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trade and local productions, 244; state of education, 245; conditions of British occupation, ib. note Berenice,' H.M.S., her operations in the Persian Gulf, cxxv. 14; retires from Muscat, 15. See

Wahabees Bergenroth (Mr. G. A.), his edition

of the Simancas Papers, cxvii. 378; his account of his labours, 379; his low estimate of FerdiDand and Isabella, 386

supplement to Vols. I. II. of his State Papers, cxxxi. 341 ; documents relating to Juana la Loca, 342; memorial sketch of, by Mr. Cartwright, 343; division of contents, 345; fails to disprove Juana's insanity, ib.; neglect of Peter Martyr, 346; his allegations of heresy, 352-355; his theory of her madness, 361; charges against Charles V., 365; unfounded theory

of her torture, 367 Berghaus, on the religions of the

world, cxv. 396 note Berghes (Marquis de, d. 1570), his mission to Philip II. of Spain,

cxxvii. 21 ; his death, 23 Berkeley (George, Bishop of Cloyne,

1684–1753), his toleration of polygamy, cxv. 207

his vindication of freethought, cxxi. 442

enters Trinity College, Dublin, at fifteen, cxxv. 59

origin of his idealism, cxxvi. 86

his Dialogues' compared with those of Plato, cxxxiv. 320

works of, edited by Mr. Fraser, cxxxvi. l; personal influences on his writings overlooked, ib.; his Diary of Foreign Travel and Common-place Book discovered, 2; scanty knowledge of his early life, ib.; his schooldays at Kilkenny, ib. 3; aptitude for persuasive speech, 4; friend

ship with Prior, ib.; at Trinity College, 5; his first publications, ib.; early habits of mental abstraction, 6; anecdote of Conterini, ib. ; his collegiate studies, 7; love for mathematics and dialogue, 8; relations with the Molyneux family, 9-11; made bishop by Queen Caroline, ib.; early influence of Descartes and Locke, ib.; his vindication of the Irish Church agairst Toland, 14; sympathies with Cartesianism, 16; his crusade against matter, 17; obligations to Descartes, 18-22; and Locke, ib.; his . New Theory of Vision,' 24; Principles of Human Knowledge,' 25; his Immaterialism a surprise, ib. ; • DiaJogues of Hylas,' 26; successes in London, 27; on the Continent, 28; essay on the South Sea Scheme, 29; his Bermuda Scheme, 30; Catholic influences at Rome, ib.; visit to Rhode Island, 33;

Alciphron,' 34; attacks on Collins and the free-thinkers, ib. 35; his pole nical style, 36; returns to London, 37; his Analyst,' ib.; retires to Cloyne, 38; his death, 39; lending features of his philosophy, ib.; his slavish conception of government, 40; his metaphysics, 41; theory of sensationalism, ib. ; definition of mind, 42; his psychology criticised, ib.; his inconsistent theory of causation, 43 ; question of bis idealism, 44; • Treatise on Motion,' ib. ; his indirect services to philosophy,

45 Berlioz (Hector, b. 1803), Mémoires

de, cxxxiii. 33; his career that of A pretender, 34; his painful Autobiography, 44; his early life, ib. ; medical studies at Paris, 45; first efforts at music, 46; quarrel with Cherubini, 47; acquaintance with De Lisle, ib. ; residence at Rome,


ib.; his passion for Miss Smithson,

48; his self-conceit,49; returns from
: exile to Paris, 50; his cynical

criticism, ib.; employment by the
government, 51; Paganini's liber-
ality to him, ib.; anecdote, 52 ;
shallowness and insincerity of his
writings, ib.; travels in Germany
and Russia, 53 ; his opera · Les
Troyens,' 54; his death, 55; rela-
tions with Sir M. Costa, ib.; anec-
dote of his · Childhood of Christ,'

Bermondsey, etymology of, cxxxi.

161; ancient abbey at, 166
Berne, Treaty of, between Savoy and
Switzerland (1564), cxi. 539

cantonal government of, cxix.
421; condition of, in 1775, 423
Bernier (Étienne Alexandre, Abbé,

1762-1806), his negotiations for
the Concordat on behalf of Napo-

leon, cxxviii. 456
Bernis (François Joachim de Pierres,

Compte de Lyon, Cardinal de,
1715-1794), Voltaire's remark on,
cxxv. 505; his meeting with
Madame de Pompadour at Belle-
vue, ib. ; his dismissal and exile,

Bernot, his file-cutting machine, cxi.

20 note
Berosus (Babylonian historian), his

testimony confirmed by hiero-
glyphics, cxi. 45, 46; fragment of,
on the Assyrian rule in Babylon,
57; his chronology, ib.

his Egyptian chronology,
cxvi. 108 note

his authority rejected by Sir
G. C. Lewis, cxxv. 120; but relied
on by Mr. Rawlinson, ib.; his
Chaldæan chronology, 122-126;
uncertain character of his narra-

tive, 124
Berri (Duke de, brother of Louis XI.

of France), joins the coalition of
nobles against his brother, cxix.
542; invested with Normandy, 843

Berry (Miss Mary, 1763–1852), her

Journal and Correspondence, ed-
ited by Lady Theresa Lewis, cxxii.
297; her introductîon to Horace
Walpole, ib.; left his editor, 298;
her popularity in high circles, ib.;
value of her literary remains, 299 ;
her parentage and early life, 301;
first foreign impressions, 303; her
plan of conduct, ib.; her appear-
ance described by Walpole, 305;
portraits of, 306; partial estrange-
ment with Walpole, ib. 307 ; her
engagement to General O'Hara,
308, 310; later reflections thereon,
ib.; her ideas on marriage, 311,
312; her edition of Walpole's
works, 313; her father's character,
ib.; classical studies, 315; her
visit to Paris, ib.; sketch of Buona-
parte, 310, 317; at the French
Court, ib. 318; her play. Fashion-
able Friends,' 319, 322; her im-
pression of Princess Charlotte,
324, 325 ; account of Madame
de Staël, ib. 326; edits Madame
du Deffand's letters, 326; her
Life of Rachel, Lady Russell,'
ib.; her work on England and
France, ib.; its superficial charac-
ter, 327; criticisms thereon, 329;
her merits as authoress, 330; Lord
IIoughton's lines on, 332; Sydney
Smith's playful compliment, 333;
her sister's death, 335; her home

life described, 336
Berthier (Louis Alexander, Prince

of Neufchatel, 1755-1815), Miss

Berry's sketch of, cxxii. 315
Berwick-on-Tweed, commercial im-

portance of, in the thirteenth cen-

tury, cxyiii. 240
Beryl, unknown etymology of, cxxiv.

238; perhaps the Bdellium of
Holy Writ, ib. ; varieties of,
244; use of, in ancient gems,

Besonian, the word in Shakspeare,

cxxx, 106, 109

Bessel (M.), his observations on

Donati's comet, cxl. 407 Bessemer (Mr. Henry), his process

of making steel partially anticipated, cxxi. 588, 589

his economy in steel manufacture, cxxix. 373; annual pro

duce of Bessemer steel, 374 Bethlehem, Church of, architecture

of, cxi. 441; character and date of

the mosaics, 443 Beugnot (Count, 1761-1833), memo

ries of, by Albert Beugnot, cxxv. 303; historical interest of his associations, ib.; his acquaintance with Madame de La Motte, 305; on the affair of the diamond necklace, 310; on French society before the Revolution, 311; his imprisonment, 312; sketches of his fellow-prisoners, ib. 316; gap in his memoirs, ib.; serves under the First Consul, ib.; his instructions from Cambacérès, ib.; at Dusseldorf, 317; interview with Buonaparte, 318; reports on Marshal Macdonald's troops, 321; his abortive mission to Lisle, ib. 322; Minister of the Interior under Louis XVIII., 323; his article in the Moniteur,' 324; anecdote of the Abbé de Pradt, 325; interview with Louis XVIII., 327; retirement, ib.; made Director-General of the Police, ib.; prepares the Charter of 1814, 328; adventures during the Hundred Days, ib.; his high estimate of Charles X., ib.;

abrupt end of his Memoirs, 331 Beulé (M.), his excavations at ancient Carthage, cxiv. 84

his . Auguste, sa famille, et ses Amis,' cxxix. 70 Bhootan (India), treaty extorted

from the British envoy, cxxv. 4; war declared against, ib.; surprise and recapture of Dewangiri, 5; treaty of peace in 1865, ib.; expedition against the Tongso Penlo,

ib.; the treaty criticised as too lenient, 6; annexation of the

Dooars, ib. Bible, the, various theories of in

spiration, cxiii. 483; human agencies in its composition, 484; principles of interpretation, 485

• Various readings' in, cxvii. 505; instances of verbal contradictions, 506 ; literary character of, 508; its inspiring influence, 509; is the basis of Monotheism, ib. ; best described as sacred and canonical, 511; regenerating spirit of, 515 ; its relation to the Church, 516. See Inspiration

revived study of, in recent times, cxxi. 42; Dictionaries of, by Smith and Kitto, ib.; definition of the word, 43, 44; its proper harmony misunderstood, 44; mischievous system of theological quotation from, ib. ; limits of philological criticism, 45; strong distinction between the Old and New Testaments, ib.; analytical criticism, 46, 47; inferiority of foreign Dictionaries of, 48; influence of German criticism, 49; superiority of Dr. Smith's Dictionary of, 50, 51; the Book of Judges (see Testament, Old); dangers of undiscriminating reverence for, 59; the Jewish Canon, ib.; illustrated by Egyptian monuments, 65; relative value of profane testimony, C6; longevity recorded in, 68, 69; critical tests of inspiration, 68, 70. See Smith, Dr. William

English translation of, cxxii. 103; mistakes in the Authorised Version, 104 ; finality of revision considered, 105; need of some revision, ib.; qualifications of modern scholars, 106-108; recent editions of MSS., ib. (see Testament, New); points for settlement by revisers, 112; change of obso56;

lete words, ib.; neglect in correct-
ing known errors, 114; real motive
of objectors to revision, 115;

paragraph 'Bibles, 116; mis-
translations in Acts, 114, 118
(see also Names of Apostles); the
word 'bell,' ib., 118; the expres-
sion foolishness of preaching
(1 Cor. i. 21), ib.; Heb. vii. 18,
19, and 2 Cor. v. 14, translated
wrongly, 119; Hebraisms retained,
120; revisions from 1535 to 1611,
120; objections to revision, 121;
a Royal Commission proposed,

Bible, the, early English translations

of, suppressed, cxxxiv. 163; Tyn-
dal's version, 164; first Authorised
Version of, 165; errors of early
printers, ib., 167

earliest extant MSS. of,
cxxxvii. 63; causes of transcrip-
tural error in, 81

the Speaker's, edited by
Canon Cook, Vols. I.-IV., cxl. 32 ;
its origin, character, and design,
ib., 33; precedents for composite
authorship of the commentaries,
ib.; the Generan Bible, 34 ; the
Bishops' Bible of 1568, ib.; King
James' Bible, 35; progress of
annotation, ib.; the Assembly's
Annotations,'36 ; difficulties of
selecting a competent staff, ib.;
question of Hebrew scholarship,
37 ; efficiency of the Speaker's
staff, 39; the text based on the
Authorised Version, ib.; different
treatment of the Old and New
Testaments, ib. ; the Masoretic
text, 41 ; revision of various read-
ings, 42; classes of emendations
required, ib., 44; puncta extra-
ordinaria, ib. ; Correction of the
Scribes,' 45; ancient divisions of
the Hebrew text, ib. 48; use of
the definite article, ib. 50; inac-
curacies in Mr. Clark's note, 51;
Canon Espin's notes criticised, 53-

Canon Rawlinson's commen-
tary on the Jewish monarchy, ib.;
his Hebrew criticisms, 57 ; wrong
correction in 2 Kings iv. 16, ib,
58; Moabite Stone inscription, 59;
contrariety of views caused by
joint production, 60; discordant
treatment of chronology, 62; date
of the Exodus, 63; want of agree-
ment as to class of readers for
whom the Commentary is de-
signed, 64; inaccuracies in foot-
notes, 65; value of argumentative
portion, 67; Mosaic origin of the
Pentateuch, ib. ; Editor's intro-
duction to Book of Exodus, 68;
alleged discrepancies between
Scripture and Science, 69, 70;
great value of the notes or essays,
ib.; the Poetical Books, 71; ex-
cellent typography, ib.; later cor-
rections, ib.; general value of the

work, ib.
Bible, the, revised translation of, set-

tled by the King's authority with-
out Convocation, cxl. 439; revi-
sion thereof, now in progress, 455

Dictionary of, its theologi-
cal merits, cxix. 151
Bible, Chaucer's use of the word,

cxxxii. 38.
Bickersteth (Dr., Bishop of Ripon),

his evidence against tithe impro-

priation, cxvii. 367
Biela (M.), his Comet of 1826, cxl.

412; its disruption, 413; identi-
fied with the meteoric showers in

1872, ib. ; when first seen, 416
Bigamy, early toleration of, in

Europe, cxv. 205
Bignon, family of, their services to

the National Library at Paris,

cxxxix. 26
Billingsgate, its mythical origin from
Belinus, cxix. 347

probable etymology of,cxxxi.
Binney (Rev. Thomas), his views on

Church fusion in Australia, ciii. 2

Biographies, diffuseness of modern,
cxvi. 115

want of, lamented in the case
of great men, cxxxi. 193

prevalent defects of, cxxxviii.
367; German biographers, ib.
Biography, popular appetite for,

cxiii. 386; fascination of the
study, 501

conditions of, cxv. 512; num-
ber of bad biographies explained,

value of minute personal
details in, cxxiv. 342

twofold division of, cxxv. 304

contemporary, fascination of,
cxxvii. 469

interest of personal recollec-
tions in, cxxxviii. 218; topo-
graphical illustrations of, 507

usual apologies made by
editors of, cxxxix. 44; claims of

distinguished parentage in, 45
Biology, want of definite laws in,

cxxx. 155
Biondo (Flavio). See Blondus
Bioplasm, the term explained,

cxxxvi. 222; its relations with

disease, 230
Biren (Ernest John, duke of Cour-

land, 1689–1772), favourite of

Anna of Russia, cxx, 525
*Birkenhead,' the, wreck of, cxxxv.

Biron (Louis Antoine de Gontant,

Duke de, 1700–1788), his conduct

at Fontenoy, cxx. 529
Bishops, their constitutional position

in the House of Lords, cxxviii.
271, 272 ; their responsibility to
the law, ib.

origin of their writs to Par-
liament, cxl. 431.
Bismarck (Prince Otto von, b. 1815),

his rapacious policy against Den-
mark, cxxiv. 281 ; promotes the
war with Austria to secure the
German ascendancy of Prussia, ib.;
artifice of his negotiations before

the war of 1866, 282; his unscru-
pulous policy of ambition, 283 ;
his insidious mask of German
unity, 284; his influence over the
King, 287; his conduct in the
Sleswig-Holstein question, 288;
his scandalous compact at Gastein,
289; his overtures to Austria
against Italy, ib.; his sudden at-
tack on Austria, 291 ; unpopular
with the Prussian soldiery in the
Austrian War,

589, 590; his
heavy stake in that


Bismarck (Prince Otto von), his un-

scrupulous policy of Prussian con-
quest, cxxviii. 238; his saying
on the line of the Main,' 243; a
thorough Imperialist, 245; want-
ing in sense of responsibility, 246;
his negotiations at Nickolsburg,
247; his aggrandising policy to the
German States after the war of
1866, 248; his mischievous con-
ception of German unity, 250

biographies of, cxxx. 417;
his early life, 419; delegate of his
provincial Diet in 1847, 420; sup-
ports Jewish disabilities, ib.; con-
duct in 1848, ib. ; his courageous
defiance of the revolution, 421;
contempt of popular rights, ib. ;
plenipotentiary at Frankfort, ib.;
at Vienna, 422; his Austrian sym-
pathies reversed, ib.; neutral policy
during the Crimean War, 423;
minister at St. Petersburg, ib.;
efforts in 1859 to obtain a revision
of the Federal League, 424; his
residence in Russia, 425 ; letter of
1861 on German consolidation, 426;
on army reorganisation, 427; am-
bassador at Paris, 428; made Pre-
mier and Foreign Minister, ib.;
difficulties of his position, 429;
propounds his theory of blood
and iron,' ib.; views on the budget,
430; his Austrian policy declared
to Count Karolyi, 431 ; Convention
with Russia after the insurrection

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