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As soon as I got up I put myself in as decent a trim as I could, and went to the house of Andrew Bradford, the printer. I found his father in the shop, whom I had seen at New York. Having travelled on horseback, he had arrived at Philadelphia before me. He introduced me to his son, who received me with civility, and gave me some breakfast: but told me he had no occasion at present for a journeyman, having lately procured one. He added, that there was an. other printer newly settled in the town, of the name of Keimer, who might perhaps employ me; and that in case of refusal, I should be welcome to lodge at his house, and he would give me a little work now and then, till something better should offer.
The old man offered to introduce me to the new printer. When we were at his house, “Neigh. bor,” said he, “I bring you a young man in the printing business ; perhaps you may have need of his services."
Keimer asked me some questions, put a composing stick in my hand, to see how I could work, and then said, that at present he had nothing for me to do, but that he should soon be able to employ me. At the same time, taking old Bradford for an inhabitant of the town well-disposed to wards him, he communicated his project to him, and the prospect he had of success. Bradford was careful not to discover that he was the father of the other printer; and from what Keimer had said, that he hoped shortly to be in possession of the greater part of the business of the town, led him, by artful questions, and by starting some difficulties, to disclose all his views, what his hopes were founded upon, and how he intended to proceed. I was present, and heard it all. I instantly saw that one of the two was a cunning old fox, and the other a perfect novice. Bradford left me with Keimer, who was strangely surprised when I informed him who the old
I found Keimer's printing materials to consist of an old damaged press, and a small fount of worn-out English letters, with which he himself was at work upon an elegy on Aquila Rose, whom I have mentioned above, an ingenious young man, and of an excellent character, highly esteemed in the town, secretary to the assembly, and a very tolerable poet. Keimer also made verses, but they were indifferent ones. He could not be said to write in verse, for his method was to set the lines as they flowed from his muse; and as he worked without copy, had but one set of letter-cases, and as the elegy would probably occupy all his types, it was impossible for any one to assist him. I endeavored to put his press in order, which he had not yet used, and of which indeed he understood nothing; and, having promised to come and work off his elegy as soon as it should be ready, I returned to the house of Bradford, who gave me some trifle to do far the present, for which I had my board and lodging.
In a few days Keimer sent for me to print off his elegy. He had now procured another set of letter-cases, and had a pamphlet to reprint, upon which he set me to work.
The two Philadelphia printers appeared destitute of every qualification necessary in their profession. Bradford had not been brought up to it, and was very illiterate. Keimer, though he understood a little of the business, was merely a compositor, and wholly incapable of working at press. He had been one of the French prophets, and knew how to imitate their supernatural agitations. At the time of our first acquaintance he professed no particular religion, but a little of all upon occasion. He was totally ignorant of the world, and a great knave at heart, as I had afterwards an opportunity of experiencing.
Keimer could not endure that, working with him, I should lodge at Bradford's. He had indeed a house, but it was unfurnished ; so that he could not take me in. He procured me a lodg. ing at Mr. Reed's his landlord, whom I have already mentioned. My trunk and effects being now arrived, I thought of making, in the eyes of Miss Reed, a more respectable appearance than when chance exhibited me to her view, eating my roll, and wandering in the streets.
From this period I began to contract acquaintance with such young people as were fond of reading, and spent my evenings with them agreeably, while, at the same time, I gained money by my industry, and, thanks to my frugality, lived contented. I thus forgot Boston as much as possible, and wished every one to be ignorant of the place of my residence, except my friend Collins; to whom I wrote, and who kept my secret.
It would be superfluous to erect a splendid monument over the grave of Dr. Franklin: there are many monuments of his fame, and his practical benevolence and wisdom, already in Philadelphia-among which, perhaps, the most splendid and appropriate is the Philadelphia Library, situated in Fifth-st., opposite Independence-square.
The Philadelphia Library originated in a club, or "junto," established by Franklin and his intimate friends, about the year 1727, who met every week in Pewter Platter alley, for mutual improvement in reading and debate. Some of the most eminent men of the day, whose characters Franklin has sketched, were members of this club; the most remarkable of whom, after Frank. lin, was Thomas Godfrey, the self-taught mathematician, and inventor of the mariner's quadrant Their little stocks of books were united, and about the yar 1730 Franklin enlarged the library,
by starting a public subscription, and raising a company of fifty members. “This," says Franklin," was the mother of all the North American subscription libraries, now so numerous." The proprietaries, particularly Thomas Penn, encouraged the plan, by making several valuable donations, and by granting a charter of incorporation, in 1742. Several other libraries, the Amicable, the Association, and the Union, grew up in the city, and were finally blended, by a legislative act, in 1769, as the Library Company of Philadelphia. The Loganian Library, consisting of rare and curious books, principally in the ancient languages, was originally collected by James Logan, the distinguished secretary of the province, as well as the scholar and statesman; which at his death was bequeathed to the city, under certain regulations, vesting the office of librarian in the Logan family. Valuable additions have since been made by members of the Lo. gan family; and by a legislative act of 1792, the library is to be under the same roof, and the same management, with the Philadelphia Library, although the two are separately arranged. The Philadelphia Library contains upwards of 30,000 volumes, and the Loganian Library about 11,000.
Another monument to the memory of Franklin is the American Philosophical Society, which has its hall on Independence-square, opposite the Philadelphia Library. The Atheneum also occupies rooms in the same edifice.
On the (14th May, 0. S.) 25th May, 1743, Franklin started another junto, consisting of nine members, of whom six had been members of the old junto, of Pewter Platter alley. Franklin's early philosophical experiments engaged the attention of this association. It existed a few years, and declined. Another junto, of other and younger members, arose in 1750; which also declined, and was succeeded by the American Philosophical Society, and the American Society for the Promotion of Useful Knowledge. These two were blended in 1769, by an act of incorporation, under the title of the American Philosophical Society for the Promotion of Useful knowledge. Of this society Dr. Franklin was elected the first president, over Ex-Gov. Hamilton. The first great work of the Society was to provide for taking observations of the transit of Venus, on the 30 June, 1769, under the direction of David Rittenhouse. Among the transactions of this So. ciety, subsequent to this period, were observations and surveys, with a view of connecting the waters of the Delaware and Chesapeake by means of a canal; attempts to encourage the rais. ing of silk ; resolutions touching the cultivation of the grape-vine; and among the archives of the Society was found a report favorable to the first steam-engine put up in this country, and which was approved of because it had made one or two strokes, being prevented from going beyond that amount of labor through the defectiveness of the machinery; but which would no doubt have succeeded, had it been of better workmanship. The Pennsylvania Historical Socie. ty, of which the venerable Peter S. Du Ponceau is president, was originally the Historical Committee of the Philosophical Society, and has its library and collections in the same edifice. It has caused to be published many valuable documents connected with the early history of Penn. sylvania.
Pennsylvania Hospital. The Pennsylvania Hospital, occupying the whole square between Spruce and Pine, and be tween Eighth and Ninth streets, originated in 1751 by the public spirit of Dr. Thomas Bond,
aided by the advice and legislative tact of Dr. Franklin, and the subscriptions of wealthy citizens. As Dr. Franklin tells the story, Dr. Bond came to him with the compliment that every one to whom he applied for subscription inquired," what does Franklin think about it? Have you consulted him ?" And when he said he had not, they did not subscribe, but said “they would consider about it.” Franklin immediately subscribed, used his influence to induce others, and got a bill through the legislature subscribing on the part of the province £2,000, on condition that the citizens should subscribe a like sum. The citizens clinched the nail thus driven, and the Hospital was first established in a rented house on the south side of Market-street, the third house above Fifth-street. A lot was purchased in 1754, at the present site, and the proprietaries afterwards granted the whole square to the institution. The foundation stone of the first part erected, (the wing on Eighth-st.,) was laid on the 28th May, 1755, and bears an inscription written by Dr. Franklin.
The first managers were Joshua Crosby, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Bond, Samuel Hazard, Richard Peters, Israel Pemberton, junr., Samuel Rhoads, Hugh Roberts, Joseph Morris, John Smith, Evan Morgan, Charles Norris. First Treasurer, John Reynell. First attending physi. cians were Doctors Lloyd Zachary, Thomas and Phineas Bond; and the consulting physicians were Doctors Græme, Čadwalader, Moore, and Redman. The institution contains a choice li. brary and anatomical museum, theatre for operations, baths, and other appropriate apartments. Beautiful gardens surround the buildings, and in the front yard stands a statue of Wm. Penn, of lead, bronzed, on a marble pedestal. This statue was presented in 1801, by John Penn, Esq. of London. The squares opposite the hospital were kept open until within a few years past, and the one in front is still vacant. This circumstance has contributed greatly to the health of the inmates. When the yellow fever desolated the city in 1793, and upwards of 4,000 died of it within four months, it is said that not a person in the hospital took it. On the hospital square in Spruce-street is a small building containing West's celebrated picture of Christ healing the sick, with other productions of his pencil. 'This picture was presented to the institution by the distinguished artist, and the revenue derived from its exhibition is appropriated to the use of the hospital.
University of Pennsylvania. The University buildings are situated within a pleasant enclosure, fronting on Ninth-street, between Market and Chestnut streets. The edifice on the left in the above view, is devoted to the medical department.
Education commenced at an early date in Philadelphia. Mr. Proud tells us that in 1683 Enoch Flower from Wiltshire, taught reading, writing, and arithmetic, at eight shillings per quarter ; and in 1689 a public school was established by the Society of Friends, but open to all, which received in 1711 a charter from Wm. Penn. George Keith, from Aberdeen, a man of learning, and famous in Quaker history for his polemical character, was the first teacher.
In 1749 a subscription was set on foot by a number of gentlemen of the city, among whom were Thomas Hopkinson, Tench Francis, Richard Peters, and Benjamin Franklin, to establish an academy and charitable school, which was opened the following year for instruction in the Latin and English languages, and mathematics. It was incorporated in 1753, and the proprie. taries endowed it with money and lands amounting to £3,000. Lindley Murray, the grammarian, was a pupil of this college. Rev. Wm. Smith was appointed Principal, Rev. Francis Allison Master of the Latin school. The institution soon grew into a college by an act of incorporation in 1755, under the title of the College, Academy, and Charitable School of Philadelphia. Rev. Dr. Smith was elected Provost, and the same year degrees were conserred upon six pupils, Rev
Mr. Duché, Rev. Dr. Samuel Magaw, Rev. James Latta, Dr. Hugh Williamson, Francis Hopkinson, Esq., * and Mr. Hall.
In 1764 the foundation of the first medical school was laid by a course of lectures on anatomy, delivered by Dr. Wm. Shippen. His pupils amounted to only ten. The next year Dr. John Morgan was associated with him as Professor of the Institutes of Medicine. Both these gentle. men were graduates at Edinburgh. In 1768 Dr. A. Kuhn was appointed Professor of Botany; in 1769 Dr. B. Rush took the chemical chair; and Dr. Thomas Bond delivered clinical lectures in the Pennsylvania Hospital. Thus was organized the most important medical school in the United States, which now numbers its 400 students annually.
Dr. Smith, the Provost, was an able and learned man, and had been very efficient in procuring funds for it in Europe ; yet he was suspected of being not very favorable to a separation from Great Britain ; and being strongly attached to the Church of England, the more ardent whigs, and some of the Presbyterians, who were whigs to a man, determined to remove him from office, much against the judgment of the friends of the institution. The old provincial charter was abrogated, and a new institution, the University of Pennsylvania, was chartered by the state legislature in 1779, and endowed with the property of the old college and with the confiscated property of tories. Rev. Dr. John Ewing, the senior Presbyterian clergyman in the state, was chosen Provost. The old college was revived for a short time in 1789, but it did not long con. tinue, and was blended in 1791, by legislative enactment, with the University. Dr. Ewing continued as Provost until 1803. He was succeeded by Rev. Dr. John McDowell, from Maryland, who resigned in 1809, and his successors have been Rev. Dr. John Andrews in 1811; Rev. Frederick Beasly, D. D., in 1813; Rev. Wm. H. Delancy in 1828—who resigned in 1834, and was succeeded by Rev. John Ludlow, D. D.
The original academy and college occupied the building in Fourth-street, between Market and Arch streets, erected by Whitfield, and long known as the Old College. In 1802 the University purchased an edifice on the present site, which had been erected by the state of Pennsylvania as a mansion for the president of the United States, but never used as such. This building was taken down, and the present buildings erected in 1830.
Among the eminent teachers in Philadelphia about the middle of the last century were Robert Proud, the historian, who was a Scotchman by birth; and David James Dove, an Englishman, much celebrated as a teacher, and no less as a small politician and a dealer in the minor kind of satirical poetry. Graydon relates the following anecdote of him: "Dove was a humorist, and a person not unlikely to be engaged in ludicrous scenes. It was his practice, in his school, to substitute disgrace for corporal punishment. He had a contrivance for boys who were late in their morning attendance. This was to dispatch a committee of five or six scholars for them, with a bell and lighted lantern, and in this .odd equipage,' in broad daylight, the bell all the while tingling, were they escorted through the streets to school. As Dove affected a strict regard for justice in his dispensations of punishment, and always professed a willingness to have an equal measure of it meted out to himself in case of his transgressing, the boys took him at his word ; and one morning, when he had overstaid his time, either through laziness, inattention, or design, he found himself waited on in the usual form. He immediately admitted the justice of the procedure, and, putting himself behind the lantern and bell, marched with great solemnity to school, to the no small gratification of the boys, and entertainment of the spectators."
The Merchants’ Exchange, a magnificent edifice of white marble, occupies a triangular space formed by Third, Walnut, and Dock streets. It was commenced in 1834, after the design of Mr. Strickland. It contains a rotunda for the meeting of merchants, a reading-room, several insurance and brokers' offices, and the post-office in the basement. Previously to the erection of this edifice the merchants had assembled for many years in the old Coffee-house formerly kept by Mr. Sanderson in Second-st., next door below the Pennsylvania Bank. In the annexed view, beyond the Exchange on the right is seen the Girard Bank, formerly Stephen Girard's Bank, and originally erected for, and occupied by, the first Bank of the United States.
Philadelphia has been distinguished by the residence of the two most
* A signer of the Declaration of Independence, and afterwards Judge of the U. S. District Court. He was also the author of the “ Battle of the Kegs,” inserted on page 575. He died in 1791. His son, the late Joseph Hopkinson, who died in 1842, was also Judge of the U. S. Disa trict Court. In 1798 the latter wrote the popular song of “ Hail Columbia.” It was composed at a very short notice, for a friend of his, a theatrical singer, to be sung on the night of hia benefit.
Merchants' Exchange, and Girard Bank. eminent merchants and financiers of the United States, Robert Morris and Stephen Girard.
Robert Morris, whose father was a merchant of Liverpool, came out to Maryland when : child. He was left an orphan at the age of 15. He was reared as a clerk in the counting-room of Charles Willing, an eminent merchant of Philadelphia, and in 1754 entered into partnership with Thomas Willing—a partnership which continued until 1793, nearly 40 years. Before the revolution they were more extensively engaged in commerce than any house in Philadelphia. Nevertheless Mr. Morris entered most cordially into the non-importation agreements which preceded the war, although at the cost of great pecuniary sacrifices. He was a member of the second Congress in 1775 that met at Philadelphia, and in 1776 signed the Declaration of Independence. The success of the revolution was quite as much promoted by the commercial taet, the enthusiastic patriotism, and profound financial knowledge of Robert Morris, as by the wisdom of the political philosophers, and the bravery of the military heroes of that period. Mr. Morris was at the head of all the congressional committees for procuring the importation of arms, ammunition, sulphur, saltpetre, lead, &c., for the army; for fitting out a naval armament ; for negotiating bills of exchange, and for procuring foreign loans. His own credit often stood higher than that of his country; and of this he did not hesitate to avail himself whenever public necessities required it; and when Gen. Washington's victorious army were about passing into Virginia to meet Cornwallis, their march must have been inevitably arrested, and perhaps the fortunes of the day changed, had not Morris's ready tact procured the loan of the French miltary chest, through Count Rochambeau. In 1781 he was appointed by Congress Superintendent of Finance, and in this capacity proposed and established the Old Bank of North America, being himself a large subscriber. With this financial engine he succeeded in negotiating heavy loans for the government at a period of great discouragement. Mr. Morris assisted in the convention to form the Federal Constitution, and was a member of the first Congress under it. After the war closed he entered very extensively into the East India trade; and also purchased immense bodies of land in the interior of New York and Pennsylvania, which fell afterwards into the hands of the Holland Land Co., and others.
Notwithstanding his numerous public and private engagements, his house was the seat of ele. gant but unostentatious hospitality, and no one more freely parted with his gains for public ar private objects of benevolence. Unfortunately, the mania common with many rich men overtook Mr. Morris in his later years,—and he commenced the construction of an immense marble mansion, which, with its grounds, was to occupy the whole square between Walnut and Chestnut, and Seventh and Eighth streets. In size, in architectural splendor, and durability of foundation