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ment of the Ommeiades, 356; the | Arab horses, native neglect of, for Persian invasion, ib. ; Arab rule in useful purposes, cxxxviii.430; their Africa, 357

crossing with indigenous breeds, Arabia, physical features of, cxxii. 444; Nejed horses, 447; royal stud

489; peculiarity of uplands, 491 ; at Riad, ib.; native horsemanship, snakes in, 493; the Bedouins, ib.; 448 494; the settled population, ib.; Arago (Dominique François, b. 496; Arabs of the interior, 497 ; 1786), his estimate of the numtheir supposed fitness for civilisa ber of comets, cxl. 399 tion, 498; the Wahabees, ib. ; re Aral, Sea of, question of its existligious condition of the Arabs, ence in the 13th century, cxxxv. 499; star-worship of the Solibah 5,11 tribe, 500, 501; contradictory ac Ararat, Mount, ascents of, cxxx. counts, ib.; the 'Biadeeyah' sect, 339 502; ancient Sabæan worship, 503; Arbroath (Angus), Benedictine 'Abtheory of Monotheism in, 504; re bey of, cxx. 320, 321; descripligious revival in the last century, tion of the battle of, in 1445-6, • 505; cholera in 1854 at Nejed, 324

Arc (Jeanne de, 1410-1431), her - sudden importance of, after patriotism not understood by her the death of Mahomet, cxxiv. 1; 1 countrymen, cxix. 531 preparation for his mission, 2; - M. Guizot's treatment of the perfection of the language, ib.; episode, cxl. 217 animosity of tribes, 3; the Yeme Archæology, prehistoric, recent nites and Maadites, 4; Himyarite study of, cxxxii. 440; prominent language, ib.; ancient commerce, questions suggested, ib. ; classifica5; caravans, ib. 7.; temple of the tions of periods, 441; "ages' of Caaba, 8; obscure heretical sects bronze, etc., not strict chronologiin, 13; unpopularity of Christian cal divisions, 442; the Palæolithic doctrines, ib.; idolatrous worship age, 443 (see Geology); views of in, 25; duties of hospitality, 26; French archæologists on the antidestruction of the Jews, 38-41; quity of man, ib.; drift-deposits feebleness of Islamism in, 47

and bone-caves, 447-454; M. - piracies in the Persian Gulf Lartet's Quaternary system critiin 1809, cxxv. 8; Egyptian inva cised, 415; cave-bears, 456; Quasion of Nejed, 9; British policy ternary cave-dwellers, 459 (see respecting, 11. See Wahabees Man); the Neolithic age, 463;

probably once the home of polished stone-axes, ib.; remains the Ethiopians, cxxxv. 97 ; ancient of tumuli, 465; the Bronze Age, stone-implements in, 102

467-477 ; the Iron Age, ib.; eviancient libraries in, cxxxix. dences of, regarding mankind, 16

479; questions left for ethnology, Arab horses, compared with Eng

lish racers, cxx. 124–120 ; superi Architecture (Greek), Mr. Fergusority of Barbs over, 130 note ; son's doctrine of definite proporearliest introduction of, into Eng- 1 tions, cxvi. 485 land, 133–138; popularity of, in Architecture, eclectic system of, in England during the last century, England, cxv. 542; causes of 141

modern inferiority, 513

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Architecture, commencement of the

Renaissance era, cxviii. 72; Gothic
imitations in England, 73; the
Gothic style in Italy, Spain, and
France, 90; mania in England for
the Greek style of, 92; the Italian
style, 98; question of domestic,
100

- effects of exigencies of
weather on, cxxxix. 445
— altered laws of proportion in,

cxl. 188
Archons, chronology of, at Athens,

cxxxii. 172
Arctic regions, theory of a circum-

polar sea, cxii. 309; possible ac-
cess to, east of Spitzbergen, ib.;
voyage of Dr. Kane, 311

– weapons used by natives of,
cxxxii. 453
Arctic Seas, influence of, on deep-

sea temperature of the Atlantic,

cxxxv. 461
Arculfus, his narrative of his visit to

Jerusalem in 680, cxii. 448
Aretino (Leonard, 1370_1443), his

plagiarism from Procopius, cxxiv.

357
Arezzo (Thomas, Cardinal, 1756-

1832), his interview with Napo-

leon in 1806, cxxviii. 482
Argenson (Marquis d'), Journal and

Letters of, published by M. Rath-
ery, cxxv. 470; his character, 471
note; Foreign Minister of Louis

XV., 488; his dismissal, 503
Argyll (Archibald Campbell, Earl

of, d. 1601), his sentence and exe-

cution, cxxxix. 184 note
Arians, their unconscious services to

Christianity, cxi. 443
Aristarchus (of Samos), his system

of astronomy, cxvi. 94
Aristocracy, the mainstay of Govern-
ment in England from 1688 to

1832, cxxv. 580
Aristophanes (about B.C. 444–380),

on the effects of bad on good
money, cxxiii. 90 note

Aristophanes, Frere's translations

from, cxxxv. 495; Cumberland's
and Mitchell's versions, 498; his
satire and characters unsuited to
modern tastes, 500

- the Ravenna MS. of, cxxxvii.
92
Aristotle (B.C. 384-322), wrongly

supposed to have written on the
Law of Nations, cxii. 401 ; his
twofold definition of Justice, 409

- his system of astronomy,
cxvi. 94.
- his remark on hereditary
qualities in families, cxxxii. 125

-- unsuitable to English trans-
lation, cxxxiv. 308 ; his virtual
codification of Plato, 336

— question of his un-Greek
characteristics, cxxxvi. 518; his
early life, 519; studies under Plato,
ib.; at the Court of Hermeias, 521;
friendship of Alexander, ib.; ex-
pelled from Athens, 525; his death
and will, ib.; his detractors, ib.;
fate of his library and MSS., 526;
the present text, 530; catalogue
of Diogenes Laertius, ib. ; lost dia-
logues of, 531 ; his philosophy
wasted by the Peripatetics, ib.;
edition of Andronicus, 532; state-
ments of Porphyry, 533 ; question
of his Exoteric Discourses,' 534;
anecdote by Aulus Gellius, 535;
dryness of his logical treatises,
537, 539; the Categories,' ib.;
modern terms derived from his
philosophy, 541 ; his treatise "On
Interpretation,' 542; his dis-
covery of the syllogism, 545; his
"Sophistical Refutations,' 549;
treatise "On the Soul,' 551; the

Darwinian theory' compared, ib.,
552 ; his conception of the Celes-
tial Body, 553; his early dialogue

Eudemus,' 555; one-sided esti-
mates of his teaching, 557 ; want
of further knowledge, ib. ; difficul-
ties of English translation, 558

Aristotle, Strabo's account of his | MSS., criticised, cxxxvii. 59 note

- his sound criticism on Homer's account of the pursuit of I

Hector, cxxxix, 537, and note Arkwright (Sir Richard, 1732–1792),

patent for his Spinning Jenny, cxxi. 598

- (Mrs.), her touching lyric songs, cxl. 380; lines on the

seasons, 381 Arles, Council of (314), cxi. 440 Armada, the. See Spanish Armada Armies, moral qualities more valua

ble than numbers, cxxvi. 277; motive force and mechanical power

cf, 285 Armstrong (Sir William, b. 1810),

his system of rifled ordnance, cxix. 482; negative results of experiments with his heavy guns, 483; his first contract limited to fieldartillery, 486; his coil principle imitated, 487 note; success of his field-pieces in China, 487; fundamental error of breech-loading for field-guns, ib.; the shunt principle substituted, ib. ; want of simplicity due to form of projectile, ib.; his system of double fuzes, 488; his theory of windage opposed to that of the French, 490; his guns liable to fouling from absence of windage, 491 ; leaden coating of projectile dangerous to gunners, 492; special characteristics of his field-artillery, 493; his vent-piece too complicated for warfare, ib.; his evidence before the Select Committee, 495 ; over-estimates the value of his invention, 496 ; his system of field-guns based on the enlargement of an ordinary rifle, 498; number of his guns rejected after trial, 504; advocates heavy bursting charges, 509; his evidence on his 100-pounder guns, 514; his coil system criticised, 516; bis appointment to the

Ordnance Committee injudicious,

520 Armstrong (Sir William), his evi

dence against the Patent Laws,

cxxi. 605 Army (British), its weakness during

the American War of Independence, cxvi. 141

- improved condition of, in India, cxxxi. 321

expectations of reform, cxxxiii. 207; want of cohesion and unity, 208; defective state of, due to absence of organisation, 209; constitution of, since 1688, ib.; “ Army Extraordinaries,' ib.; early contracts for recruits, 210; enlistment regulations, ib.; agitations for reform after 1835, 211; old system of departments, 212; changes during the Crimean War, ib.; the new system, 213 ; classification of responsibility, 214; Board of 1866 on transport duties, ib.; the Control Department created, 215; evils of dual government, ib.; want of training in the Militia, ib. (see Militia); recent efforts to form an Army of Reserve, 217; failure ascribed to optional terms of enlistment, 218; the present system mere patchwork, ib. ; remedies proposed, ib.; compulsory hallot for Militia, ib.; question of exemptions, 219; scheme of annual contingents, 220; present percentage of recruits to the population, ib., note; details of proposed Army-Reserve system, ib., 224; the purchase system doomed, ib.; principle of selection urged in its place, 225; together with limitation of regimental command, 226; value of a cadet system, 227 ; summary of proposals, ib.; need of reserves to replace casualties in war, 229; additions to cavalry and artillery, ib.; Mr. Cardwell's short-service system, 230; district

organisation,ib.; field commissariat, his devout spirit of patriotism, ib.;
231 ; Control system condemned, his Catechism,' ib.; his unselfish
232; evils of over-centralisation, recognition of honour, 436; re-
233; report of Mr. Cardwell's moves to Bonn and remarries,
Committee, 235; new officers of 437; his papers seized by the
Finance and Supply, ib.; former Prussian Government, ib.; his
Master-General of the Ordnance, trial, ib.; restored to his office,
ib.; new office of Surveyor-General 438; elected Rector of Bonn Uni-
criticised, 236; erils of uniting versity, ib.; his ninetieth birthday,
finance and administration, ib.; ib.; death, ib.
position of Commander-in-Chief, Arneth (Ritter von), his edition of
238; his proposed relations with Marie Antoinette's letters, cxxiii.
the Secretary of State, ib. ; im 423; his account of his materials,
portance of constitutional safe 424; evidence of handwriting, 425
guards, 239; contrary tendencies Arnold (Thomas, D.D., 1795–1842),
of recent changes, 240; military his scheme of a liberal Theological
bureaucracy at the War Office, ib.; Review, cxiii. 463
irregular proceedings in Parlia --. his defence of the authen-
ment, 241 ; restrictions in 1832 on ticity of St. John's Gospel, cxix.
flogging, 310

587
Army (British), the Guard Corps in, - on the authenticity of Caesar's

cxl. 464 (see Grenadier Guards); Commentaries,' cxxiv. 403
precedency o various arms, 478

- his sound principles of State
Army Regulation Act (1871),cxxxiv. and Church, cxl. 449
574, 576

Arnold (Matthew), his bureaucratic
Army, Standing, controversy on, in idea of State Education, cxiv. 11;
England, cxiv. 307

on the cost of education in France,
Arndt (Ernst Moritz, 1769-1859), 27

Lives and Works of, cxxxii. 414; - - on the grand style,' in
his share in effecting German translating Homer, cxxi. 138; on
unity, 415; his Swedish birth, the rapidity of Homer's diction,
416; his early · Recollections,' ib.;
divinity studies, 418; travels, 419; - critical works of, cxxix. 486;
professor at Greifswald, ib.; mar his correct sense of intellectual
ries, ib.; growth of his political truth and beauty, ib.; accused of
views, ib.; his hatred of the French, being an elegant trifler,' 487;
421; his "History of Serfdom his defects of exposition, 488; on
in Pomeranin and Rügen,' 423; Hebraism and Ilellenism, ib.; on
visit to Sweden, ib.; his "Spirit Hellenic sweetness and light, 489;
of the Age, ib.; his appeals to practical mistakes of his criticism,
German patriotism, 425; his duel, 493; his strictures on periodical
ib.; takes refuge at Stockholm, ib.; literature and the Divorce Court,
returns in disguise to Germany, ib.; advocates restraints on indi-
ib.; visit to Berlin, 426 ; resumes vidual freedom, 494; and reticence
his Professorship, ib.; bis escape in public discussion, 495; on the
from Sweden to Prussia, 428; superiority of French literature,
summoned by Von Stein to St. i 496; his admiration of the Parisian
Petersburg, 429; origin of his war Academy, 499; bis poverty of de-
songs, 431; specimens, 432, 435; ! finition, 500; his glorification of

140

the Grand Style, ib.; his loose re- ' subjects by great painters, cxxiv. marks on the Ballad Style, 502; L 349 denounces the ballad metre for Artesian wells, proposed scheme of, Homeric translation, ib.; his slo for London, cxxiii. 413, 414 venly treatment of his subjects, Arthur (King), early English ro503

mances of, cxxv. 246; “Sir GaArnold (Matthew), his ‘St. Paul and wayne and the Grene Knight,'

Protestantism,' cxxxiii. 399; po 247; Breton legends of, 248; lemics provoked by his book, ib.; his growth of his romances, 250 argumentin opposition to M. Renan, - Mr. Cox's theory of the tra400; bis division of Calvinists and dition of, cxxxi. 504 note; popuLutherans, 401; on Nonconformist larity of, as a national hero, 505 ; tendencies to political dissent, ib. ; growth of the tale, ib. on their abandonment of original Articles (the Thirty-Nine), invaluPuritanism, 402; Mr. Dale's reply, able as a bond of union, cxiii. 9; 403; on historic Churches,' 406 ; qualified subscription to, recomon the doctrinal causes of Dissent, mended, ib.; their silence respect422 ; on the 'Epistle to the Ro ing biblical inspiration, 491 mans,' 423; contrasts Puritanism - origin of, cxv. 582 ; subscripwith St. Paul's doctrines, 424; tion not obligatory at first, 585; his views on Pauline teaching mischief of plenary assent, 603; criticised, ib.

deferential declaration of allegiArnold (Mr.), his Report on the ance suggested, 606

British and Foreign Training - their cautious language on School, cxi, 354

inspiration, cxxi. 160 Arnold (Mr., Police Magistrate), his

- ratification of, cxl. 438 articles in • Fraser' on the alleged Artillery, advantages of riflemen Shakspeare forgeries, cxi. 456

over tield-batteries, cxix. 481 ; Arnolfo del Cambrio, his position two systems of rifling, 482 (see

among Tuscan sculptors, cxxi. Rifled Ordnance); vent-pieces 526; his works, 527

(see Armstrong, Sir William); Arras, Treaty of (1435), cxix. 537 objections to breech-loading fieldArt, its practical connexion with guns in warfare, 495; publicity of Science, cxvii. 502

experiments in, confined to Eng- effect of theological opinions land, 496 ; nominal weight of on, cxxi. 444

projectile no index to size of the - intolerance in judgments on, gun, 508; two classes of field-guns cxxii. 77

in England, 509; inferior bursting - galleries of, cxxiii. 57. See charges of British shells, 510; Exhibitions of Art and Science purposes of heavy ordnance, ib.;

- controversy as to expression effect of iron-plating on marine in, cxl. 171; imaginative power of artillery, 511; American mania Association, ib.

for huge guns, 512; their doubtArt, Christian, the term explained, ful value, 529

cxx. 98, 99; its growth coincident - use of, in warfare (see War, with the progress of Christianity, Art of); in naval tactics, cxl. 16, 19 108; idea of the purifying effects Artists, their need of corporate acof physical pain represented in, ib. tion, cxviii. 485; social character- Sacred, travesties of sacred | istics of, ib.; attempt in 1755 to

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