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found an academy in England, 487 | troversy respecting, cxxxv. 14;
(see Academy, Royal) ; self-educa the “George Ludwig MS.,' ib., 18;
tion of, 493

Eastern Turkestan, 20; early
Artois (Count d'). See Charles X. Christian communities in, 23-27;
Arts, Society of, first exhibition of sorceries and jugglery, ib.; mediæ-

British painters in 1760, cxviii.487 val legends, 30
Arundel (Thomas Howard, Earl of,

prospects of Russian com-
d. 1646), his collection of gems, merce with, cxxxix. 325, 326;
cxxiv. 519, 520

English trade with, viá India, 327,
Arundell of Wardour, Lords, family 330. See Toorkistan, Eastern

names preserved in London streets, Asoka (d. B.C. 226), his history
cxxxi. 183

illustrated by Buddhist inscrip-
Aryans, their place in Indian eth tions, cxxii. 379; Sir E. Perry's
nology, cxxx. 496

history of, ib. 382
Aryan language, the term explained, Aspirate, the, misuse of, on early

cxv. 85; stages in the growth Christian epitaphs at Rome, cxx.
of, 94

235
-- mythology, Mr. Cox's work Assam, discovery of tea-plantations

on, cxxxii. 330; the compara in, cxix. 102; the "Assam Com-
tive theory criticised, 333; con pany' formed, 103
nexion of, with Greek myths, 341; Assaye, battle of, the battle-field
the theory applies to Othello,' described, cxxii. 375
347

Assent, definitions of, by Dr. New-
Asceticism, its idea of the spiritual man and Locke, cxxxii. 397, 398;

efficacy of physical pain, cxx. 108 compared with Inference, ib.;
Ascham (Roger, 1515-1568) on the absolute character of, 399

study of grammar, cxx. 178; and Assi, Communist leader in 1871,
of Latin composition, 179

cxxxiv. 535; his character and
- his sketch of Charles V., 1 antecedents, 536
cxxxii, 77

Assignats, extravagant issue of, by
Asconius Pedianus (Quintus, first the French Convention, cxviii.

century), MS. of, found by Poggio, 132; the • Maximum,' ib.
cxxxvii. 72

Assignment, convict system of, in
Ased (d. 828), his character, cxvi. Australia, cxxi. 353

360; commands the Mussulman Assisi, Giotto's frescoes at, cxxii. 89
expedition to Sicily, 364; his Assurance (Life), effects of deprecia-
death before Syracuse, 366

tion of currency on, cxii. 29
Ashantees, the, Mr. Bowdich's mis Assyrian Empire, the, inconsistencies

sion to, cxxxviii. 575; article in the history of, cxi. 56; rela-
thereon in vol. xxxii. referred to, tions with Babylonia, 61; date of
ib.; the treaty of 1817, ib.; Coo its commencement, 62; removals
massie at that time, ib.; present of the capital, 63; the Babylonian
war with, 576, 588. See Gold revolt, 64
Coast

Assyria, astrological system derived
Asia, irregular geographical know from, cxvi. 99
ledge of, cxii. 313

Assyrians, Mr. Rawlinson's conjec-
- disturbing effects of European tural history of, cxxv. 114; union

intervention in, cxxii. 177, 179 of the Chaldæan kingdom, ib.;
Asia (Central), geographical con- | restoration of ancient monarchy

at Babylon, ib.; fictitious chronology of Berosus, 120; royal names, 123; imperfect evidence of inscriptions, 125, 126; M. Gutschmid's method of chronology, 127, 128; Greek historians of, 141; rise of the Empire, 142; chaotic state of subsequent annals, 143; inscription of Tiglath pileser I., 144; his successors, ib., 149; Scythian irruption, 150; traditions of the fall of the empire, 151; extent of their

civilisation, 153 Astbury, reveals the secret of Eler's

pottery-work, cxxvi. 211; bis

improvements in pottery, 212 Astrology, Assyrian system of, cxvi.

99 - Italian belief in, in the six

teenth century, cxxx. 32 Astronomer Royal, origin of the

office, cxl. 94; various holders thereof, ib.-98; long average

length of service, 99 Astronomy, different views of the

science of, cxvi. 80; its bearing
on ancient chronology, 82; theo-
ries in ancient Greece, 91; specula-
tive views of, opposed by Socrates,
92. See Lewis, Sir G. C.
- its precedence in Comte's
hierarchy of sciences, cxxvii.
327
- bearings of recent researches
in, on geology, cxxxi. 54; doctrine
of elemental identity of heavenly

bodies, 63 * Atavism,' recent theory of, in rela

tion to heredity, cxxxii. 119 Athanasian Creed, permissive read

ing of, advocated, cxiii. 20;. Essays

and Reviews' on, 494 Athanasius (Saint, of Alexandria,

296-373), persecution of, by the Arians, cxiii. 467 - impulse given by him to

monasticism, cxiv, 329 Athanasius (made Patriarch of Con

stantinople in 1289), his quarrel

with Andronicus the Elder, cxxi.

482; his rigorous discipline, 483 Athena, Homeric epithets of, cxxxix.

524 Athenæus, archetypal MS. of,

cxxxvji. 71 Athens (Ancient), chronology of life

archons examined, cxxxii, 172 Athens, modern excavations at,cxxii.

563; want of a museum, 564 Atlanta (U.S.),Sherman's capture of,

cxxi. 286 Atlantic, current system of, cxxxv.

438-453 (see Oceanic Circulation); globigerina-mud deposits

in, 470 Atlantic telegraphs, hasty construc

tion of the first cable, cxiii. 127; unsuccessful attempts to lay it, 128; the expedition renewed in 1858, 130; the Queen's message to the President, 132; causes of failure, 133 - early history of,cxxxii. 229,

233; recovery of the 1865 cable,

234, 236. Atomic theory, the foundation of

modern chemistry, cxxxiii. 156; its method of research, ib. -158; new modes of analysis, ib.; applied

to gases, 159 Attainder, Acts of, early instances of,

cxxv. 88 Atterbury (Francis, Bishop of

Rochester, 1662–1731), his attempted vindication of Convocation as a spiritual Parliament, cxl.

430 * Auchterarder Case,' the, cxl. 277 Auckland (William Eden, 1st Lord,

1745-1814), his “Journal and Correspondence,' Vols. I. II., cxiii. 360; confidential adviser of Lord North, 367 ; his daring change of Irish policy, ib.; active part in the Coalition, 369; vice-treasurer of Ireland, 370; his knowledge of finance, ib. ; negotiates the commercial treaty with France, 371;

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his free-trade principles, 372; ib.; his death, 273 ; regarded as a
ambassador at Madrid, 373; ap scientific naturalist, ib. ; plates in
pointed to the Hague, 378; his sub his • Birds of America,' 274; care-
ordinate position in the ministry, ful editorship of his works, 275

384; character of his letters, 385 Augustine (Saint, 354–430), on the
Auckland (Lord), his . Journal and doctrinal authority of miracles,

Correspondence,' Vols. III. IV., cxiii. 486
edited by the Bishop of Bath and - his opinion of polygamy,
Wells,cxvi. 113; conduct regarding cxv. 206
Miss Eden and Pitt, 119; on Tithe

on the importance of study-
Commutation, 130; his scheme ing the meaning of the Gospels,
for the partition of France, 140 ; cxix. 588,
his Irish intrigues, 150

Augustus (Cæsar, Roman Emperor,
Audley (Sir Thomas), his house in B.C. 63-A.D. 13), his share in the
London, cxxxi. 175

reconstruction of society, cxxix.
Audran (Gerard, 1640–1703), bis 85; survey of the empire in his

work on the proportions of the time, ib.; his uncontrolled power,
human figure, cxl. 185, 186

87; his system necessary for the
Audubon (John James, 1780-1851), time, 93

Life and Adventurers of, edited - his palace at Rome, cxxxv.
by Mr. Buchanan, cxxxii. 250 ;

306
his personal appearance, ib.; paren Aumale (Duc d'), his · Histoire des
tage, ib. ; early love of nature,

Princes de Condé, pendant les
251; bird collections in youth, XVI. et XVII. Siècles,' Vols.
252; at Mr. Bakewell's, ib.; his I. II., cxxx. 355 ; arbitrary
marriage, 254; sojourn at Louis seizure of his proof-sheets, ib. ;
ville, ib.; meeting with the poet his patriotic spirit, ib.; literary
Wilson, 255 ; removal to the Mis merits, 356 ; unconscious partisan-
sissippi, 256; adventures with ship in the Huguenot insurrection,
Indians, 257 ; business troubles, 366; reflections on Coligny, 371;
258; devotion to hunting and his estimate of the first Prince of
birds, ib. ; introduced to Rafin Condé, 377; his sketch of Henry
isque, 259; his fluctuating for I. of Conde, 33; estimate of
tunes, 260; interview with Lucien Henry IV. in 1610, 388; his mas-
Buonaparte, 262; turns dancing terly narrative, 389
master, 263; his kind reception at Aurelius Antoninus (Marcus, Roman
Liverpool, ib. ; his pictures ex Emperor, 121-180), his simple
hibited, ib. ; at Edinburgh, 264; habits, cxix. 56
loss of his ringlets, 265; meeting Aureole, early use of, round the
with Sir T. Lawrence, ib.; in head of saints, cxxxi. 225
London, ib. ; visit to Paris, 206; Aurignac (France), sepulchral cave
Cuvier's eulogy of his • Birds,' discovered at, cxviii. 283; cxxxii.
267; returns to America, ib.; re 460
visits England with his wife, 268; Aurora Borealis, its connexion with
again returns to America, ib.; hur magnetic disturbance, cxxxvi. 420
ricane off Florida, 269; birds of note.
Labrador, 271 ; relations with Aurungzebe (Emperor of Hindoos-
Rothschild, 272; his last 'great tan, 1614–1707), his burial-place,
journey' to the Western Prairie, L. cxxii. 374

Austerlitz, battle of (1805), Napo

leon's pride in his victory, cxxiii. 113, 114; Baron Ambert's account of, ib. ; later influence of French

tactics at, 115 Austin (John, 1790-1859), his Pro

vince of Jurisprudence determined,' cxiv. 456; his quiet and solitary career, 460; his wide grasp of mind, 461; his original design unfinished, 16.; vastness of his scheme, 462; definitions of leading terms, 463 ; his precision of thought, 467; on the four branches of law, ib.; definition of • Right,' 468; on the notion of Sovereignty, 470; on Liberty and Justice, 472 ; his work compared to Butler's • Analogy,' 473; laborious exactness of his style a difficulty to readers, 474; his analytical method, 480

- his lectures at the London University, cxviii. 152; his · Lectures and Fragment on the Study of Jurisprudence,' 439; his power of precise thought, ib.; educational value of his labours, ib.; his genius compared with that of Bentham, 440; the logic of law his special subject, 441; supplementary character of his present work, ib.; his treatment of positive law compared with that of Mr. Maine, 442, 443; bis principles founded on the Roman law, 445; clearness of his juristical conceptions, 448; his lectures incomplete, ib. ; his first drafts and finished performances, ib. 449; tension of mind required by his precise style, ib.; his “Prorince of Jurisprudence' a definition of Law, ib.; on the Laws of God, 450 ; on the notions involved in Duties and Rights, 452 ; bis definition of a legal right, ib. ; his negative definition of Rights criticised, 453; on fiduciary rights, ib.-455;

his definition of Wrongs, ib. ; on the sources of Law, 456, 457 ; on the fallacies attached to customary law, ib.; on the Jus Gentium, 459; on the origin of the term Equity, 460; on statute and judiciary law, 463-467; on the evils of judicial legislation, ib.; on codification, ib., 470; on the Law of Persons and of Things, 471 ; his definition of quasi-contracts, 473; division of Rights into Primary and Sanctioning, ib. 474; outline of his distribution of the field of law,"ib. ; his treatment of Property and Easement, ib.; his ground work of Rights criticised, 476; objections to his distribution of Wrongs and Remedies, 477; incompleteness of his labours, 480; his language clear and vigorous, ib., 481; harsh epithets not due to acrimony, ib. ; his appreciation of

great qualities in other writers, 482 Austin (John), his return to London

from Bonn, cxxxix. 116; influence of German literature and society, ib. ; progress of toleration and definite faith in bis later years, 117 - (Mrs., wife of preceding,

1793-1867), her kindness to J. S.

Mill, cxxxix. 116 Australia, gold-fields of, cxii. 8; first

English settlers in, 326; ignorance of its interior, 327; existence of a central desert, ib.; will probably remain a Coast empire, 328; settlement on the northern coast desirable, ib. -- difficulties of Church union in, cxiij. 6

- military defence of, cxv. 110; prospects of cotton culture, 482 - narratives of expeditions in, cxvi. 1 ; rapid progress of occupation, 3; first settlements, 4; want of water, ib.; river explorations, 5; theory of an inland sea, 5; Captain Sturt's expedition, ib.; the Mur

rumbidgee explored, 6; discovery | Australia, effect of human agency on
of the river Murray, 7; settlement animal and vegetable life in, cxx.
of South Australia, 8; Major 496, 497
Mitchell's expeditions, 9; the - physical features com-
south-east group of settlements, pared with America, cxxi. 350;
10; mountain ranges, ib. ; Count early convict settlements in, 351 ;
Strzelecki's explorations, ib.; Swan military despotism in, 354; the
River Settlement, 13; Captain squatter class, ib.; growth of aris-
Grey's expedition, 14; occupation tocratic government, 355; the
of Australia Felix, 17; Mr. Eyre's

franchise, 356, 357; immigration
Northern Exploring Expedition, for gold, ib.; popular grievances,
18; exploration of the interior, 358; representative government
27; Dr. Leichhardt's expedition, introduced, 359; vote by ballot,
35; Sir T. Mitchell, 36; question 360; constitution of the Upper
of an overland route to the Gulf House, 364; impediments to popu-
of Carpentaria, 37; tragedy at lar legislation, 365; primary edu-
York peninsula, 38; disaster on cation, 366; rivalry under the
the Victoria River, 40; efforts of denominational system, 367 ; libe-
Adelaide at extension, 43; pro rality of the Legislature, 368;
blems of exploration, ib. ; charac uniformity introduced, ib.; high
ter of Central Australia, 45

school system, 369; universities,
Australia, its coast-range described,

ib. ; public works, 370; telegraphic
cxvii. 90; volcanic action in, 97; system, 371 ; water-supplies, 372;
gold-mining operations, 105. See the Civil Service, 373; home-
Victoria

defence, 374; prosperity of the
- intercolonial jealousies in, gold-fields, 375; increase of reve-
cxviii. 307; rival claims of New

nue, ib.; sources of income, 376;
South Wales and Queensland, want of unpaid officials, 378;
308; proposed colony of Capri constitutional home-ties, 379;
cornia, 310; extension of local question of independence, 380;
self-government, 311 and note; tendencies adverse to Federation,
protest against threatened renewal ib.; value of home connexion,
of transportation to, 312; its capa 381; position of the Governor, ib.;
bilities for cereal crops, 314, 315 experiment of self-government,382
note; winding course of its rivers, - the Irish in, cxxvii. 524, 525
317; its water-system vindicated,

first visits to, by Europeans,
318; Australian and American cxxviii. 232
squatters compared, 320; sources – Mr. Dilke on the physical
of society in, 321 ; progress of condition of Europeans in, cxxix.
sheep-farming, ib.; squatting re 465; Protectionist policy in, 466;
gulations, 323 ; immense conces resistance to Chinese immigration,
sions to squatters, 324; their 468; scarcity of women in, 472 ;
monopoly of land, ib.; discovery healthy vigour of political life in,
of gold, 325; changes in the land 473; love of social enjoyment, ib.;
system, 330; auction system abo attachment to English forms and
lished, ib. ; recent progress of ex fashions, 474
ploration, 331 ; salubrious climate - Mr. Huxley's theory of a
of, 334; white and coloured labour primæval Australoid 'race,cxxxiv.
in, 335

224, 227

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