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ment of the Ommeiades, 356; the Arab horses, native neglect of, for Persian invasion, ib. ; Arab rule in useful purposes, cxxxviii.430; their Africa, 357

crossing with indigenous breeds, Arabia, physical features of, cxxii. 444; Nejed horses, 447; royal stud

489; peculiarity of uplands, 491; at Riad, ib.; native horsemanship, snakes in, 493; the Bedouins, ib.; 448 494; the settled population, ib.; Arago (Dominique François, b. 496; Arabs of the interior, 497 ; 1786), his estimate of the numtheir supposed fitness for civilisa- ber of comets, cxl. 399 tion, 498; the Wahabees, ib. ; re- Aral, Sea of, question of its existligious condition of the Arabs, ence in the 13th century, cxxxv. 499; star-worship of the Solibah 5, 11 tribe, 500, 501: contradictory ac- Ararat, Mount, ascents of, cxxx. counts, ib. ; the 'Biadeeyah' sect, 339 502; ancient Sabæan worship, 503; Arbroath (Angus), Benedictine 'Abtheory of Monotheism in, 504; re- bey of, cxx. 320, 321; descripligious revival in the last century, tion of the battle of, in 1445-6, · 505; cholera in 1854 at Nejed, 324 613

Arc (Jeanne de, 1410-1431), her sudden importance of, after patriotism not understood by her the death of Mahomet, cxxiv. 1; countrymen, cxix. 531 preparation for his mission, 2;

M. Guizot's treatment of the perfection of the language, ib.; episode, cxl. 217 animosity of tribes, 3; the Yeme- Archæology, prehistoric, recent nites and Maadites, 4; Himyarite study of, cxxxii. 440; prominent language, ib.; ancient commerce, questions suggested, ib.; classifica5; caravans, ib. 7.; temple of the tions of periods, 441; .ages' of Caaba, 8; obscure heretical sects bronze, etc., not strict chronologiin, 13; unpopularity of Christian cal divisions, 442 ; the Palæolithic doctrines, ib.; idolatrous worship age, 443 (see Geology); views of in, 25; duties of hospitality, 26; French archæologists on the antidestruction of the Jews, 38-41; quity of man, ib.; drift-deposits feebleness of Islamism in, 47

and bone-caves, 447-454; M. piracies in the Persian Gulf Lartet's Quaternary system critiin 1809, cxxv. 8; Egyptian inva- cised, 415; cave-bears, 456; Quasion of Nejed, 9; British policy ternary cave-dwellers, 459 (see respecting, 11. See Wahabees Man); the Neolithic age, 463;

probably once the home of polished stone-axes, ib.; remains the Ethiopians, cxxxv. 97; ancient of tumuli, 465; the Bronze Age, stone-implements in, 102

467-477 ; the Iron Age, ib.; eviancient libraries in, cxxxix. dences of, regarding mankind, 16

479; questions left for ethnology, Arab horses, compared with Eng

lish racers, cxx. 124–120 ; superi- Architecture (Greek), Mr. Fergusority of Barbs over, 130 note ;

son's doctrine of definite proporearliest introduction of, into Eng- tions, cxvi. 485 land, 133-138; popularity of, in Architecture, eclectic system of, in England during the last century, England, cxv. 542; causes of 141

modern inferiority, 513


Architecture, commencement of the

Renaissance era, cxviii. 72; Gothic
imitations in England, 73; the
Gothic style in Italy, Spain, and
France, 90; mania in England for
the Greek style of, 92; the Italian
style, 98; question of domestic,

effects of exigencies of
weather on, cxxxix. 445

altered laws of proportion in,
cxl. 188
Archons, chronology of, at Athens,

cxxxii. 172
Arctic regions, theory of a circum-

polar sea, cxii. 309; possible ac-
cess to, east of Spitzbergen, ib.;
voyage of Dr. Kane, 311

weapons used by natives of,
cxxxii. 453
Arctic Seas, influence of, on deep-

sea temperature of the Atlantic,

cxxxv. 461
Arculfus, his narrative of his visit to

Jerusalem in 680, cxii. 448
Aretino (Leonard, 1370–1443), his

plagiarism from Procopius, cxxiv.

Arezzo (Thomas, Cardinal, 1756-

1832), his interview with Napo-

leon in 1806, cxxviii. 482
Argenson (Marquis d'), Journal and

Letters of, published by M. Rath-
ery, cxxv. 470; his character, 471
note; Foreign Minister of Louis

XV., 488; his dismissal, 503
Argyll (Archibald Campbell, Earl

of, d. 1661), his sentence and exe-

cution, cxxxix. 184 note
Arians, their unconscious services to

Christianity, cxi. 443
Aristarchus (of Samos), his system

of astronomy, cxvi. 94
Aristocracy, the mainstay of Govern-

ment in England from 1688 to

1832, cxxv. 580
Aristophanes (about B.C. 444-380),

on the effects of bad on good
money, cxxiii. 90 note

Aristophanes, Frere's translations

from, cxxxv. 495; Cumberland's
and Mitchell's versions, 498; his
satire and characters unsuited to
modern tastes, 500

the Ravenna MS. of, cxxxvii.
Aristotle (B.C. 384-322), wrongly

supposed to have written on the
Law of Nations, cxii. 401 ; his
twofold definition of Justice, 409

his system of astronomy,
cxvi. 94.

his remark on hereditary
qualities in families, cxxxii. 125

unsuitable to English trans-
lation, cxxxiv. 308 ; his virtual
codification of Plato, 336

question of his un-Greek
characteristics, cxxxvi. 518; his
early life, 519; studies under Plato,
ib.; at the Court of IIermeias, 521;
friendship of Alexander, ib.; ex-
pelled from Athens, 525; his death
and will, ib. ; his detractors, ib.;
fate of his library and MSS., 526;
the present text, 530; catalogue
of Diogenes Laertius, ib.; lost dia-
logues of, 531 ; his philosophy
wasted by the Peripatetics, ib.;
edition of Andronicus, 532; state-
ments of Porphyry, 533 ; question
of his · Exoteric Discourses,' 534 ;
anecdote by Aulus Gellius, 535;
dryness of his logical treatises,
537, 539; the Categories,' ib.;
modern terms derived from his
philosophy, 541 ; his treatise On
Interpretation,' 542 ; his dis-
covery of the syllogism, 545; his
Sophistical Refutations,' 549;
treatise 'On the Soul,' 551; the
• Darwinian theory' compared, ib.,
552 ; his conception of the Celes-
tial Body, 553 ; his early dialogue
• Eudemus,' 555; one-sided esti-
mates of his teaching, 557 ; want
of further knowledge, ib. ; difficul-
ties of English translation, 558


Aristotle, Strabo's account of his MSS., criticised, cxxxvii. 59 note

his sound criticism Homer's account of the pursuit of

Hector, cxxxix, 537, and note Arkwright (Sir Richard, 1732-1792),

patent for his Spinning Jenny, cxxi. 598

(Mrs.), her touching lyric songs, cxl. 380; lines on the

seasons, 381 Arles, Council of (314), cxi. 440 Armada, the. See Spanish Armada Armies, moral qualities more valua

ble than numbers, cxxvi. 277; motive force and mechanical power

cf, 285 Armstrong (Sir William, b. 1810),

his system of rifled ordnance, cxix. 482; negative results of experiments with his heavy guns, 483; his first contract limited to fieldartillery, 486; his coil principle imitated, 487 note; success of his field-pieces in China, 487 ; fundamental error of breech-loading for field-guns, ib.; the shunt principle substituted, ib. ; want of simplicity due to form of projectile, ib.; his system of double fuzes, 488; his theory of windage opposed to that of the French,

490; his

guns liable to fouling from absence of windage, 491; leaden coating of projectile dangerous to gunners, 492 ; special characteristics of his field-artillery, 493 ; his vent-piece too complicated for warfare, ib.; his evidence before the Select Committee, 495; over-estimates the value of his invention, 496 ; his system of field-guns based on the enlargement of an ordinary rifle, 498; number of his guns rejected after trial, 504; advocates heavy bursting charges, 509; his evidence on his 100-pounder guns, 514; his coil system criticised, 516; bis appointment to the

Ordnance Committee injudicious,

520 Armstrong (Sir William), his evi

dence against the Patent Laws,

cxxi. 605 Army (British), its weakness during

the American War of Independence, cxvi. 141

improved condition of, in India, cxxxi. 321

expectations of reform, cxxxiii. 207; want of cohesion and unity, 208; defective state of, due to absence of organisation, 209; constitution of, since 1688, ib.; 'Army Extraordinaries,' ib.; early contracts for recruits, 210; enlistment regulations, ib.; agitations for reform after 1835, 211; old system of departments, 212; changes during the Crimean War, ib.; the new system, 213; classification of responsibility, 214; Board of 1866 on transport duties, ib.; the Control Department created, 215; evils of dual government, ib.; want of training in the Militia, ih. (see Militia); recent efforts to form an Army of Reserve, 217; failure ascribed to optional terms of enlistment, 218; the present system mere patchwork, ib. ; remedies proposed, ib.; compulsory hallot for Militia, ib.; question of exemptions, 219; scheme of annual contingents, 220; present percentage of recruits to the population, ib., note; details of proposed Army-Reserve system, ib., 224; the purchase system doomed, ib.; principle of selection urged in its place, 225; together with limitation of regimental command, 226; value of a cadet system, 227 ; summary of proposals, ib. ; need of reserves to replace casualties in war, 229; additions to cavalry and artillery, ib.; Mr. Cardwell's short-service system, 230; district

organisation, ib.; field commissariat,
231 ; Control system condemned,
232; evils of over-centralisation,
233; report of Mr. Cardwell's
Committee, 235; new officers of
Finance and Supply, ib.; former
Master-General of the Ordnance,
ib.; new office of Surveyor-General
criticised, 236; erils of uniting
finance and administration, ib.;
position of Commander-in-Chief,
238; his proposed relations with
the Secretary of State, ib.; im-
portance of constitutional safe-
guards, 239; contrary tendencies
of recent changes, 240; military
bureaucracy at the War Office, ib.;
irregular proceedings in Parlia-
ment, 241 ; restrictions in 1832 on

flogging, 310
Army (British), the Guard Corps in,

cxl. 464 (see Grenadier Guards) ;

precedency o various arms, 478
Army Regulation Act (1871),cxxxiv.

574, 576
Army, Standing, controversy on, in

England, cxiv. 307
Arndt (Ernst Moritz, 1769-1859),

Lives and Works of, cxxxii. 414;
his share in effecting German
unity, 415; his Swedish birth,
416; his early Recollections,' ib. ;
divinity studies, 418; travels, 419;
professor at Greifswald, ib. ; mar-
ries, ib.; growth of his political
views,ib.; his hatred of the French,
421 ; his ‘History of Serfdom
in Pomeranin and Rügen,' 423;
visit to Sweden, ib.; his 'Spirit
of the Age,' ib. ; his appeals to
German patriotism, 425; his duel,
ib.; takes refuge at Stockholm, ib.;
returns in disguise to Germany,
ib. ; visit to Berlin, 426 ; resumes
his Professorship, ib.; his escape
from Sweden to Prussia, 428;
summoned by Von Stein to St.
Petersburg, 429; origin of his war-
songs, 431; specimens, 432, 435;

his devout spirit of patriotism, ib.;
his 'Catechism,' ib.; his unselfish
recognition of honour, 436; re-
moves to Bonn and remarries,
437; his papers seized by the
Prussian Government, ib.; his
trial, ib.; restored to his office,
438; elected Rector of Bonn Uni-
versity, ib.; his ninetieth birthday,

ib.; death, ib.
Arneth (Ritter von), his edition of

Marie Antoinette's letters, cxxiii.
423; his account of his materials,

424; evidence of handwriting, 425
Arnold (Thomas, D.D., 1795–1842),

his scheme of a liberal Theological
Review, cxiii. 463

- his defence of the authen-
ticity of St. John's Gospel, cxix.

on the authenticity of Cæsar's
Commentaries,' cxxiv. 403

his sound principles of State
and Church, cxl. 449
Arnold (Matthew), his bureaucratic

idea of State Education, cxiv. 11;
on the cost of education in France,

on the grand style,' in
translating Homer, cxxi. 138; on
the rapidity of Homer's diction,

critical works of, cxxix. 486;
his correct sense of intellectual
truth and beauty, ib.; accused of
being an elegant trifler,' 487;
his defects of exposition, 488; on
Hebraism and Hellenism, ib.; on
Hellenic sweetness and light, 489;
practical mistakes of his criticism,
493; his strictures on periodical
literature and the Divorce Court,
ib.; advocates restraints on indi-
vidual freedom, 494; and reticence
in public discussion, 495; on the
superiority of French literature,
496; his admiration of the Parisian
Academy, 499; his poverty of de-
finition, 500; his glorification of

the Grand Style, ib.; his loose remarks on the Ballad Style, 502 ; denounces the ballad metre for Homeric translation, ib.; bis slovenly treatment of his subjects,

503 Arnold (Matthew), his ‘St. Paul and

Protestantism,' cxxxiii. 399; polemics provoked by his book, ib.; his argumentin opposition to M. Renan, 400; bis division of Calvinists and Lutherans, 401; on Nonconformist tendencies to political dissent, ib.; on their abandonment of original Puritanism, 402; Mr. Dale's reply, 403; on historic Churches,' 406; on the doctrinal causes of Dissent, 422; on the 'Epistle to the Romans,' 423; contrasts Puritanism with St. Paul's doctrines, 424; his views on Pauline teaching

criticised, ib. Arnold (Mr.), his Report on the

British and Foreign Training

School, cxi. 354 Arnold (Mr., Police Magistrate), his

articles in • Fraser' on the alleged

Shakspeare forgeries, cxi. 456 Arnolfo del Cambrio, his position

among Tuscan sculptors, cxxi.

526; his works, 527 Arras, Treaty of (1435), cxix. 537 Art, its practical connexion with Science, cxviii. 502

effect of theological opinions on, cxxi. 444

intolerance in judgments on, cxxï. 77

galleries of, cxxiii. 57. See Exhibitions of Art and Science

controversy as to expression in, cxl. 171; imaginative power of

Association, ib. Art, Christian, the term explained,

cxx. 98, 99; its growth coincident with the progress of Christianity, 108; idea of the purifying effects of physical pain represented in, ib.

Sacred, travesties of sacred

subjects by great painters, cxxiv.

349 Artesian wells, proposed scheme of,

for London, cxxiii. 413, 414 Arthur (King), early English ro

mances of, cxxv. 246; Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight,' 247; Breton legends of, 248; growth of his romances, 250

Mr. Cox's theory of the tradition of, cxxxi. 504 note; popularity of, as a national hero, 505;

growth of the tale, ib. Articles (the Thirty-Nine), invalu

able as a bond of union, cxiii. 9; qualified subscription to, recommended, ib.; their silence respecting biblical inspiration, 491

origin of, cxv. 582 ; subscription not obligatory at first, 585; mischief of plenary assent, 603; deferential declaration of allegiance suggested, 606

their cautious language on inspiration, cxxi. 160

ratification of, cxl. 438 Artillery, advantages of riflemen

over field-batteries, cxix. 481; two systems of rifling, 482 (see Rifled Ordnance); vent-pieces (see Armstrong, Sir William); objections to breech-loading fieldguns in warfare, 495; publicity of experiments in, confined to England, 496; nominal weight of projectile no index to size of the gun, 508; two classes of field-guns in England, 509 ; inferior bursting charges of British shells, 510; purposes of heavy ordnance, ib.; effect of iron-plating on marine artillery, 511; American mania for huge guns, 512; their doubtful value, 529

use of, in warfare (see War, Art of); in naval tactics, cxl. 16, 19 Artists, their need of corporate ac

tion, cxviii. 485; social characteristics of, ib.; attempt in 1755 to

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