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PITTSBURG, FROM THE NORTHWEST.
This view was taken from the hill behind Sligo. In the foreground are seen a glass-house and dwellings of manufacturers. On the right is the
Monongahela bridge, the Steamboat landing, and the Monongahela House, near the end of the bridge. To the left of that is the cupola of the
mediately back of it, and at less than a mile from the point, rises Grant's hill, (on which the courthouse stands,) with Ayres' hill on the west, and Quarry hill on the east of Grant's. At the foot of these hills there extends up the Allegheny a strip of alluvial land about a quarter of a mile wide, on which the suburb Bayardstown is built; and on the Monongahela side a still narrower margin. The city is rapidly pushing its eastern limits on to the sides and summits of these hills. Grant's hill is already occupied. Opposite to Pittsburg, on a beautiful plain on the north bank of the Allegheny, is the large city of ALLEGHENY; below it a mile or two is the more rural village of MANCHESTER ; while on the other side of Pittsburg, across the Monongahela, the smoky street of Sligo, with its noisy manufactories, is nestled under the high precipice of Coal hill ; and about two miles above Sligo, where the alluvial bottom spreads out wider, lies the large manufacturing town of BIRMINGHAM. All these villages may be considered as belonging to and forming part of one great manufacturing and commercial city.
The accompanying large view of Pittsburg was taken from the hill behind Sligo, about a quarter of a mile below the ferry. The editor of the Wheeling Times, in speaking of the visit of a Board of Inquiry to Pittsburg in 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site for the U. S. Marine Hospital, says, concerning the prospect from this hill
This Board found Pittsburg a much larger place than Wheeling ; they found it a thriving place, with numerous engines, furnaces, and machinery; they found it with a rich and industri. ous population, people that would work, and would therefore prosper,-at the same time they found them an hospitable, gentlemanly class of beings, possessed of intelligence and willing to impart it. They doubtless took an early excursion upon the hills that environ the city. They looked down, and a sea of smoke lay like the clouds upon Chimborazo's base. No breath of air moved its surface; but a sound rose from its depths like the roar of Niagara's waters, or the warring of the spirits in the cavern of storms. They looked around them, and saw no signs of life or human habitation. They looked above them, and the summer sun, like a haughty war. rior, was driving his coursers up the eastern sky. Then from the sea of smoke a vapor roseanother and another cloud rode away, and a speck of silvery sheen glittered in the sunbeams.
Again, a spire came into view, pointing heavenward its long slim finger ; then a roof—a house. top-a street; and lo! a city lay like a map spread out by magic hand, and ten thousand busy mortals were seen in the pursuit of wealth, of fame, of love, and fashion. On the left, a noble river came heaving onward from the wilderness of the north, bearing on its bosom the treasures of the forest. On the right, an unassuming but not less useful current quietly yielded to the ves. sel's prow that bore from a more genial soil the products of the earth. They looked again, and extending downward through fertile and cultivated vales, checkered with gently swelling hills, they saw the giant trunk formed by the union of these noble branches. Ruffling its mirrored surface, they saw the noble steamer leaping like the panting courser, bearing a rich burden from the far sunny south ; another, gathering strength and rolling onward to commence its long jour. ney past fertile fields, high hills, rich and flourishing cities, and forests wide and drear, bearing the hand-work of her artisans to Mississippi, Texas, Mexico, the groves of India, and the hills of Pernambuco-nay, to every land to which the sun in its daily course gives light. Such they saw Pittsburg ; and as such, as a citizen of the west, we are proud of her.
With the villages on the left bank of the Monongahela, Pittsburg is connected by the Monongahela bridge, 1,500 feet in length, having 8 arches resting on stone piers. This bridge was erected in 1818, at a cost of $102,450. ver the Allegheny there are no less than four bridges crossing to Allegheny city, besides the splendid aqueduct of the Pennsylvania canal. The first of these bridges was erected in 1819 at an expense of $95,250. It is 1,122 feet in length, resting on 6 piers of stone, and is elevated 38 feet above low water. There are in Pittsburg and its environs, within convenient walking dis
tance, 17 Presbyterian churches, 3 Cumberland Presbyterian, 12 Methodist Episcopal, 3 Protestant Methodist, 4 Baptist, 4 Roman Catholic, 5 Episcopal, 2 Associate, 4 Associate Reformed, 2 Evangelical Lutheran, 2 Congregational, 2 Disciples' churches, 1 “Church of God," i Unitarian, 1 German Evangelical Protestant, 1 German Reformed, 3 Welsh, and 4 African churches of different denominations.
The population of Pittsburg, in 1786, was by estimate about 500; in 1796, according to the assessor's lists, 1,395; in 1810, about 5,000; in 1820, 7,248; in 1830, including Allegheny and the suburbs, 21,912; and in 1840, including the same, 38,931.
Pittsburg owes its preëminence to the fortunate combination of several advantages. It is, with slight exceptions, at the head of steamboat navigation; it is also the terminating point of the main line of internal improvements. It is the mart of portions of Virginia and New York, as well as of western Pennsylvania ; while the Ohio opens to the enterprise of its citizens the whole of the Mississippi valley. The exhaustless banks of coal in the neighboring hills, and the excellent mines of iron ore found in great abundance in the counties along the mountains and on the banks of the Ohio below, together with the vast forests of pine timber on the head-waters of the Allegheny River, give to this city its preëminence over all others in the west for manufacturing purposes.
To enumerate the various manufacturing establishments of this great workshop, does not fall within the scope of this work. The principal articles of manufacture are steamboats, steam-engines, and a great variety of machinery, both of iron and wood; bar-iron, nails, ploughs, and agricultural implements; glass, cotton cloths, leather, and saddlery; flooring. boards; with a great number of articles of which the manufacture is prosecuted on a smaller scale. The steam power exerted in these various departments is immense ; in 1833 it was estimated to be equal to that of 2,580 horses, and it was probably augmented one half in 1843. To strangers these manufactories are well worth a visit, especially those of glass, nails, bar and rolled iron.
There is much moral power in this city; many men of talents in the learned professions, whose light shines throughout the great valley of the west ; many benevolent societies and institutions of learning.
An immense throng of passengers and travellers is passing into and out of Pittsburg daily, during the warm season. Five or six steamboats arrive and as many depart daily, either for nearer or more distant ports: and the number of canal-boats it would not be easy to estimate. To accommodate these travellers, the city contains some of the best hotels in the country—in the world. The Monongahela House, itself a princely palace, is also a perfect model as regards its management. It stands near the end of the Monongahela bridge, opposite the steamboat landing; and from its balconies and the beautiful terrace on the top, the traveller may view the city, the rivers, with the surrounding scenery, and the arrival and departure of steamboats. It was commenced in 1840, and finished in 1841. It is five stories high, with a front towards the river of 120 feet, and 160 feet on Smithfield-street; and with the ground cost about $100,000. It is kept by Mr. James Crossan. The Exchange Hotel, surpassed in splendor only by the Monongahela House, is kept by Messrs. Smith and M'Kibbin, on the same orderly and correct system that gave
it its original celebrity under Mr. Crossan. The other hotels of the city are also highly respectable.
Of commercial institutions there are in Pittsburg, the Bank of Pittsburg, Merchants' and Manufacturers' Bank, Exchange Bank, Farmers' Deposit Bank, and a branch of the late U. States Bank; five insurance companies; a board of trade, who have a reading-room and exchange-room for merchants; the Monongahela Navigation Company for improving that river by means of locks and dams; and about twelve transportation companies for conducting the passenger and freight business on the canals.
Besides the banks, hotels, churches, bridges, coal-mines, canals, and manufacturing establishments, the principal objects worthy of attention are, first, the new courthouse.
The New Courthouse at Pittsburg. This edifice is situated on Grant's hill, an eminence so high as to afford an extensive view of the hills and valleys of the three rivers, with the towns and villages for miles around. The building is 165 feet long by 100 feet broad, and is connected with the jail in the rear. The principal story contains a rotunda 60 feet in diameter, four court-rooms and two jury-rooms. In the second story are the rooms for the U. S. district court, for the supreme court of the state, and the law library. This edifice, one of the most elegant in the United States, occupied five years in being built, and cost nearly $200,000. It is built of the fine gray sandstone of the neighboring hills. John Chislett, Esq., of. Allegheny, was the architect; Messrs. Coltart and Dilworth the contractors and builders.
The Western University of Pennsylvania commenced its operations as a college in 1822, and since that time about one hundred have graduated, of whom nearly seventy have devoted themselves to the ministry of the gospel. The buildings, on Third-street, between Smithfield and Grant streets, were erected in 1830. Rev. George Upfold is president of the board of trus