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had extended his conquests far and wide, Muza ben Nozier, his superior in command, who had remained behind in Africa, becoming jealous of the renown acquired by Tarick, and, anxious himself to reap the glory of the enterprise, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar with an army of 18,000 men, and besieged Carmona. Several brilliant and desperate sallies were made by the inhabitants, who carried devastation and slaughter to the heart of the Saracen camp, and bravely perished there, while those who attempted to storm the city were met by showers of stones, arrows, and boiling pitch, and were thus overthrown and defeated. When matters were in this position, the traitor Count Julian, who had deserted the cause of his country, devised a stratagem for delivering the city into the hands of the Arabs. Dressing himself and a number of his followers in the garb of travelling merchants, just at the time of evening twilight they reached one of the gates, conducting a train of mules laden with arms. Claiming that they were pursued by the Arabs, the gates were opened to them, and they were received with joy. At midnight they secretly assembled at one of the gates, which, after having surprised and killed the guards, they opened, and thus admitted the Saracen army

A savage massacre ensued, in which none were spared, but such of the females as by their youth and beauty were fitted to grace the harems of their conquerors.* Such are some of the evils with which war and military ambition have cursed the earth, and darkened and disgraced the history of man.

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CHAPTER XIII.

SEVILLE, CADIZ, AND XEREZ.

History of Seville. - Muza. - Exilona. – Othman. - Alfonso the Sixth.

Zaida. — Expulsion of the Moors. – Walls of the City. - Houses. — School of the Noble Arts. - Spanish Painters. - Collections of Paintings. – Convents. - Murillo.

Hospital. — Population. Longevity. The Golden Tower. — Italica. - Roman Emperors. — The Alcazar. — Hall of the Ambassadors. - Gardens. - House of Pilate. — Cannon-Foundery. — Tobacco Factory. - Female Operatives.- Cathedral. - Giralda.- Paintings: - Columbian Library. - Clergy. - Society and Manners. — Parting of Friends.

- A Spanish Steamboat. – A Foolish Priest. Arrive at Cadiz. - Situation of the City. - Its Beauty. – Population. Public Morals. - Houses. - St. Mary's. — Xerez. – Vintage. Wine-Press. - Manufacture of Wine. - Temperance Wines. — Agrass. - Wine-Vaults. — Wealth of the WineMerchants. Anecdotes of Robbers. — Crime. — Roads. — Agriculture. Commerce of Cadiz. We leave Cadiz.

We entered Seville by the Gate of Xerez, and, taking lodgings at the principal hotel, a number of days were busily spent in examining the curiosities of the place. Its ancient name was Hispalis, and, though its origin is lost in the shades of remote antiquity, yet Spanish historians speak of it as one of the oldest cities of Europe, and claim that it was founded by Hercules Livius, in the year of the creation 2228, or 592 years after the deluge, and 1717 before Christ. This would make it contemporary with the time of the patriarch Jacob, an age as great surely as any modest city could well wish to be honored with. Others suppose that Seville was founded at a later day by the Phænicians; but, be this as it may, its favorable situation for commerce, lying as it does on the banks of the Guadalquivir, and surrounded far and wide by one of the most fertile regions in the world, must early have made it a rich and flourishing city. Thus we find that in ? the time of the Romans it attained to the dignity of a colony, was the seat of one of the public tribunals of justice, and with Cadiz and Cordova held a conspicuous place in connexion with the wars of Cæsar and Pompey, and other important events which occurred in Spain. Seville was afterwards the capital of the Vandals, of the Goths during the early part of their domination, and of the Moors from 1031 until their

expulsion from the city in 1248. Since that period different kings of Spain have at various times held their court there.

When the Arab General, Muza, had taken Carmona, he next marched against Seville, where he met with a vigorous opposition. But the inhabitants, seeing that they could not long defend the city, it was resolved that a body of the young men should leave the city, and, cutting their way through the ranks of the enemy, seek aid from abroad, and then return to its rescue. They assembled to the number of 3,000, and, leaving the city at dead of night, made a desperate attack on the Moslem camp, and, having slaughtered a large number, they escaped and fled to Beza, in Portugal. The next morning the Saracens perceived that the gates of the city were open, and a deputation of aged and venerable men presented themselves at the tent of the general, imploring mercy, and placing the city at his disposal. A moderate tribute was exacted of the inhabitants, and a guard left for the defence of the city. Soon after the departure of the Saracen army, however, the young men who had fled by night returned with foreign aid, and took the city, but the Arabs speedily recaptured it, and slaughtered a large number of the inhabitants. From that time forward Seville increased in wealth and prosperity, while the Moors were in power there, until, in the days of her highest glory, she is said to have contained a population of 400,000 souls. No one will wonder that such should have been the fact, who has wandered over the widespread and fertile plains of Andalusia, when clothed in the deep and glowing verdure of their rich and luxuriant vegetation. Indeed, it is computed even now, that this province, with proper tillage, would furnish wheat enough for the support of a population of 50,000,000.

The beautiful Exilona, daughter of the king of Algiers, had been betrothed to the sovereign of Tunis; and, while proceeding in splendid array to his capital, where the nuptials were to be celebrated, the bark in which she sailed was driven by storms upon the coast of Spain. She was con: ducted to Toledo, then the capital of the Gothic king, Don Roderic, who, being captivated by her charms, and she renouncing the Mahometan for the Catholic faith, he made her

After his overthrow at the battle of Xerez, she fell into the hands of the Saracens, and was conducted as a captive to Seville, where Abdalasis, the son of Muza, the first Emir of Spain, had fixed his court. It was there her lot

his queen.

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again to win the affections of a sovereign, who held her in his power, and a second time to become a queen. But, as she still adhered to Christianity, the enemies of Abdalasis falsely accused him of having become, through her influence, an apostate from the Moslem faith, and of aiming, through the aid of the Christians, to erect for himself an independent sovereignty in Spain. As a result of these calumnies, the Caliph of Damascus issued an order for the death of Abdalasis; and he and his wife, who were then at a country palace, were seized by a mob while engaged in devotion at the shrines of their respective systems of faith, were hurried to the great square in Seville, where public executions are still performed, and were there beheaded on the scaffold, amid the shouts and execrations of a deluded and fanatical rabble. Their bodies would have been devoured by dogs, had not some friendly hand conveyed them by night to a place of burial. Thus perished these ill-fated lovers, and though Abdalasis when seized was in a mosque, worshipping at the shrine of Mahomet, yet his name, with that of his wife, has ever been held sacred, as having died as martyrs to the Christian faith.

At a later period we read that Othman, a Saracen chief in Spain, having taken captive the daughter of the Duke of Aquitania, married her, and through her influence entered into a truce with the Christians. Being, however, commanded by his sovereign to advance, he frankly avowed his situation, and in consequence of it his death was resolved upon. To escape this he fled with his wife to the mountains, and, while refreshing themselves beside a fountain, they were overtaken, and after a desperate defence he fell covered with wounds, and breathed his last in her arms. He was afterwards beheaded, and she was sent as a captive to end her days in the royal seraglios of Damascus.

Late in the eleventh century. Alfonso the Sixth, king of Castile and Leon, having taken Toledo, turned his arms against Mohamed Ben Abad, king of Seville, then one of the most powerful Moorish princes of the age.

A battle was fought, in which the Christians were beaten, and 50,000 men of both parties were slain. A peace ensued, and Alfonso having seen Zaida, the beautiful daughter of the king of Seville, was led captive by her charms, and married her on condition of her renouncing the Mahometan faith. Thus she became the Queen of Castile and Leon, and the nuptials were celebrated at Seville, by both Moors and Christians,

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VOL. I.

with more than Eastern pomp and magnificence. Did our limits admit, we might draw from the rich storehouse of Spanish history many a wild and romantic tale of early times, which would cast important light alike upon the past and present character of the nation, strongly marked as it is with the fiery passions, the glowing enthusiasm, and the Oriental extravagance and exaggeration both of manner and language, which they have inherited from their Mussulman conquerors. We might dwell on the gallant bravery of the sainted King Ferdinand, which shone so conspicuously in the lengthened siege which resulted in rescuing Seville from the hands of the Moors. We might portray the sad and melancholy scene presented by the Moslem inhabitants of Seville, who, as if endued with a foresight of the dark and savage persecution with which in after times Catholic bigotry was to pursue those of their race who should remain behind, to the number of 100,000 became voluntary exiles from the land of their birth, and, forsaking for ever the fair and fertile valleys of Spain, sought an uncertain resting-place in distant and less genial climes. We might speak of the fierce and eventful struggle for the throne between those rival brothers, Pedro the Cruel and Henry de Trastemere, in which the chivalry of France were opposed by those of England, commanded by one of the bravest of her kings, the whole ending in a bloody personal contest between the royal brothers, when Pedro received his death-wound from the dagger of Henry. Seville is also connected with the history alike of the darker and the brighter days of Blanche de Bourbon, Queen of Pedro the Cruel, and Leonora de Guzman, whom this savage monarch put to death, as well as of numerous other beautiful or high-born dames, the sad or eventful history of whose lives has furnished incidents of no common interest to both the tragic and historic muse.

It is claimed that the walls of Seville were built by Julius Cæsar, though the low, rugged turrets, with which they are surmounted, give them quite a Moorish air. They enclose a space more than a league in circumference, and, taken in connexion with the immediate suburbs, including that of Friana, on the opposite side of the river, Seville embraces a circuit of three and a half leagues. The city has thirteen large and two small gates, and its streets are exceedingly narrow, crooked, and irregular. The interior of the houses, however, is truly beautiful. They are commonly built round an open

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