« 上一頁繼續 »
at Martines Chartieres's (an Indian trader) by the Indians, with a discharge of fire-arms. He
speaks of “Dekanoagah, upon the river Susquehannagh, about nine miles distant from Pequehan;" n be also mentions an Indian village called Peixtan. At Dekanoagah, the governor was present at a farme meeting of Shawanois, Senequois, and Canoise Indians, and the Nantikoke Indians from the
seven following towns, viz :-Matcheattochousie, Matchcouchtin, Witichquaom, Natahquois,
Teahquois, Byengea!tein, and Pohecommeati. An Indian presented a pipe to the governor udca and the company present. After satisfying himself that the Nantikokes were a peaceful, well.
meaning people, he guarantied to them the protection of the government. At Pequehan, among the Shawanees, Opessah said, “It was the Nantikoke and Canoise Indians who sent for our father the governor, and not we; therefore, we are very sorry they entertained him no better : but since they have not been so kind as they ought, we hope the governor will accept of our small present, for we are sensible the ways are bad, and that the bushes wear out your clothes, for which reason we give these skins to make gloves, stockings, and breeches, in place of those wore out." Near Peixtan, with the aid of Martin Chartieres, as a sort of stool-pigeon, they caught one Nicole Go. din, a French trader among the Indians, put him on a horse, tied his legs under the horse's belly, and took him by way of Tulpehocken to Philadelphia, where he was imprisoned.
" During our abode at Pequehan," says the account of Gov. Evans's journey in 1707, "several of the Shaonois Indians from ye southward came to settle here, and were admitted so to do by Opessah, with the governor's consent: at the same time an Indian, from a Shaonois town near Carolina, came in, and gave an account that four hundred and fifty of the flat-headed Indians had besieged them, and that in all probability the same was taken. Bezallion informed the governor that the Shaonois of Carolina (he was told) had killed several Christians; whereupon, the government of that province raised the said flat-headed Indians, and joined some Christians to them, besieged and have taken, as it is thought, the said Shaonois town."
1707. Feb. “Complaints to council that Michel, (a Swiss,) Peter Bezallon, James Le Tort, Martin Chartieres, the French glover of Philadelphia, Frank, a young man of Canada who was lately taken up here, and one from Virginia, who also spoke French, had seated themselves, and built houses upon the branches of the Potowmeck, within this government, and pretended they were in search of some mineral or ore,” and had endeavored to induce the Conestogo Indians to assist them. Peter Bezallion had a license, and resided thirty-six miles up the river from Cones. togue. That would be near the mouth of Peixtan or Paxton cr. Among the traders residing at Conestogo, in Gov. Keith's time, were John and Edmund Cartlidge. John was a magistrate and interpreter, and the council of July, 1721, was held at his house. Mr. Watson speaks of an old deed from an Indian to Edmund Cartlidge of a tract of land in a bend of Conestoga cr., called Indian Point. Both these men were in prison and on trial at Philadelphia, in March, 1721, for having killed an Indian in an affray at Conestogo. The other traders seem to have been no more fortunate, for Peter Bezallion and James Le Tort were also in prison, in 1709, for sundry offences. In 1718, on petition of several of the inhabitants of and near Conestogoe, a road was laid out from Conestogoe to Thomas Moore's and Brandywine.
The following extract from the records chronicles the first arrival of the Tuscarora nation from the south, and is a quaint and graphic picture of Indian diplomacy. The Tuscaroras were soon after adopted by the Five Nations, and caused the change of their title to that of the Six Nations. The disbursement account of the commissioners is added.
It differs somewhat in amount from those which our modern commissioners are in the habit of rendering to the bureau at Washington.
The Govr. laid before the board the report of Coll. ffrench & Henry Worley, who went on a
The Indians were told that according to their request we were come from the Govt. and Govmt. to frear what proposals they had to make anent a peace, according to the purport of their Embassy from their own People.
They signified to us by a Belt of Wampum, which was sent from their old Women, that those
The second Belt was sent from their Children born, & those yet in the womb, Requesting that
danger of Slavery, might be allowed them.
The fourth was sent from the men of age, Requesting that the Wood, by a happy peace, might be as safe for them as their forts.
The fifth was sent from the whole nation, requesting peace, that thereby they might have Liberty to visit their Neighbours.
The sixth was sent from their Kings & Chiefs, Desiring a lasting peace with the Christians & Indians of this Govmt., that thereby they might be secured against those fearful apprehensions they have for these several years felt.
The seventh was sent in order to intreat a Cessation from murdering and taking them, that by the allowance thereof, they may not be affraid of a mouse, or any other thing that Ruffles the Leaves.
The Eight was sent to Declare, that as being hitherto Strangers to this Place, they now came as People blind, no path nor communicacon being betwixt us & them ; but now they hope we will take them by the hand & lead them, & then they will lift up their heads in the woods without danger or fear.
These Belts (they say) are only sent as an Introduction, & in order to break off hostilities till next Spring, for then their Kings will come and sue for the peace they so much Desire.
We acquainted them that as most of this Continent were the subjects of the Crown of Great Brittain, tho' divided into several Govmts. ; So it is expected their Intentions are not only peaceable towards us, but also to all the subjects of the Crown; & that if they intend to settle & live amiably here, they need not Doubt the protection of this Govmt. in such things as were honest and good, but that to Confirm the sincerity of their past Carriage towards the English, & to raise in us a good opinion of them, it would be very necessary to procure a Certificate from the Govmt. they leave, to this, of their Good behaviour, & then they might be assured of a favourable reception.
The Seneques return their hearty thanks to the Govmt. for their Trouble in sending to them, And acquainted us that by advice of a Council amongst them it was Determined to send these Belts, brought by the Tuscaroroes, to the five nations.
May it please your honr. Pursuant to your honrs. & Council's Orders, we went to Conestogo, where the forewritten Con. tents were by the Chiefs of the Tuscaroroes to us Deliver'd; the sincerity of their Intentions we Cannot anywise Doubt, since they are of the same race & Language with our Seneques, who have always proved trusty, & have also for these many years been neighbours to a Govmt. Jealous of Indians, And yet not Displeased with them; wishing your honr. all happiness, we remain, Your honrs. Most humble and obliged servants,
HENRY WORLEY. Journey to Conestogo, Dr.–To Bread, 4s. 2d. ; To Meat, 12s. ; To Rum, £1 10s.; To Sugar, 15s. ; To two Men's hire for Baggage, £4; To John, £1 4s. ; Total, £8 5s. 2d.
The upper parts of Germany, at the commencement of the last century, contained many Protestant communities, Moravians, Schwenckfelders, Mennonists, or German Baptists, Dunkers, or Seventh-day Baptists, and Lutherans, who, after fleeing in vain from one principality to another to avoid persecution, at last, listening to Wm. Penn's offer of free toleration, found a permanent asylum in this new land. The news from the earlier immigrants brought thousands more, and the latter, finding the townships immediately around Philadelphia taken up, sought the newer and cheaper lands in the interior. Some of the Mennonists arrived about the years 1698 to 1711, but the greatest numbers in 1717, and settled chiefly in Lancaster co. There was a very early settlement of Mennonists at Pequea cr. The Dunkards came from Creyfield and Witgenstein in the duchy of Cleves in Prussia, chiefly in the years 1719 to 23, and settled at Oley, Conestoga, and Mill cr., and afterwards at Ephrata on the Cocalico, about the year 1732.
It is a singular fact, that when the Germans entered their land, and afterwards applied for the privilege of naturalization, the proprietary or. dered that their German names be translated into English ; and thus many German families received English names, which they retain to this day. The Zimmerman family, for instance, is now known by the name of Carpenter.
The Mennonists are a sect of German Baptists, who derived their name from Menno Simonis. He was born in Friesland in 1505. In 1537, having been previously a Catholic priest, he united with the Baptists. A few years previous to his union with them, this sect had been led away by their zeal into the most fanatical excesses at Münster. Menno collected the more sober minded into regular societies, who formed an independent church under the name of the Mennonites, or Mennonists. They professed to derive their creed directly from the Scriptures, and to follow, in their organization and social intercourse, the peculiarities of the primitive apostolic church. Men. no travelled through Germany and Holland, disseminating his doctrines and gathering many followers.
Except in some peculiar notions concerning the incamation of Christ-to which he was prob. ably led by the controversy concerning the bodily presence of Christ in the eucharist-and his exclusive adherence to adult baptism, his tenets are said to have agreed in general with those of the Calvinists. He died at Oldeslohe in Holstein, in 1561. Before his death his followers had divided themselves into two parties, differing in regard to the rigor of discipline. The more rigid, who called themselves the Pure, were in favor of excommunication for the least offence; the moderate party, who bore various names, only excommunicated for long continuance in trans. gression. Other subdivisions occurred after his death, and it would require a dictionary by itself to trace the etymology of their names, and the peculiarities of their doctrines. These sects were only tolerated in Europe on the payment of exorbitant tribute, and still suffered many grievances and impositions. Wm. Penn, both in person and in writing, first proclaimed to them that there was liberty of conscience in Pennsylvania. Some of them, about the year 1698, and others in 1706 to 1711, partly for conscience sake, and partly for their temporal interest, removed here. Finding their expectations fully answered in this plentiful country, they informed their friends in Germany, who came over in great numbers, and settled chiefly in Lancaster and the neighboring counties. In 1770 Morgan Edwards estimated that they had in Pennsylvania 42 churches, and numbered about 4,050 persons. They are remarkable for their sobriety, industry, economy, and good morals, and are very useful members of the community. They are opposed to infant baptism, holding only to the baptism of adults. Like the Quakers, they refuse to bear arms, to take oaths, and to go to law with one another. They also abstain from holding office, or taking any part in the civil administration of government; being careful themselves to follow the precept,
to live peaceably with all men.” They have both preachers and deacons. Their preachers are selected by lot; no previous education for the office is required, nor is any compensation allowed. They originally discouraged and despised learning, believing in the inner light; but they begin now to encourage the education of their youth. Disputes between members are adjusted by three arbiters, appointed by the preacher.
Baptism among some of their sects is administered by pouring water upon the head of the individual, who kneels during the performance. Prayer and the imposition of hands close the ceremony. One of the sects baptizes after this fashion : the person to be baptized is accompa. nied to a stream of water by a large number of people, with singing and instrumental music. The preacher, standing on the bank, pours water upon the person who is in the stream, baptizing him in the name of the Trinity.
Some of the Mennonists contend that the body of Christ contained neither flesh nor blood, and therefore, at the sacrament of the Lord's supper, make use of water alone. The principal part of the Mennonists pursue the mode pointed out in Matthew xxvi. 18. A message is sent to a member to “make ready the passover.” In the evening the congregation, assembled around a table spread with small loaves of bread and a pitcher of wine, after the usual form of consecra. tion, invocation, and distribution, partake of the elements while walking around the table, talking with each other sociably. “ After having sung an hymn,” they retire to their respective homes.
The Aymish, or Omish, are a sect of the Mennonists who profess to follow more rigidly the primitive customs of the apostolic church. They derive their name from Aymen, their founder, and were originally known as Aymenites. They wear long beards, and reject all superfluities both in dress, diet, and property. They have always been remarkable for industry, frugality, temperance, honesty, and simplicity. When they first came over and settled near Pequea creek, land was casily acquired, and it was in the power of each individual to be a large proprietor, but this neither agreed with their professions nor practice.
In the year 1720, a thousand acres were offered to an influential member of the Aymish faith by the proprietary agent, but he refused the grant, saying, “ It is beyond my desire, as also my ability to clear; if clear, beyond my power to cultivate ; cultivated, it would yield more than my family can consume; and as the rules of our society forbid the disposal of the surplus, I can. not accept of your liberal offer ; but you may divide it among my married children, who at present reside with me.” This individual is supposed to have been Kurtz.
When they first came to the country they had neither churches nor burial-grounds. "A church,” said they, “we do not require, for in the depth of the thicket, in the forest, on the water, in the field, and in the dwelling, God is always present.” Many of their descendants, however, have deviated from the ancient practice, and have both churches and burial-grounds. The Presbyterians from the north of Ireland came in at about the same
time with the Germans, and occupied the townships of Donnegal and Paxton. Collisions afterwards occurring between them and the Germans concerning elections, bearing of arms, the treatment of Indians, &c., the proprietaries instructed their agents, in 1755, that the Germans should be encouraged, and in a manner directed to settle along the southern boundary of the province, in Lancaster and York counties, while the Irish were to be located nearer to the Kittatinny mountain, in the region now forming Dauphin and Cumberland counties. There was deeper policy in this than the mere separation of the two races. The Irish were a warlike people, and their services were needed in the defence of the frontier.
The Welsh and English Quakers from the head waters of the Brandywine, and the Great valley of Chester co., gradually spread themselves over into Sadsbury township. Smith, the historian, who wrote before the revolution, says:
In the year 1724, Samuel Miller and Andrew Moore made application on behalf of themselves and their friends, settled about Sadbury, for liberty to build a meeting-house, which being granted by the quarterly meeting, they built one in 1725, which goes by the name of Sadbury meeting. (See Leacock.)
In the year 1732, Hattill Vernon, Wm. Evans, and several other Friends, being settled in and about Leacock in the county of Lancaster, made application to have a meeting settled among them ; which being laid before the quarterly meeting of Chester, and approved of, it was settled accordingly, and is now known by the naine of Leacock meeting, being.joined to New Garden monthly meeting; it continued to be a branch thereof till the year 1737, when they applied to have a monthly meeting among themselves, in conjunction with Sadbury Friends, which was granted, and the same is now known by the name of Sadbury monthly meeting.
In the year 1749, by consent of Chester quarterly' meeting, a meeting for worship was settled at Little Britain, in Lancaster county, and belongs to West Nottingham preparative, and East Nottingham monthly meeting. The said monthly meeting now consists of three preparative meetings, viz. : East Not gham, West Nottingham, and Bush river, or Deer creek meeting, and of five particular meetings. Note.—The meeting that used to be called Bush river, is now called Deer creek altogether. The week-day meetings are held thus : at East Nottingham, Deer creek, and Little Britain, on the fifth day of every week; at West Nottingham on fourth day; at Bush river no week-day meeting, it being dropped for several years.
Robert Barber, Samuel Blanston, and John Wright, three Quakers from Chester co., came out in the year 1728 to Columbia, where they had purchased large farms. · The Lutherans came in at a later date, about the year 1740 to '48, and are first heard of about Lancaster. The Moravians began their establishment in Warwick township, about the year 1749. Many redemptioners (people who were sold into temporary service to pay for their passage across the ocean) found their way into this county, where, after working themselves free, they obtained small tracts of land on easy terms, and became eventually valuable citizens.
Lancaster co., thus settled on the principle of free toleration, by men of widely different races and religions, has continued to prosper, until it has become the most populous and wealthy inland county in the state. The following notes are from Mr. Conyngham's collections:
1730. Stephen Atkinson built a fulling-mill at a great expense. But the inhabitants on the upper part of the creek assembled and pulled down the dam on the Conestoga, as it prevented them from rafting, and getting their usual supply of fish. Mr. Atkinson altered his dam with a 20 feet passage for boats and fish.
1732. A violent contest for member of Assembly took place between Andrew Galbraith and John Wright. Mrs. Galbraith rode throughout the town at the head of a numerous band of horsemen, friends of her husband. In consequence of her activity, her husband was elected. John Wright contested the seat of Andrew Galbraith, on the ground that a number of tickets on which his name was written were rejected because the tickets contained but three names instead of four. But George Stuart dying, John Wright was elected to supply his vacancy.
1734. Episcopal church built in Conestoga, 15 miles from Lancaster.
1739. The Presbyterians, with their respective ministers, represented to the General Assem. bly that they had been educated according to the doctrine, worship, and government of the Church of Scotland; that they are excluded from all offices, and from giving evidence in the courts of justice, by a ceremony, which in their opinion was contrary to the word of God, " kissing the book," and that a law may be passed authorizing them to take an oath without such form. A law was passed accordingly.
1742. A number of Germans stated to the General Assembly as follows: “ They had emi. grated from Europe by an invitation from the proprietaries ; they had been brought up and were attached to the Omish doctrines, and were conscientiously scrupulous against taking oaths—they therefore cannot be naturalized agreeably to the existing law. A law was made in conformity to their request.”
1763. A large number of Scotch-Irish, in consequence of the limestone land being liable to frost, and heavily wooded, seated themselves along the northern line of the counties of Chester and Lancaster, well known at an early period by the name of the “ Chestnut Glade.” The Germans purchased their little improvements, and were not intimidated either by the difficulty of clearing, the want of water, or the liability to frost, which at this period was experienced every month in the year. Several valuable mills were built; but although very necessary for the settlement, they became a subject of much irritation among the farmers on the waters of the Co. nestoga, as appears from a petition presented to the General Assembly, stating “ that Michael Garber, Sebastian Graff, and Hans Christy, erected three large dams on nestoga creek, to the great injury and detriment of the settlers on its banks.”
The subsequent history of the county will be continued in connection with its more important towns.
LANCASTER CITY, the seat of justice of the county, occupies an elevated site near the right bank of Conestoga creek, 62 miles west from Philadelphia, 36 miles southeast from Harrisburg, and 11 miles east from the Susquehanna at Columbia.
This place well deserves the title of a city: there is nothing rural in its aspect. The streets, laid off at right angles, are paved and lighted; the houses, generally of brick, are compactly arranged, and those of modern date are lofty and well built; the courthouse, as in all the older proprietary towns, occupies the centre of a small square at the intersection of the two principal streets; the place is supplied with water by an artificial basin and “water-works;" stores, taverns, and shops abound in every quarter; railroad cars, stages, canal-boats, and wagons, are constantly arriving or departing; and altogether there is that rattle and din that remind one of city life. The town has several peculiarities which had their origin in the fashions of the olden time. The names of the principal streets, King-street and Queen-street, Orange-street and Dukestreet, and others, indicate the loyalty of the founders of the city. A great number of the old one-story brick houses, and frames filled in with brick, are still standing, with their wide roofs and dormar windows; and although they may command the respect due to old age, they cannot be admired for their beauty. A stranger is particularly struck with numerous tavern-signs that greet him by dozens along the principal streets. They form a sort of out-door picture gallery, and some are no mean specimens of art. Here may be seen half the kings of Europe—the king of Prussia, of Sweden, and the Prince of Orange ; and then there are the warriors—Washington, Lafayette, Jackson, Napoleon, Wm. Tell, and a whole
army of others; and of statesmen there are Jefferson, Franklin, and others; and then comes the Red Lion of England, leading a long procession of lions, bears, stags, bulls, horses, eagles, swans, black, white, dun, and red not to mention the inanimate emblems, the globe, the cross-keys, the plough, the wheat-sheaf, the compass and square, and the hickory-tree. These numerous inns, far too many for the present wants