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and developing in a legitimate way the real resources of the country. The usual symptoms of the speculative epidemic were soon exhibited in a high degree. Lots were sold and resold at high profits-several manufactories were built-beautiful dwellings, banks, and hotels were erected-morus multicaulis plantations were started, " and all went merry as a marriage bell.” The fever subsided, and the ague succeeded—the bubble burst with the U. Š. Bank, and the universal
want of confidence," and the speculators returned to more useful employments. The scathing influence of these operations will not soon be forgotten by the people of Beaver and New Brighton.
The great natural advantages, however, of the region, still exist, and much has actually been done to improve and develop them : the exag. geration has principally been shown in overrating the growth of the place, without making suitable allowance for the competition and claims of a hundred other places, each of which, if they had not the same advantages, were equally the darling objects of their owners' enterprise. With an enterprise tempered with prudence in adapting the rapidity of development to the real and natural wants of the country, few places promise better results than the little towns around the Falls of Beaver. The Beaver river, within five miles from its mouth, falls 69 feet. “The Falls” originally consisted of a succession of rapids for about two thirds of that distance. By individual and state enterprise-the stream has been made to assume a succession of pools and dams. Five miles from the mouth is a dam of 15 feet; a mile below, another of 20 feet; a mile below that, two others, giving together a fall of 19 feet; and near the mouth another, with a fall of 15 feet at low water. It was estimated by the U. S. engineers, who examined the site in 1822, with a view to the establishment of a national armory, that the water power here at low water was sufficient to propel 168 pair of 5 feet burr-millstones; and since the state dams have been erected, it is said that this estimate is far below the real amount.
Brighton is a delightful and promising village, situated on the west side of Beaver river, four miles from its mouth. It was at an early period distinguished for its iron works, Messrs. Hoopes, Townsend & Co. having erected a furnace here in 1803. The place owes most of its present importance to the enterprise of Mr. J. Patterson, formerly of Philadelphia, a capitalist, merchant, and manufacturer of cotton, flour, &c., who purchased the mill privileges opposite the village. He has here an uninterrupted head and fall of 20 feet. Mr. Patterson has a large cotton factory, and flouring-mill, and store, and gives employment to many of the inhabitants of the village. He has recently constructed a canal leading to his mills, the Pennsylvania and Ohio canal passing along the opposite bank. There is also a steam paper-mill, owned by Mr. A. Robertson, having a staining establishment connected with it, and giving employ. ment to many families. A very neat and commodious meeting-house and school-room accommodates a population of about 300. A fine bridge of 600 feet in length, built for a company, by Mr. Le Barron, connects Brighton with
New Brighton, which is situated below Brighton, opposite to the middle and lower Falls, at the head of steamboat navigation. This place has grown up entirely since 1830. In 1793, a military blockhouse stood here, with a garrison commanded by Major Toomey. The village is well laid out in broad streets, crossing at right angles, and many of the private residences are neatly built and tastefully adorned with shrubbery and
shade trees. The water privileges of this place are hardly surpassed in the west. The annexed view was taken from the hill behind Fallston. Some of the factories of Fallston are seen in the foreground. There are at present in the place several manufactories of various kinds, among
New Brighton and part of Fallston. which is one for making carpets. There are Presbyterian, Methodist, Seceder, Unionist, and 2 Friends' places of worship. The office of the Beaver Co. Insurance Co. is located here. The U. S. Bank had a branch established here. The Female Seminary is an excellent school of the higher class. The New Brighton Institute, a society for literary and scientific purposes, has done much to promote the march of intelligence. It has a library and cabinet of curiosities. Pop. 981. Another beautiful bridge, erected by Messrs. Lathrop & Le Barron, connects the lower end of New Brighton with
FALLSTON.- This place is situated along one or two streets, at the foot of a high bluff, and is famous for its manufactures, which consist of woollens, cottons, paper, linseed oil, wire, scythes, baskets, window-sash, ploughs, carpets, lasts, carding-machines, steam-engines, &c. The water power here is immense: a race is permanently constructed, a mile and a half in length, which conducts the water upon which a long row of manufacturing establishments is erected. There is a respectable building of brick for schools and for public worship. In the hill behind the village is an abundance of excellent coal, which may be slid from the mouth of the pits into the yards of many of the houses. Pop. 865. One and a half miles below is
Sharon, a flourishing village, containing a patent bucket manufactory, a foundry, various other manufacturing establishments, and two keel and canal boat yards. There is a Methodist church here. Population about 300. Between Fallston and Sharon, on the high grounds overlooking the river, a new brick church in the Gothic style has been recently erected.
BRIDGEWATER is situated about half a mile above the junction of the Ohio and Beaver rivers, on the western shore of Beaver. It is regularly laid out upon a level flat, and contains a number of fine buildings, manufactories, hotels, commission-houses, &c. It is the usual landing-place
of the Pittsburg steamboats, and the termination of the stage and packet routes for Cleveland. A fine bridge connects it with Rochester, and immediately beneath the bridge is a dam across the Beaver, forming the slackwater steamboat navigation to Fallston; and also creating an immense water power, at an ordinary stage of water in the Ohio river. Pop. 634.
Rochester, formerly known as Bolesville, is directly opposite Bridgewater. The Pennsylvania and Ohio canal, connecting at Akron with the Ohio canal, and also the Pennsylvania canal to Erie, both have a common termination at this point. There is a depot of canal boats and steamboats here, many of which are owned here. The location is healthy and elevated, presenting a fine view of the surrounding villages and rivers. Population from 300 to 400. A considerable forwarding business is done here between Pittsburg and Ohio.
PHILLIPSBURG, directly opposite the mouth of Beaver, on the left bank of the Ohio river, was formerly owned by Messrs. Phillips and Graham, and connected with an extensive steamboat yard; but in April, 1832, Count De Leon and his associates, having seceded from the society at Economy, purchased the place, and occupied it with a German population, calling it New Philadelphia. They held it in common for a short time; but since the dissolution of their society, they live in families, with separate interests, pursuing the industrious and frugal course by which that people are generally characterized. Pop. 338. After thus disposing of Phillipsburg, Messrs. Phillips and Graham removed their steamboat yards to the opposite side of the Ohio, about two miles above, and started the village of
FREEDOM—the first beginnings of which are thus chronicled in the Beaver Argus, of May, 1832
Rapid Work.-Messrs. Phillips and Graham purchased a tract of land from Gen. Lacock, on the Ohio river, on Monday of last week, laid out a town on Tuesday, and built fourteen houses in four succeeding days. At this place they intend establishing their ship-yard."
The place thus commenced now contains several manufactories; one for steam-engines and boilers; a boat-yard, where some of the largest and finest of steamboats were built, such as the St. Louis, Meteor, Gen. Pratt, and many others. There is a bend of the Ohio just at this place, and the village being built upon a hill gently sloping up from the river bank, presents a very lively appearance to the passengers coming down the river. Pop. 384.
Economy is a German settlement on the right bank of the Ohio, 18 miles below Pittsburg, belonging to the Harmony Society. The village is arranged with broad rectangular streets, two parallel with the Ohio, and four crossing them. The log houses originally constructed have been replaced with neat frame or brick houses, of uniform size and at proper distances from each other. Each house has its garden, with shade trees and a pretty bower of vines around the door. A stranger is struck with the air of neatness without show which pervades every street.
The annexed view exhibits, on the right, one end of the large hall used for a museum, cabinet, &c. The upper story consists of one room called the Social Hall, where the whole society dine together in celebration of their yearly harvest-home, and other great occasions. A little beyond the hall on the same side is the residence of the venerable founder,
Economy. George Rapp. On the other side are seen the tower of the church, and several of the dwelling-houses. At the church the members meet twice on Sunday, and once on an evening during the week. Mr. Rapp delivers the discourse in the German language, which is generally spoken, although many members are acquainted with the English. A fine band of music, composed of many members, occasionally entertains the community with a concert.
Their large flocks of sheep, cattle, horses, hogs, &c., all of good stock, are regularly taken care of, and stabled in winter, and are said to compare favorably with any in the west. In agriculture they are not surpassed, and their immense fields of grain, meadows, orchards, vineyards, nurseries of mulberry and fruit trees, elicit the admiration of all visiters. Each department of business is headed by a foreman, who is responsible to uphold the standing regulations, and act impartially to all members in the distribution of the necessaries of life.
The following history of the society is derived from various articles in Hazard's Register, and from verbal communications to the compiler :
“Mr. George Rapp and his followers, who now constitute the society at Economy, emigrated to this country from Wirtemburg in the province of Swabia ; having left there, as they assert, on account of persecution for their religious opinions. Mr. Rapp arrived in this country in the year 1803, a year in advance of his followers, to look out a body of land on which to settle them. Accordingly he purchased a quantity of land in Butler co., and in a short time afterwards the company settled and improved it, and built a town which they called Harmony. They laid out a vineyard, built mills, raised sheep, and erected a large cloth manufactory, with which they succeeded well. But having the cultivation of the grape very much at heart, which appeared not to do so well as they wished, their merino sheep likewise not thriving so well, they transfer. red themselves to the state of Indiana, near the Wabash, where the climate was supposed to be more congenial to these leading objects of their wishes. Governed by these considerations, they bought a large body of land, sold their establishment at Harmony, and went down the river to the new purchase. There they cleared the land, built a beautiful village, erected a cotton and woollen manufactory, a brewhouse, a distillery and steam-mill. After remaining there some time, it was discovered that the change of climate and unhealthiness of the country called for a speedy retreat.
“The society therefore determined to return to Pennsylvania, and pursuant to that resolution purchased a large body of land on the Ohio, in Beaver co., about 18 miles below Pittsburg; here they commenced their operations about three years ago, (1825.) They cleared a spot of ground, on which they have built a handsome town, now consisting of about 130 houses ; among these are
an elegant church, a large woollen and cotton manufactory, a store, a tavern, a large steam-mill, á brewery, distillery, tanyard, and various other workshops. Besides this they have a large and commodious house built for a concert-hall
, of 120 ft. by 54 ft., arched underneath, in which they have a museum of natural curiosities, a collection of minerals, a mathematical school, a library, and a drawing school. They purchase from 60 to $70,000 worth of wool, and about 20 or $30,000 worth of other articles from the surrounding country, for manufacture and consumption.” The Duke of Saxe Weimar, who visited the colony about the year 1826, says
" At the inn, a fine large frame house, we were received by Mr. Rapp, the principal, at the head of the community. He is a gray-headed and venerable old man; most of the members emigrated 21 years ago from Wirtemburg along with him.
“ The elder Rapp is a large man of 70 years old, whose powers age seems not to have diminished ; his hair is gray, but his blue eyes, overshadowed by strong brows, are full of life and fire. Rapp's system is nearly the same as Owen's community of goods, and all members of the society work together for the common interest, by which the welfare of each individual is secured. Rapp does not hold his society together by these hopes alone, but also by the tie of religion, which is entirely wanting in Owen's community; and results declare that Rapp's system is the better. No great results can be expected from Owen's plan; and a sight of it is very little in its favor. What is most striking and wonderful of all is, that so plain a man as Rapp can so successfully bring and keep together a society of nearly 700 persons, who, in a manner, honor him as a prophet. Equally so for example is his power of government, which can suspend the intercourse of the sexes. He found that the society was becoming too numerous, wherefore the members agreed to live with their wives as sisters. All nearer intercourse is forbidden, as well as marriage; both are discouraged. However, some marriages constantly occur, and children are born every year, for whom there is provided a school and a teacher. The members of the community manifest the very highest degree of veneration for the elder Rapp, whom they ad. dress and treat as a father. Mr. Frederick Rapp is a large good-looking personage, of 40 years of age. He possesses profound mercantile knowledge, and is the temporal, as his father is the spiritual chief of the community. All business passes through his hands; he represents the society, which, notwithstanding the change in the name of residence, is called the Harmony Soci. ety, in all their dealings with the world. They found that the farming and cattle raising, to which the society exclusively attended in both their former places of residence, were not suffi. ciently productive for their industry, they therefore have established factories.
“ The warehouse was shown to us, where the articles made here for sale or use are preserved, and I admired the excellence of all. The articles for the use of the society are kept by them. selves, as the members have no private possessions, and every thing is in common; so must they in relation to all their personal wants be supplied from the common stock. The clothing and food they make use of is of the best quality. Of the latter, flour, salt meat, and all long keeping articles are served out monthly; fresh meat, on the contrary, and whatever spoils readily, is dis. tributed whenever it is killed, according to the size of the family, &c. As every house has a gar. den, each family raises its own vegetables, and some poultry, and each family has its own bake
For such things as are not raised in Economy, there is a store provided, from which the members, with the knowledge of the directors, may purchase what is necessary, and the people of the vicinity may also do the same.
“Mr. Rapp finally conducted us into the factory again, and said that the girls had especially requested this visit, that I might hear them sing. When their work is done they collect in one of the factory rooms, to the number of 60 or 70, to sing spiritual and other songs. They have a peculiar hymn-book, containing hymns from the Wirtemburg psalm-book, and others written by the elder Rapp. A chair was placed for the old patriarch, who sat amidst the girls, and they commenced a hymn in a very delightful manner. It was naturally symphonious and exceedingly well arranged. The girls sang four pieces, at first sacred, but afterwards, by Mr. Rapp's de. sire, of a gay character. With real emotion did I witness this interesting scene. The factories and workshops are warmed during winter by means of pipes connected
with the steam-engine. All the workmen, and especially the females, had very healthy complexions, and moved me deeply by the warm-hearted friendliness with which they saluted the elder Rapp. I was also much gratified to see vessels containing fresh sweet-smelling flowers standing on all the machines. The neatness which universally reigns here, is in every respect worthy of praise.".
Since the visit of Saxe Weimar Mr. Frederick Rapp has died; the venerable father still gov. erns the society.
In every thing useful the Economists are ready to adopt the most modern inventions; while in clothing their persons they eschew all modern fashions, and still adhere to the quaint patterns used among the German peasantry of the last century. The latter remark applies, perhaps, with
* Visiters at Economy are cautioned against making any inquiries upon this particular subject, even in the most courteous manner, as they will probably be repulsed with an indignant answer. On all other subjects they will probably be gratified by the courtesy and readiness of the members to impart information.-D.