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mountains of Calabria, and those on the frontiers of the Papal States, have been the favorite haunts of banditti. The policy of the Catholic church, in granting an asylum and pardon to robbers and murderers, for the sake of the money paid by such criminals, alike for the forgiveness of their own sins, and for masses for the benefit of the souls of those who were murdered by them, has done much to perpetuate violence and crime. Still, it is true, that individuals have now and then appeared, who, rising above the corrupt and demoralizing influence of the Catholic faith, have asserted the rights of justice and humanity, as opposed to lawless aggression and violence. As an example of this, we may refer to Sextus the Fifth, who was chosen Pope in 1585. On the day that he was crowned, five hundred robbers, murderers, and assassins entered, of their own accord, the prisons of Rome, that thus they might receive the pardon uniformly granted on the accession of a new Pope, to those who surrendered themselves. Not only did he try and punish them, however, but also seized and beheaded those whom he knew to have been guilty of flagrant crimes, from confessions made to him when a priest. So much an object of terror did he thus become, that for a long time, his name, like that of king Richard of England, in the East, was used by mothers as a means of frightening their children into silence or submission. About the year 1687, there were put to death at Naples, or banished, two thousand six hundred and fifty robbers, in the space of eighteen months.

In 1818, a tribunal was established at Frosinone, in the southern part of the Papal States, for the trial of robbers and other criminals of a similar cast. From the records of this tribunal it appears, that about two hundred persons are convicted yearly, and condemned to death or the galleys. Lists of robbers are published from time to time, by this tribunal, and four hundred dollars are offered for the head of a leader, and two hundred for that of a follower. Between Naples and Rome, a distance of one hundred and fifty miles, more than three hundred soldiers are employed as escorts to carriages, and as guards. In one place there are five stations in a distance of seven miles, and a corporal and ten men at each station, who patrol from post to post every three hours in the night. There are, besides these, more than one thousand five hundred soldiers stationed at the towns on this route ; and patroles of citizens are supported at public expense, in

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towns infested by robbers. The inhabitants are also assembled, when necessary, by the tolling of the village bells.

There are some Lancasterian and other schools for common education, in Rome, together with numerous colleges and higher seminaries of learning. Without dwelling in detail upon the management of these institutions, it may be well to give a brief sketch of one of them, as presenting a favorable specimen of the course of instruction pursued in the higher colleges at Rome.

The Gregorian College is a large and beautiful edifice near the Doria palace, in Rome. It forms a quadrangle, having a large court in the middle. The schoolrooms are ranged along three sides of the square. The fourth side communicates with the boarding establishment, the rooms of the professors, and other officers; the library and the church of St. Ignatius, which belongs to the College. This college was founded by Gregory the Thirteenth, in 1582, and the direction of it was given to the Jesuits, who, when they were suppressed, in 1773, had ten establishments in Rome. A commission was then appointed to regulate education in the Roman States. A “Congregation of Studies,” with a Cardinal at its head, took charge of the College, and appointed its Masters and Professors. Boys enter when quite young, with merely a knowledge of the rudiments of Latin grammar.

During the two first years Latin authors are read, with a special reference to the grammatical structure of the language. The third year is spent in studying the elegances of the Latin language; such as figures of oratory, poetical beauties, forms, and metres. The fourth year is spent on rhetoric, embracing some Latin, but more Greek. During the fifth year, algebra and geometry are studied in the morning, and logic and metaphysics in the afternoon. The sixth year is occupied with physics, chemistry, natural history, and ethics.

After the course in philosophy is finished, those destined for the church remain four years longer in the College, and study scholastic and dogmatic theology, the Hebrew language, and the Holy Scriptures. Those who wish to go further in any of the sciences, or to take degrees in the learned professions, repair to the Gymnasium, or University of Rome, which was founded in the thirteenth.century. It has professors of civil and canon law, medicine, experimental philosophy, oriental languages, divinity, and other branches.

In the Gregorian College the instruction in the lower classes continues two hours in the morning, and two in the afternoon; and the lectures of the higher classes are one hour each. The course of studies begins the fourth of November, and continues till the end of the September following, with two vacations of a week each, one at Christmas and the other at Easter. No whispering or signs are permitted in school. The punishments resorted to are an additional task in the way of study; or the Correttore, a man who has his room near the gate of the College, and is well supplied with whips and canes, is called in, when the boy to be flogged strips off his coat, and being held by two of his schoolmates, receives his dues. The other punishments are kneeling in the middle of the school, banishment to the Dunce's bench, and expulsion. Instruction is nearly gratuitous. Admission is

easy to all who will dress decently. The boarders have their food, lodging, and education, but furnish their clothes, beds, books, and furniture. No Bibles are allowed the students, but portions of the Scriptures are read every day, and explained on Sundays.

CHAPTER IX.

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL.

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Cruise at Sea. Parties in Spain. - Friars. – Carlists. — The Queen's Party. – Liberals. - Convents. - Archbishop of Santiago. Riot at Barcelona. Junta of Extermination. — Archbishop of Tarragona. — Friars in Major

Storm at Sea. - One of our crew Jost. Poetry. - Reflections. An April Fool. - Portugal : Her past History. - Don Miguel. Don Pe. dro. The Queen. - The Army. – National Income and Debt. — Convents. Monks and Friars. The Jesuits. – Nuns. — Colleges. — Income of the Clergy.- Education. - The Navy. — Lisbon : Its History and Population. Houses. — Dogs. — Earthquake. Dress of Females. Education. – Libraries. – Records of the Inquisition. - Rare Works. - Paintings. — English Chapel and Grave Yard. — Fielding. — Dr. Doddridge. Hospital. — Insane Patients. - Medical School. - Church of St. Roque. Foundling Hospital. - Schools. - Convent of Belem. - The Deaf and Dumb. - English Craft, and Portuguese Folly.

After our return from Rome to Naples, we stopped at Malta, and sailed from thence to Tripoli, and then returned to Malta, where we spent some time. As we passed in the same direction on our way to Greece the following summer, a description of Malta will be given in connexion with that part of our cruise. From Malta we went to Mahon and Marseilles, for provisions and money for the squadron, and returned to Naples. We found Spain at that time in great confusion, the people having taken into their own hands the business of suppressing the convents, and other matters of reform, being unwilling to await the tardy action of the government. This general revolt was successful in effecting its ends. The following is a record of events, made at the time of our visit to Mahon, in the month of August, 1835. It is here inserted with a view to show the condition of Spain during her recent civil war.

Let us here take a hasty glance at the present state of Spain. A sufficient reason for this exists in the interest excited by the struggle in which she is now engaged, arising from the fact, that the cause of civil and religious liberty, not only in Europe, but throughout the world, may be deeply affected by the result. With these impressions on my mind, I have made every effort to acquire an accurate knowledge of the present state and prospects of Spain, as well as of those

hidden causes which have given rise to the convulsions with which she is now so sorely rent. My information has been derived from gentlemen of high standing and intelligence, who regularly receive papers from the Continent, and have correspondents in various parts of Spain. They have also long been watching, with anxious interest, the course of events in their native land. One of these gentlemen has kindly furnished a written statement as to the various parties which now exist, together with what is known of their strength and movements.

During the time of the Cortes and the Constitution, in 1820, an act was passed, by which all the convents in Spain became the property of government, and the avails of them, when sold, were to be applied to paying the national debt, and to other public purposes. When the old order of things was restored, however, the purchasers of the convent property were ejected, and the monks again came into possession of their former estates. This step created great dissatisfaction, not only among the immediate sufferers, but among all who were in favor of a popular form of government, and who were not so blindly devoted to the interests of the friars, as, for their sakes, to be willing to have the national debt, and a heavy load of taxes, again thrown back upon the shoulders of the people. But aside from this, there has long been among the mass of the people, throughout Catholic Europe, an increasing hostility against the friars, owing to the profligacy of some, and the luxurious indolence in which most, of them spend their lives. Their large and fertile estates, the gift of the superstitious and misdirected zeal of a dark and ignorant age, and which, without any effort of their own, furnished them with the means of rioting on the fat of the land, had likewise been a grievous eyesore to nations laden with taxes, and abounding in ignorance, beggary, and woe. The friars have also lost that respect which they once received for sanctity and learning, so long as they were able to exclude the common people from the light of knowledge, and at the same time cast around themselves a dark and mysterious veil, within which the superstitious awe of the populace was afraid to look. They have not, like the parish clergy, such intercourse with the people as to secure their respect and affection, but rather the reverse ; for the sleek and well fed Capuchin, or Franciscan, who has been eating, sleeping, and smoking in his stately convent during the day, will sally forth with his bag at VOL. I.

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