At the same time he has told the Pope, that if Catholics calumniate Protestants, bylaying against them accusations which cannot be substantiated, they will inevitably lose their cause.