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fire was kept burning. The aged Cayuga chieftain, Fish-Carrier, who was held in exalted veneration for his wisdom, and who had been greatly distinguished for his bravery from his youth op, officiated as the high priest of the occasion,-making a long speech to the luminary, occasionally throwing tobacco into the fire as incense. On the conclusion of the address, the whole assembly prostrated themselves upon the bosom of their parent earth, and a grunting sound of approbation was uttered from mouth to mouth around the entire circle. At a short distance from the fire a post had been planted in the earth_intended to represent the stake of torture to which captives are bound for execution. After the ceremonies in favor of Madame Luna had been ended, they commenced a war-dance around the post, and the spectacle must have been as picturesque as it was animating and wild. The young braves engaged in the dance were naked, excepting the breech-clout about their loins. They were painted frightfully—their backs being chalked white, with irregular streaks of red, denoting the streaming of blood. Frequently would they cease from dancing while one of their number ran to the fire, snatching thence a blazing stick, placed there for that purpose, which he would thrust at the post, as though inflicting torture upon a prisoner. In the course of the dance they sang their songs, and made the forests ring with their wild screams and shouts, as they boasted of their deeds of war and told the number of scalps they had respectively taken, or which had been taken by their nation. During the dance, those engaged in it--as did others also-partook freely of unmixed rum ; and by consequence of the natural excitement of the occasion, and the artificial excitement of the liquor, the festival had wellnigh turned out a tragedy. It happened that among the dancers was an Oneida warrior, who, in striking the post, boasted of the number of scalps taken by his nation during the war of the revoluțion. Now the Oneidas, it will be recollected, had sustained the cause of the colonies in that contest, while the rest of the Iroquois confederacy had espoused that of the crown. The boasting of the Oneida warrior, therefore, was like striking a spark into a keg of gunpowder. The ire of the Senecas was kindled in an instant, and they in turn boasted of the number of scalps taken by them from the Oneidas in that contest. They moreover taunted the Oneidas as cowards. Quick as lightning the hands of the latter were upon their weapons, and in turn the knives and tomahawks of the Senecas began to glitter in the moonbeams, as they were hastily drawn forth. For an instant it was a scene of anxious and almost breathless suspense, a death-struggle seeming inevitable, when the storm was hushed by the interposition of old Fish-Carrier, who rushed for ward, and striking the post with violence, exclaimed—“You are all of you a parcel of boys : When you have attained my age, and performed the warlike deeds that I have performed, you may boast what you have done; not till then !” Saying which he threw down the post, put an end to the dance, and caused the assembly to retire.* This scene, in its reality, must have been one of absorbing and peculiar interest. An assembly of nearly two thousand inhabitants of the forest, grotesquely clad in skins and strouds, with shining ornaments of silver, and their coarse raven hair falling over their shoulders, and playing wildly in the wind as it swept past, sighing mournfully among the giant branches of the trees above,-such a group, gathered in a broad cir. cle in an opening of the wilderness--the starry canopy of heaven glittering above them, the moon casting her silver mantle around their dusky forms, and a large fire blazing in the midst of them, before which they were working their spells and performing their savage rites-must have presented a spectacle of long and vivid remembrance.
A few years after the town had been laid out the Duke de la Rochefaucault Liancourt, an observing French traveller, passed up the valley, in 1795. He had already stopped at French town in Asylum township, whence he took his departure with his friends Messrs. De Blacons and Du Petit Thouars of that place—the latter on foot. He speaks of stopping at Solomon Teasy's, who held 500 acres at Old Sheshequin, under the Connecticut title. Teasy wanted to sell out at $10 75 per acre, and remove to Genesee. He speaks of New Sheshequin as “a small neat town, containing about twelve houses, built either of rough logs or boards.” The justice of the peace, the surveyor, and the pastor of the neighboring country resided there. He speaks of Tioga at that time as an inconsiderable village of eight or ten houses, with its single tavern (there had been three the year before) crowded with travellers going to settle near the great lakes. He quotes the price of land in the neighborhood of the town at $8 per acre, “when out of 300 acres 50 or 60 are
MS. recollections of Thomas Morris. Mr. M. was known among the Indians by the name conferred upon him on this occasion, for many years. After his marriage, his wife was called by them Otetiani squaw, and his children, Otetianí pappooses.
cleared." Town lots 50 feet by 150 were at $20. The merchants carried on an inconsiderable trade in hemp, which they got from the valleys above and sent to Philadelphia. He says
“ Near the confines of Pennsylvania a mountain rises from the bank of the river Tioga in the shape of a sugar-loaf, upon which are seen the remains of some intrenchments. These the in. habitants call the Spanish ramparts; but I rather judge them to have been thrown up against the Indians in the times of Mr. Denonville, (1688.] One perpendicular breastwork is yet re. maining, which, though covered over with grass and bushes, plainly indicates that a parapet and a ditch have been constructed here."
Sheshequin, or New Sheshequin, is a neat village on the left bank of the Susquehanna, composed of farm houses principally, scattered for two or three miles along the road. The Universalist church, the only one, stands near the centre of the village, about 8 miles from Towanda, and 6 1-2 from Athens. The sweet vale of Sheshequin has been very properly compared, by Mrs. J. H. Scott, the gifted native poetess of the valley, to a miniature edition of the Wyoming valley. It is about six miles in length by one or two in breadth, and the broad fertile flats on which the village stands are closed in by mountains on every side except at the romantic passes through which breaks the Susquehanna. Capt. Spalding, afterwards Gen. Spalding, whose name is conspicuous in the annals of Wyoming, had passed up through this valley with Gen. Sullivan in 1779, and set his heart upon its fair lands. After the peace in 1783 he came up and settled here, together with his son John Spalding, Capt. Stephen Fuller and his sons John and Reuben, Benjamin Cole, Hugh Fordsman, Joseph Kinney, and Col. Thomas Baldwin. Col. Franklin, Judge Gore, and “ 'Squire” Gore followed the year after. Col. Kingsbury says that he came in '94, and the valley had then been settled eleven years.
The following is copied from a manuscript found among the papers of the late Mrs. Scott, in the handwriting of Joseph Kinney, Esq.
“The treaty held in 1796 with the Six Nations, was one of much interest. About three hun. dred warriors, well dressed in Indian costume, passed down the Susquehanna, and encamped on the Sheshequin flats. Their whoops and war-dance, although terrifying, still became interesting in the extreme. Gen. Spalding made them a present of six thrifty long-legged shoats, (Col. Kingsbury says only two,) turned loose upon the large flats. They selected as many young run. ners, each with a scalping-knife, who immediately gave chase. This was fine sport for the inhabitants. The race was long-they striking with their knives at every opportunity. Their mode of cooking would not suit our rcfined notions. The hogs were thrown into a large fire and the hair burnt off, which was the only dressing. They were then put into large kettles, with a little corn and beans, and cooked. This was their feast, and this they called Ump-a-squanch. On their return from Philadelphia they stopped at the same place. Here they gave the whites a challenge to a foot-race-and Wm. W. Spalding (still living in the Wysox valley) was selected by the whites. The whites were successful : this gave umbrage to the Indians. He then wanted to run a mile, which was of course refused ; and it was with the utmost difficulty that peace was restored, as many of the Indians drew their knives."
About the year '87 or '88, Gen. Spalding was visited by John Living- 1 ston and others, to solicit his aid in effecting the memorable lease of land for 999 years in New York, from the Six Nations. After the lease was effected, many moved to that country from the Susquehanna, and subsequently suffered much loss and hardship by disputed titles.
(For an interesting account of Old Sheshequin see the history of the Moravians, above.)
Just opposite Towanda, opens the beautiful valley of Wysox creek, stretching away on several branches towards the northeastern corner of
the county. In this valley are several pretty and flourishing villagesWysox, 3 miles, Meyersburg, 4 miles, and Rome, 9 miles from Towanda. On the high summit level at the head of the creek is the neat village of Orwell, 14 miles from Towanda, on the road to Montrose. At Rome, the Sulphur Springs have gained some celebrity, both as a watering-place and for their medicinal qualities. A spacious hotel accommodates the visitors.
The Connecticut Herald of 1817, says: In the town of Wysox, Bradford co., state of Pennsylvania, is the “ ci-devant” residence of a hermit. It is a beautiful valley, imbosomed by mountains, and refreshed by a small river which loses itself in the waters of the Susquehanna. The name of the solitary old man, who was, a few years since, found dead in his cabin, was “ Fencelor.” Hence the place still does, and probably ever will, retain the name of “ Fencelor Castle.” This sequestered spot, replete with the most delightful scenery, is now occupied by a gentleman of taste and fortune-an emigrant from Connecticut-who recently transplanted into that garden of nature, earth's fairest flower, an amiable wife.
(For an adventure of Van Camp's, near Towanda cr., see Columbia co.)
BURLINGTON is a village not long since started, about 8 miles west of Towanda, where the Berwick and Newtown turnpike crosses Sugar cr.
Troy is another pleasant village on Sugar cr., about 18 miles from To wanda, where the Williamsport and Elmira railroad crosses the cr.
MONROE, laid out a few years since by Gordon F. Mason, Esq., surveyor of the co., is on Towanda cr., 8 miles S. W. of Towanda, where the Berwick road crosses the cr. The railroad to the coal mines, at the head of the cr., was located through the village.
Canton is a small village recently started on the Williamsport and Elmira railroad, near the source of the main branch of Towanda cr.
Ulster is a small village on the right bank of the Susquehanna, halfway between Athens and Towanda.
Just above the mouth of Wyalusing, a small village has grown up since the construction of the canal, and a mile or so below the mouth is the extensive agricultural and trading establishment of C. F. Wells, Esq. The history of the Moravian towns, near this place, is given on pages 137 to 140.
FRENCHTOWN is in Asylum township, on the right bank of the Susquehanna, in a deep bend opposite the mouth of Rummersfield cr., seven or eight miles, by land, below Towanda.
The village and township received their characteristic names circumstances related in the following account, condensed from the travels of the Duke de la Rochefaucauld Liancourt, a French nobleman, who travelled through this valley in 1795. He was a close observer of every thing relating to the agriculture, land, &c., of our new country; and, of course, took an especial interest in the settlements of his own countrymen.
Asylum (Frenchtown) has been only fifteen months established. Messrs. Talon and De Noailles, French gentlemen, came to this country from England, intending to purchase, cultivate, and people 200,000 acres of land. They had interested in their project some planters of St. Domingo who had escaped from the ruins of that colony with the remains of their fortune. Messrs. Robert Morris and John Nicholson sold them the lands, and in Dec. 1793, the first tree was cut at Asylum. Mr. De Noailles was to manage the concerns of the colony at Philadelphia. Mr. Talon attended to the erection of loghouses,
and the preparation of land for the reception of the new colonists. They were disappointed in the receipt of a part of the funds upon which they had relied, and were obliged to relinquish their purchase and improvements. They then became joint partners in the business with Morris and Nicholson ; the quantity of land was enlarged to a million of acres, and Mr. Talon was to act as agent, with a salary of $3,000 and the use of a
large house. Ignorance of the language, want of practice in business of this nature, other avocations, and the embarrassments of the company, deprived Mr. Talon of the happiness of opening a comfortable asylum for his unfortunate countrymen, of aiding them in their settlement, and thus becoming the honored founder of a colony. He and Mr. De Noailles, therefore, sold out to Mr. Nicholson. Notwithstanding these drawbacks, Asylum has already attained an uncommon degree of perfection, considering its infancy. Thirty houses are inhabited by families from St. Domingo and from France, by French artisans and by Americans. Some inns and two shops have been established. Several town-shares (out-lots) have been put into very good condition, and the fields and gardens begin to be productive. Considerable land has been cleared on the Loyalsock cr., where the company has allotted 25,000 acres, in part of 100,000, which the inhabitants of Asylum have purchased by subscription. The town-shares consist each of 400 acres, from ten to twenty of which are cleared. The owner can therefore either settle there himself, or intrust it to a farmer. The clearing of town-shares is effected by subscription, $9 per acre being paid, provided at least ten acres are cleared, of which five must be under fence. Mr. De Montulé directs the clearing, the plan of which he conceived for the welfare of the colony. Mr. Nicholson, now the only proprietor, has formed a bank of his million of acres, divided into 5,000 shares, each of 200 acres, at $2 50 per acre, making $500 per share. They bear six per cent. interest, which increases in proportion to the state of the land ; at the end of fifteen years, the company is to be dissolved, and the profits and advantages to be divided among the shareholders. An office has been established by the latter for the direction of the bank.
Motives arising from French manners and opinions have hitherto prevented even French families from settling here. These are now, however, in great measure removed, and if the compang manage with prudence, there can hardly remain a doubt that Asylum will speedily become a place of importance, as an emporium of inland trade. French activity, supported with money, will certainly accelerate its growth, and show that the enterprise and assiduity of Frenchmen are equally conspicuous in prosperous and in adverse circumstances.
The following families have either already settled, or intend to : Mr. De Blacons, deputy for Dauphiné, in the constituent assembly; he has married Mademoiselle De Maulde, late canoness of the chapter of Bonbourg. They keep a haberdasher's shop. Their partner is Mr. Colin, formerly Abbé de Sévigny, arch-deacon of Tours, and conseiller au grand conseil. Mr. De Montulé, late captain of a troop of horse, married to a lady of St. Domingo, who resides at present at Pottsgrove. Madame De Sybert, cousin of Mr. De Montulé, relict of a rich planter of St. Domingo. Mr. Becdelliere, formerly a canon, now a shopkeeper ; his partners are the two Messrs. De la Roue, one of whom was formerly a petit gens d'armes, and the other a captain of infantry. The latter has married a sister of Madame Sybert, Mad’slle De Bercy, who intends to establish an inn eight miles from Asylum, on the road to Loyalsock. Mr. Beaulieu, formerly captain of infantry in the French serviceserved in America under Potosky—married an English lady— now keeps an inn. Mr. Buzard, a planter of St. Domingo, and physician there, has settled here with his wife, daughter, and son, and some negroes, the remains of his fortune. Mr. De Noailles, a planter of St. Domingo. Mr. Dandelot, of Franche Compté, late an officer of infantry, who left France on account of the revolution, and arrived here destitute, but was kindly received by Mr. Talon, and is now engaged in agricultural pursuits with spirit and success. Mr. Du Petít Thouars, an officer of the navy, who embarked in an expedition in quest of Mr. De la Pérouse. He was detained by the governor of a Portuguese colony in Brazil, sent to Portugal, stripped of all his property, and only escaped further persecution by fleeing to America, where he lives free and happy, without property, yet without want. He is clearing
two or three hundred acres which have been presented to him. His social, mild, yet truly original temper, is adorned by a noble simplicity of manners. [Du Petit Thouars returned afterwards to France, commanded a ship of the line, and was killed in the unfortunate battle of the Nile.] Mr. Nores, a young gentleman who embarked with Du Petit Thouars, and escaped with him to this country. He was formerly one of the secular clergy of France-he now earns his subsistence by cultivating the ground. Mr. Keating, an Irishman, late captain of the regiment of Welch. In Št. Domingo he possessed the confidence of all parties, but refused the most tempting offers from the commissioners of the assembly, though his sentiments were truly democratic. He preferred to retire to America without
a shilling, rather than acquire power and opulence in St. Domingo by violating his first oath. His advice and prudence have been of great service to Mr. Talon, and his uncommon abilities and virtue enable him to adjust matters of dispute with greater facility than most other persons. Mr. Renaud and family, a rich merchant of St. Domingo, just arrived, with very considerable property, preserved from the wreck of an immense fortune. Mr. Carles, a priest and canon with a small fortune—now a farmer, much respected. Mr. Prevost, of Paris, celebrated there for his benevolence. He retired to America with some property, most of which he expended on a settlement he attempted to establish on the Susquehanna, but without success. He now cultivates his lot of ground on the Loyalsock as if his whole life had been devoted to the same pursuit; and the cheerful serenity of a philosophical mind attends him in his retreat. His wife and sister share his tranquillity and happiness. "Madame D'Autremont, widow of a steward at Paris, and three children. Two of her sons are grown up; one was a notary, the other a
watchmaker ; but they are now hewers of wood and tillers of the ground, highly respected for their zeal, spirit, and politeness. Some artisans are also established at Asylum, but most of them are indifferent workmen, and much addicted to drunkenness. In time, American families of a better description will settle here, for those who reside at present at Asylum are scarcely worth keeping. A great impediment to the prosperity of the colony will probably arise from the prejudices of the French against the Americans. Some vauntingly declare that they will never learn the language of the country, or enter into conversation with an American. Such prejudices injure the colony.
BUCKS COUNTY is one of the three original counties established by Wm. Penn in 1682. In Penn's letter to the Society of Free Traders in 1683, he speaks of it as Buckingham co. At that time its northern boundary was the Kittatinny mountain, or as far as the land might be purchased from the Indians-a very indeterminate line, as the subsequent details will show. The county was reduced to its present limits by the erection of Northampton in 1752. Length 40 miles, breadth 15; area 605 square miles. The population in 1790, was 25,401 ; in 1800, 27,496 ; in 1810, 32,371 ; in 1820, 37,842 ; in 1830, 45,745; in 1840, 48,107.
The Delaware river forms the northeastern and southeastern boundaries, turning at a right angle near Bordentown. The smaller streams are the Neshaminy, Tohiccon, and Durham creeks, and the sources of Perkiomen creek. All these furnish an abundance of excellent mill-sites. Three distinct geological belts cross the co., each imparting its peculiar character to the soil and surface. The primary strata, comprising gneiss, hornblende, mica slate, and kindred rocks, occupy the southeastern end of the co. as far up as the falls at Morrisville, forming a gently undulating surface, with a soil of but moderate fertility, better adapted to grass than grain. The river margins, however, are very fertile. Next to this region, and occupying the greater portion of the co., is the broad belt, of which the red shale is the most conspicuous stratum, producing an excellent soil, accompanied by sandstones and conglomerates of a less fertile character. To these strata, for convenience' sake, the state geologist has given the name of " middle secondary," " in contradistinction to the Apalachian formations on the one hand, which are now unequivocally our lowest secondary formations, and on the other hand to the green sand deposits of New Jersey and Delaware, which constitute the upper secondary strata of our country.” One or two isolated patches of limestone crop out from under this formation west of New Hope and near Centre Bridge, which furnish to the farmers the means of enriching those lands naturally poor, or worn out by cultivation. The third geological belt comprises a group of parallel hills, of moderate elevation, being the outlying ranges of the South mountain, formerly called the Lehigh hills. They are composed partly of the primary rocks of the gneiss family, and the lower sandstones of the secondary formation, and impart a rugged and sterile character to this region. Enclosed, however, among these hills, are several soft and fertile limestone valleys. One of these is the valley of Durham cr., at the mouth of which is the Durham cave, thus described by the state geologist :