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Western University of Pennsylvania. tees, Rev. Robert Bruce, D. D., of the Seceders' Church, is at the head of the institution, and also professor of natural and moral philosophy and mathematics. Mr. Robert Grierson is professor of ancient languages. The number of students in 1841, was about fifty. The Tilghman Literary Society is connected with the University.
The city water-works, erected in 1827, is a valuable monument of liberality and enterprise. The water is elevated 116 feet, from the Allegheny river, to a reservoir on Grant's hill, 11 feet deep, and calculated to contain 1,000,000 of gallons. The water is raised by steam.
Western Theological Seminary at Allegheny city. Passing over to Allegheny city, there may be seen the Western Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church, founded by the General Assembly in 1825, and located in Allegheny town in 1827. The edifice was completed in 1831. It stands on a lofty, insulated ridge, about 100 feet
higher than the Allegheny river. It is indeed quite a task to ascend this hill of science and religion, but one is amply repaid by the pure air and magnificent prospect. It contains a library of about 6,000 volumes, and has connected with it a workshop for manual labor. Rev. Francis Herron, D. D., is president of the board of directors. Rev. David Elliott, Rev. L. W. Green, Rev. Robert Dunlap, professors.
The Theological Seminary of the Associate Reformed Church, located in Allegheny city, was established in 1826. It is under the charge of Rev. John T. Pressly, D. D., possesses a valuable library, and numbers about thirty students.
The Allegheny Theological Institute was organized by the general synod of the Reformed Presbyterian church in 1840. Rev. James R. Wilson, D. D., senior professor; Rev. Thomas Sproull, junior professor. The seminary possesses a valuable library. Measures are in progress to erect a large edifice in Allegheny city.
Western Penitentiary. The Western Penitentiary is an immense castle, built in the ancient Norman style, situated on the plain behind Seminary hill, and on the western border of Allegheny city. It was completed in 1827, at a cost of $183,092, including its equipments. Notwithstanding some glaring defects in its original construction and arrangement, it has now become an efficient institution. It is conducted on the “Pennsylvania system” of solitary confinement and labor. Weaving, shoe-making, and oakumpicking, are the employments of the prisoners. About 800 prisoners had been received, in 1842, since the commencement of the institution.
The United States Allegheny Arsenal is located at Lawrenceville, a pretty village about two and a half miles above Pittsburg, on the left bank of the Allegheny river. The site for this arsenal was selected by Col. Woolley and Wm. B. Foster, Esq. Col. Woolley superintended the erection of the buildings. The site is just opposite Wainwright's Island, the spot where Gen. Washington was cast away in his first effort to cross the Allegheny, when returning from his mission to Venango. At this post are manufactured and stored, ordnance, small-arms, and all sorts of
military equipments, which are shipped, as occasion demands, to the southern and western forts of the United States. The arsenal is under the general charge of Major H. K. Craig, at present the superintendent of the Harper's Ferry Armory. J. M. Morgan, 1st lieutenant, commands in his absence.
Many of the extensive manufactories spoken of as being situated at Pittsburg, are not within the limits of the city proper, but are scattered around within a circle of five miles radius from the courthouse. Within this compass are the cities of Pittsburg and Allegheny, (the latter already a large place of near 12,000 inhabitants, containing many extensive manufactories, par. ticularly of cotton, iron, and white lead, and doing a large proportion of the lumber business of the district,) the boroughs of Birmingham and Lawrenceville, and the towns and villages of Manchester, Stewartstown, Sharpsburgh, East Liberty, Wilkinsburgh, Croghansville, Minersville, Arthursville, Riceville, Oakland, Kensington, Sligo, Cuddysville, Temperance Village, Millers. ville, and New Troy. The manufacturing establishments located in these surrounding villages, have their warehouses, owners, or agents within the city, and so far as general business interests are concerned, may be considered a part of the city itself, that being the centre, where the greater part of the business is transacted. The population within this region has been estimated at 60,000, but since the census of 1840 it is found that that estimate was too large. It will be seen that the population of Allegheny county is, whites, 81,417-colored, 2,101-total, 83,518. It is the opinion of the county commissioners, that within the district above laid down, 50,000 of this population reside. Within this district there are about 75 churches, or places where religious worship is held ; about 90 sabbath-schools, 98 clergymen of all denominations, 95 lawyers, 65 practising physicians, besides many who have retired from practice, about 475 merchants of all kinds, about 100 of whom are wholesale, and 225 hotels and tavern-keepers.
The following extracts are taken from three numbers published by Neville B. Craig, Esq., in the Pittsburg Gazette for 1841. The earlier discoveries of the French, previous to their occupation of the Allegheny and Ohio, are noticed under the head of Erie county.
In the 6th note to the 2d volume of Sparks' Writings of Washington, we have the following account of the first movement towards making a settlement on the Ohio.
"In the year 1748, Thomas Lee, one of his majesty's council in Virginia, formed the design of effecting a settlement on the wild lands west of the Allegheny mountains, through the agency of an association of gentlemen. Before this date there were no English residents in those regions. A few traders wandered from tribe to tribe, and dwelt among the Indians, but they nei. ther cultivated nor occupied the land.”
Mr. Lee associated with himself Mr. Hanbury, a merchant from London, and twelve persons in Virginia and Maryland, composing the “Ohio Land Company.” One half million acres of land were granted them, to be taken principally on the south side of the Ohio, between the Mo. nongahela and Kenhawa.
In 1750, Mr. Christopher Gist, who afterwards acted as Washington's guide to Le Beuf, was despatched by the company to explore the country along the Ohio. He kept a journal of his trip, which we have never seen ; but a writer who has seen it, states that he went from Virginia to the Juniata, ascended that river, and descended the Kiskiminitas to the Allegheny.
He crossed that river about four miles above this city, and passed on to the Ohio. In his journal he makes no mention of the Monongahela, and the writer who gives us this information presumes that he was ignorant of its existence. If he passed to the north of Hogback hill, as that writer supposes, the Monongahela might very readily escape notice.
In this expedition, Gist went as far as the Falls, on the north side of the Ohio, and in Nov. 1751, he examined the country on the south side of the Ohio as far as Kenhawa.
In 1744, a treaty had been made with the Delaware Indians at Lancaster, by which they ceded to the king all the land within the bounds of Virginia. This was the first treaty supposed to contain a cession of lands on the Ohio.
In 1752, a treaty was held at Logstown, (14 miles below Pittsburg on the right bank of the Ohio,) Col. Fry and two other commissioners present on the part of Virginia, and Gist as agent of the Ohio company. One of the old chiefs declared that the Indians considered that the treaty at Lancaster did not cede any lands west of the first hills on the east side of the Alle. gheny mountains.
They agreed, however, not to molest any settlements that might be made on the southeast side of the Ohio.
(Two old chiefs, through an interpreter, asked Mr. Gist where the Indians' land lay—for the French claimed all the land on one side of the Ohio river, and the English on the other ? Mr. Gist found the question hard to answer.]
Soon after the treaty at Logstown, Gist was appointed surveyor for the Ohio company, and directed to lay off a town and fort near the mouth of Chartiers creek. Nothing, however, we presume, was done in that matter, as Washington in his journal of his visit to Le Bæuf used the following language :
“ About two miles from this, (the Forks) on the southeast side of the river, at the place where the Ohio company intended to lay off their fort, lives Shingiss, king of the Delawares."
Our late esteemed friend, James McKee, has often pointed out the place where Shingiss resided : it was near the river, and a short distance south of McKee's rocks.
About this time, 1753, the French were carrying out their grand scheme for uniting Canada with Louisiana by a line of forts, two of which were to be placed at this place and at Logs. town. In the prosecution of this scheme, and to enforce their claim to the whole country on the Ohio, they surprised a blockhouse which the Ohio company had erected at the latter place, seized the goods and skins to the amount of about twenty thousand pounds, and destroyed all the traders but two, who made their escape.
In the summer and fall of 1753, accounts were received that a considerable French force had arrived at Presque Isle, on their way to the Ohio; and in October of that year, George Washington was selected as a messenger to proceed by the way of Logstown to the French commandant, wherever he might be found, to demand information as to the object of the French troops. Wash. ington departed immediately from Williamsburg, and arrived here about the 23d or 24th of Nov. 1753. He examined the point, and thought it a favorable position for a fort. He then proceeded to Logstown--and thence to the French commandant, at Le Beuf, from whom he received a very unsatisfactory reply.
Immediately upon Washington's return to Williamsburg, arrangements were made to send two companies to the Ohio, to erect a fort at this place. One company, under the command of Capt. Trent, being first ready, marched and arrived here. While they were marching to this place, it seems, by the following extract from the records at Harrisburg, that the French had built a fort at Logstown.
“ March 12th, 1754. Evidence sent to the house that Venango and Logstown, where the French forts are built, are in the province of Pennsylvania.”
On the 21st of March, 1754, Gov. Dinwiddie said, in a lettter to Gov. Hamilton of Pennsyl. vania, “I am much misled by our surveyors, if the Forks of the Monongahela be within the bounds of the province of Pennsylvania.”
This is the first notice of the controversy between those two states, about Pittsburg and the country around it, which we have found. Thus the region around us was the bone of double contention : England and France were about to go to war for it, and Pennsylvania and Virginia to commence a controversy about it, which endured for more than twenty years—in the course of which much ill blood and angry feeling were displayed.
It was, perhaps, a fortunate circumstance that considerable doubt existed as to which state the "Fork" belonged. Both states were probably induced to contribute more liberally in the efforts to recover it from the French, from the belief entertained by each that the country belonged to it. The Virginia troops very reluctantly accompanied Forbes by the Pennsylvania route, and had they known that this country belonged to Pennsylvania, they might have declined alto. gether.
We know not precisely at what time Capt. Trent's company arrived here, but on the 17th of April, 1754, they were engaged in erecting a fort near the junction of the rivers Monongahela and Allegheny. Captain Trent was absent at Will's creek, and Lieut. Frazier was at his residence near Turtle creek, thus leaving Ensign Ward in command of a company of forty-one men. The fort was still unfinished, when, on that memorable day, 17th of April, 1754, a French commandant, Monsieur Contreceur, made his appearance on the beautiful Allegheny, with sixty batteaux, three hundred canoes, and a motley host of above one thousand French and Indians, having with them eighteen pieces of cannon. Poor Ensign Ward, with his forty-one men and his unfinished stockade, could, of course, make no resistance to such a host, strengthened as they were by a strong park of artillery. Some negotiation took place; Contrecæur, however, was peremptory, and cut discussion short. Ward surrendered the post, and was permitted to bring away his little company of forty-one men, and all his working tools.
The seizure of this post was the first overt act of hostility in the memorable war which raged for seven years, both in Europe and America.
The French, having thus taken possession of this place, proceeded at once to erect Fort Du. quesne, to secure and perpetuate their power here. Their labors, however, proved fruitless; their rule here was destined to a short endurance.
Brief as it was, however, it was a period of much enterprise and activity, and marked by for. tunes both adverse and prosperous. The seizure of this place excited great sensation over the whole country, and more especially in the provinces of Pennsylvania and Ýirginia.
Washington, who was at Will's creek, near where Cumberland now stands, with about one hundred and fifty men, determined to proceed to the mouth of Red Stone creek, and erect a fort there.
[See Fayette co.)
At the surrender, by Washington, of the fort at Great Meadows, one of the terms of capitulation was that Captain Van Braam and Captain Stobo should be held by the French until the French prisoners, taken on the 28th of May, should be released.
Captain Stobo was detained in Fort Duquesne for some time before he was sent to Quebec, and on the 29th of July, 1754, he wrote the following letter describing the state of affairs here, (4th Vol. Hazard's Register, page 328–9.)
“Sir-I wrote you yesterday by an Indian named the Long, or Mono; he will be with you in seven days. This goes by Delaware George. If these discharge their trust, they ought to be well rewarded. The purport of yesterday's letter was to inform you of a report, and I hope false, which greatly alarms the Indians, that the Half King, and Monecatooth are killed, their wives and children given to the Catawbas, Cattoways, and Cherokees. I wish a peace may be made up between the Catawbas and the nations here ; they are much afraid of them. Many would have joined you ere now, had it not been for that report. You had as just a plan of the fort as time and opportunity would allow. The French manage the Indians with the greatest artifice. I mentioned yesterday a council the Shawanese had with the French, the present they gave, and if they made the French a speech yesterday, the bearer, who was present, will inform you to what purport. If yesterday's letter reaches you, it will give you a particular account of most things. I have scarce a minute, therefore can only add one more thing: there are but 200 men here at this time, 200 more expected in a few days; the rest went off in several detachments, to the amount of 1,000, besides Indians. The Indians have great liberty here ; they go out and in when they please, without notice. If 100 trusty Shawanese, Mingoes, and Delawares were picked out, they might surprise the fort, lodging themselves under the platform, behind the palisades, by day, and at night secure the guard with their tomahawks. The guard consists of 40 men only, and 5 offi
. cers. None lodge in the fort but the guard, except Contrecæur—the rest in bark cabins around the fort. All this you have more particularly in yesterday's account. Your humble servant, &c. La Force is greatly missed here. Let the good of the expedition be considered preferable to our safety. Haste to strike."
In the previous letter, Captain Stobo says : "La Force is greatly wanted here—no scouting now-he certainly must have been an extraordinary man amongst them-he is so much regretted and wished for."
The 5th day of July, 1755, must have been one of great bustle and excitement within the limits of the west ward of our city. Within those limits, and near the Point, was then assembled, around and in Fort Duquesne, a number of French and Indians. Intelligence had been brought by their scouts that Braddock, with his formidable and disciplined army, was rapidly approaching, The French commandant was, no doubt, greatly distressed and perplexed by the condition of things-his force was comparatively small-Fort Duquesne was only a stockade, incapable of resisting, even for an hour, the lightest field-pieces. At this crisis, when it seems the commandant had abandoned all idea of resistance, Captain Beaujeu, a bold and enterprising spirit
, well suited to such an emergency, proposed to take a detachment of French and Indians, and meet Braddock on his march.
The consent of the Indians to accompany him was first to be obtained. Captain Beaujeu is represented to have been a man of great affability of manners, and very popular among the Indians. He went among them, explained his plan, and urged them to go with him. They pro. nounced the plan to be a hopeless one, and refused peremptorily to go.
A second time he applied to them—urged them to hold a council on the subject; they did so, and again refused to go with him. Still not despairing, Captain Beaujeu again went among them, used all his arts of persuasion, told them that he was determined to go, and asked them whether they would permit him to go alone to meet the enemy. This appeal proved successful.
They agreed to accompany him. This was on the 7th of July, 1755, and they had information that Braddock was only eighteen miles distant. That day and the next was spent in making preparations, and early on the morning of the 9th, the united forces of French and Indians de. parted on what seemed an utterly hopeless expedition. Along with Beaujeu were two other captains, Dumas and Lignery, four lieutenants, six ensigns, and two cadets.
Mr. Craig does not describe the battle at Braddock's field. The subjoined account is abridged from various authorities.
Major-general Edward Braddock had arrived in this country early in 1755, with the 44th and 48th regiments of royal troops, under Sir Peter Halkett and Col. Dunbar. At Will's creek, (Fort Cumberland,) he was joined by about a thousand provincial troops, but the army was detained at this place several weeks, for want of horses, wagons, and forage. By the energy and tact of Dr. Franklin, then postmaster of the province, about 200 wagons, with the necessary horses and equipments, were raised among the farmers of the Cumberland valley, and in Lancaster and York counties. The army moved, at length, on the 8th and 9th of June, but soon found them. selves so encumbered with baggage and wagons, that it was determined, at the suggestion of Washington, who acted as aid.de-camp, to divide the force, pushing forward a small but chosen band, with such artillery and light stores as were necessary, leaving the heavy artillery, baggage,