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missions. The settlement appears to have been near where Darlington now is.

“ April 17, 1770, the congregation of Lawenakanuck broke up, and set out in 16 canoes, passing down the river Ohio by Pittsburg to Beaver co., which they entered, and proceeded up to the Falls, where they had to unload and transport their goods and canoes by land. One of these carrying places detained them two days. The frequent repetition of this troublesome work caused them to be very thankful when they met Glikkikan, with some horses from Kaskaskunk, for their use." After a tedious journey they arrived, on 3d May, at their destination, a well. chosen spot, "with good land sufficient to supply an hundred families.". They gave formal an. nouncement of their arrival to the neighboring chiefs, with the usual interchange of speeches and Indian ceremony. Glikkikan, like Moses, relinquished the honors of his station to come and dwell among the people of God. The Indians were astonished, or rather alarmed, to see a people settle among them, so much differing in manners and customs from the heathen, and to hear a doctrine preached of which they had never before any idea. In some, this astonishment was soon changed into displeasure. Glikkikan's retirement from Kaskaskunk occasioned uni. versal dissatisfaction, and his former friends accused him of wishing to become a sorcerer. The old chief, Pakanke, altered his friendly behavior towards the brethren, and denied his having in. vited them, charging Glikkikan with it. He reproached him publicly, thus, "and even you have gone over to them. I suppose you intend to get a white skin! but I tell you not even one of your feet will turn white, much less your body. Was you not a brave and honored man, sitting next to me in council, when we spread the blanket and considered the belts of wampum lying before us? Now you pretend to despise all this, and to have found something better.” Glikki. kan briefly replied, “ It is very true I have gone over to them, and with them I will live and die." Pakanke continued unfriendly and cool towards the settlement for some time, notwithstanding the friendly endeavors of Col. Croghan to effect a reconciliation, until after the lapse of a year or so, when he resolved to visit Friedenstadt. “He then heard the gospel with great attention, changed his sentiments, and even exhorted his children to go to the brethren, hearken to their words, and believe on Jesus."

“On the 230 July, 1770, our Indians began to build a regular settlement on the west side of Beaver cr., erecting blockhouses, and before winter they and their teachers were conveniently housed. Then the statutes of the congregation were made known to the inhabitants, and every thing regulated as at Friedenshutten. In Oct., John George Yungman and his wife arrived from Bethlehem, to take charge of this congregation, bringing a belt of wampum from Col. Croghan to Pakanke, entreating his kindness towards the missionaries. Brother Senseman, who had shared with Br. Zeisberger his toils and duties, returned to Bethlehem.”

The missionaries were greatly annoyed, and their lives even endangered by the jealousies stirred up against them by the sorcerers and medicine men among the Indians of the neighboring tribes, particularly those near Gekele-mukpechuenk, on the Muskingum. “ This opposition arose chiefly from the insinuations of the above mentioned Indian preachers who had so strenuously recommended emetics as a sure mode of cleansing from sin, that in this town the practice was general. The missionary endeavored to convince the people that though an emetic might beneft their stomachs, yet it could

never cleanse their hearts, but that the blood of Jesus Christ was alone able to change them. The work of God prevailed and increased at Friedenstadt, and in May, 1771, the foundation stone of the chapel was laid.

In 1773, the state of the frontier had become so alarming, and the opposition and jealousy of Pakanke's tribe so great, that it was not thought safe for the brethren to remain longer at Fried. enstadt. They accordingly broke up the station and departed for the new stations on the Muskingum, under the charge of Rev. John Heckwelder and Br. John Roth.

The historian willingly drops the curtain upon the scenes which they encountered in their new residence.

Until the passage of the celebrated land law of 1792, by the legislature of Pennsylvania, the whole territory northwest of the Ohio and Allegheny rivers, was an uninhabited wilderness, and had been in possession of the Indians: even for three years after that date, and up to the time of Gen. Wayne's treaty at Greenville on 3d Aug. 1795, it was unsafe for families to settle on that side of the river. Previous to this time few transactions of importance are recorded in history as having occurred within the bounds of what is now Beaver co. In Nov. 1753, Maj. George Washington arrived at Logstown, a little French and Indian village about 14 miles below Pittsburg on the right bank of the Ohio, on an errand to inquire into the movements of the French on these rivers. By his pub

lished journal it appears that this region was occupied by the Mingoes, Shawanees and Delaware Indians,—the Mingoes being only another name for the Iroquois or Six Nations. He also casually remarks that Tanacharison, or the Half King, a Mingo chief, had his hunting cabin on Little Beaver creek. Tanacharison was the principal chief and speaker of his tribe, and was friendly to the English, or rather was unfriendly to the French: not that he loved one more than the other, but that he valued his own rights to the soil, and was more jealous of the French with their arms and forts, than of the English with their articles of traffic. Several years afterward, when he became better acquainted with the real designs of both, he put to old Mr. Gest of Fayette co., the significant question, “ where the Indians' land lay!—for the French claimed all the land on one side of the Ohio river, and the English on the other.”

In 1770, Washington again visited the country on the Ohio for the purpose of viewing lands to be apportioned among the officers and soldiers who had served in the French war. He was accompanied by Dr. Craik, Col. Crawford, Col. Croghan, and other friends.

A short paragraph only of his journal relates to Beaver co., which is here extracted.

“ Oct. 20, 1770. Col. Croghan, Lieut. Hamilton, and Mr. Magee set out with us. At two we dined at Mr. Magee's, and encamped ten miles below and four above Logstown. 21st. Left our encapment and breakfasted at Logstown, where we parted with Col. Croghan and company. At eleven we came to the mouth of the Big Beaver creek, opposite to which (now Phillipsburg) is a good situation for a house ; and above it, on the same side, that is the west, there appears to be a body of fine land. About five miles lower down, on the east side, comes in Racoon creek, at the mouth of which, and up it, appears to be a body of good land also. All the land between this creek and the Monongahela, and for 15 miles back, is claimed by Col. Croghan under a pur. chase from the Indians, which sale he says is confirmed by his majesty. On this creek, where the branches thereof interlock with the waters of Shurtees cr. (Chartier cr.) there is, according to Col. Croghan's account, a body of fine, rich, level land. This tract he wants to sell, and offers it at £5 sterling per 100 acres, with an exemption of quit-rents for 20 years; after which to be subject to the payment of four shillings and two pence sterling per 100 acres; provided he can sell it in ten-thousand-acre lots. At present the unsettled state of this country renders any purchase dangerous."

Washington mentions calling at the Mingo town, about 75 miles below Pittsburg, on the right bank of the Ohio, a little above the Cross creeks. The place contained about 20 cabins and 70 inhabitants of the Six Nations.

The next event of interest in this county was the erection of fort M'Intosh in the spring of 1778, near the present site of Beaver. It was built of strong stockades, furnished with bastions, and mounted one 6 pounder. From here' Gen. M’Intosh went on an expedition against the Sandusky towns with 1000 men, and erected fort Laurens on the Tuscarawa. There was also a blockhouse on the site of New Brighton, probably erected some time during the revolution.

A mile or two above the mouth of Beaver a small run, called Brady's run, comes dashing down a wild glen on the west side: and a road which winds up the hill behind Fallston retains the name of Brady's road. These names originated no doubt from the following adventures related by “ Kiskiminetas,” in the Blairsville Record :

In 1780 Gen. Washington wrote to Gen. Broadhead to select a suitable officer and despatch him to Sandusky, for the purpose of examining the place and ascertaining the force of British and Indians assembled there. Gen. Broadhead had no hesitation in making the selection. He sent for Capt. Brady, showed him Washington's letter, and a draft or map of the country he must traverse; very defective, as Brady afterwards discovered, but the best no doubt, that could

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be obtained at that time. The appointment was accepted, and selecting a few soldiers, and four Chickasaw Indians as guides, he crossed the Allegheny river and was at once in the enemy's country. Brady was versed in all the wiles of Indian strategie," and, dressed in the full war dress of an Indian warrior, and well acquainted with their languages, he led his band in safety near to the Sandusky towns, without seeing a hostile Indian. But his Chickasaws now deserted. This was alarming, for it was probable they had gde over to the enemy. However, he determined to proceed.

With a full knowledge of the horrible death that awaited him if taken pris. oner, he passed on, until he stood beside the town on the bank of the river. His first care was to provide a secure place of concealment for his men. When this was effected, having selected one man as the companion of his future adventures, he waded the river to an island partially covered with drift-wood, opposite the town, where he concealed himself and comrade for the night. The next morning a dense fog spread over the hill and dale, town and river. All was hid from Brady's eyes, save the logs and brush around him. About 11 o'clock it cleared off, and afforded him a view of about three thousand Indians engaged in the amusement of the race. ground. They had just returned from Virginia or Kentucky, with some very fine horses. One gray horse in particular attracted his notice. He won every race until near evening, when, as if envious of his speed, two riders were placed on him, and thus he was beaten. The starting post was only a few rods above where Brady lay, and he had a pretty fair chance of enjoying the amusement, without the risk of losing any thing by betting on the race. He made such ob. servation through the day as was in his power, waded out from the island at night, collected his men, went to the Indian camp he had seen as he came out; the squaws were still there, took them prisoners, and continued his march homeward. The map furnished by Gen. Broadhead, was found to be defective. The distance was represented to be much less than it really was. The provisions and ammunition of the men were exhausted by the time they had reached the Big Beaver, on their return. Brady shot an otter, but could not eat it. The last load was in his rifle. They arrived at an old encampment, and found plenty of strawberries, which they stopped to appease their hunger with. Having discovered a deer track, Brady followed it, telling the men he would perhaps get a shot at it. He had gone but a few rods when he saw the deer standing broadside to him. He raised his rifle and attempted to fire, but it flashed in the pan; and he had not a priming of powder. He sat down, picked the touch-hole, and then started on. After going a short distance the path made a bend, and he saw before him a large Indian on horseback, with a white child before and its mother behind him on the horse, and a number of warriors marching in the rear. His first impulse was to shoot the Indian on horseback, but as he raised the rifle he observed the child's head to roll with the motion of the horse. It was fast asleep, and tied to the Indian. He stepped behind the root of a tree and waited until he could shoot the Indian, without danger to the child or its mother. When he considered the chance certain, he shot the Indian, who fell from the horse, and the child and its mother fell with him. Brady called to his men with a voice that made the forest ring, to surround the Indians and give them a general fire. He sprung to the fallen Indian's powder horn, but could not get it off. Be. ing dressed like an Indian, the woman thought he was one, and said, “Why did you shoot your brother ?” He caught up the child, saying, “ Jenny Stupes, I am Capt. Brady, follow me and I will save you and your child.” He caught her hand in his, carrying the child under the other arm, and dashed into the brush. Many guns were fired at him by this time, but no ball harmed him, and the Indians dreading an ambuscade, were glad to make off. The next day he arrived at Fort McIntosh with the woman and her child. His men had got there before him. They had heard his warwhoop and knew it was Indians they had encountered, but having no ammunition, they had taken to their heels and ran off. The squaws he had taken at Sandusky, availing themselves of the panic, had also made their escape.

In those days Indian fashions prevailed in some measure with the whites, at least with Rangers. Brady was desirous of seeing the Indian he had shot, and the officer in command of Fort McIntosh gave him some men in addition to his own, and he returned to search for the body. The place where he had fallen was discovered, but nothing more. They were about to quit the place, when the yell of a pet Indian that came with them from the fort, called them to a little glade, where the grave was discovered. The Indians had interred their dead brother, carefully replacing the sod in the neatest manner. They had also cut brushes and stuck them into the ground, but the brushes had withered, and instead of concealing the grave, they had led to the discovery

He was buried about two feet deep, with all his implements of war about him. All his savage jewelry, his arms and ammunition were taken from him, and the scalp from the head, and then they left him thus stripped alone in his grave. It is painful to this of such things being done by American soldiers, but we cannot now know all the excusing circumstances that may have existed at the time. Perhaps the husband of this woman, the father of this child, was thus butchered before his wife and children; and the younger members of the family, unable to bear the fatigues of travelling, had their brains dashed out on the threshhold. Such things were common, and a spirit of revenge was deeply seated in the breasts of the people of the frontiers. Capt. Brady's own family had heavily felt the merciless tomahawk. His brave and honored fa.


ther and a beloved brother had been treacherously slain by the Indians, and he had vowed ven geance. After refreshing himself and men, they went up to Pittsburg by water, where they were received with military honor, Minute guns were fired from the time Brady came in sight until he landed. The Chickasaw Indians had returned to Pittsburg, and reported that the captain and his party had been cut off near Sandusky town by the Indians.

After Gen. Wayne's treaty, in 1795, the country north and west of the Ohio and Allegheny could be safely inhabited, and speculators, companies, and individuals flocked thither to secure a title to lands to which they had previously acquired a color of title under the various land laws of 1783 and 1792, and others. Many of the large companies came in conflict with individual claimants, and long, vexatious suits were the consequence. Beaver co. was in the “Depreciation District.” A more extended notice of this subject will be found under the head of Crawford

The Population Company was extensively interested in the lands of Beaver co.

BEAVER.— The place known by this name to travellers and others at Pittsburg, whence so many little steamers are seen plying for this destination, is not, properly, one town, but a little cluster of towns-a sort of United States in miniature, situated around the mouth of Beaver river, and for four or five miles up that stream. And it is a singular fact, that to a traveller passing on the Ohio scarcely any village at all can be descried at the place, although there is here a population of some six thousand. The annexed plan will illustrate the position of the towns.


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Towns about the mouth of Beaver river. First, there is Beaver borough, the seat of justice, a quiet, orderly, oldfashioned county town, with its respectable society, and the usual number of stores and taverns. It is built principally upon a long street, running parallel with the Ohio river, upon an elevated plateau, some forty rods back from the river. A dangerous gravel shoal, formed by the confluence of the Beaver with the Ohio, lies directly abreast of the town, which accounts for the fact of there being no business street along the river. The courthouse, jail, and three churches, all substantial buildings, stand around an open square, through which runs the main street. Population in 1840, 551. The borough was incorporated 29th March, 1802.


Beaver. The annexed view shows the courthouse, jail, &c., on the left, and the churches on the right, with the main street beyond.

By the act of 28th Sept. 1791, the governor of the state was instructed to cause to be surveyed 200 acres of land in town lots, near the mouth of Beaver cr., "on or near the ground where the old French town stood,” and also 1,000 acres adjoining, on the upper side thereof, as nearly square as might be, in out-lots, not less than five, nor more than ten acres each. By the same act, 500 acres, near the town, were granted for an academy. Daniel Leet surveyed the town plot. The probable motive at that day for locating the county seat at a distance from the great manufacturing advantages at the Falls, was the existence of the well-known shoal just below the mouth of Beaver, a difficult and dangerous passage to the keel-boats and other craft in use at that day. By the location here, the town was accessible alike to the lower and upper trade, and the obstructions themselves would probably throw considerable business into the place. The idea of erecting Lowels and Rochesters, had not as yet entered the heads of speculators in land. Samuel Johnston first settled at Beaver in 1796. He kept an inn on the bank of the river, near Fort McIntosh. Some traces of the old fort are still to be seen near his house. Jonathan Porter, Abraham Laycock, David Townsend, Joseph Hemphill, John Lawrence, Mr. Small, Mr. Alison, were also early and prominent settlers. Judge Laycock filled many important offices in the county and state, and held a seat in the senate of the United States. On the present site of New Brighton, there existed an ancient “ blockhouse," at which Sergeant-major Toomey commanded when Mr. Alison first came here, on a visit, in 1793. Gen. Wayne was encamped at Legion. ville, on the river, below Economy. The only road in those days was “ Broadhead's,” which led across the country from where Phillipsburg now is.

Hoopes, Townsend & Co. first erected a furnace at the Falls near Brighton in 1803. In 1806, the second paper-mill west of the mountains was erected on Little Beaver cr., just within the Ohio line, by John Bener, Jacob Bowman, and John Coulter, called the Ohio Paper-mill

. The principal topics of interest to the early settlers of Beaver, after the pacification of the frontier in 195, were the conflicting claims to land growing out of the act of 92. The place was one of considerable river trade, and the usual business of a county town, until about the year 1830, when the vast natural advantages of the Falls began to attract attention from various quarters. Previous to this time, in addition to the old furnace, several mills and warehouses had been erected about the Falls, as the natural wants of the country had prompted from time to time.

The astonishingly rapid growth of Buffalo, Rochester, Lockport, Syracuse, and other towns along the great New York canal, had insensibly created a vast school of speculation, the pupils of which subsequently spread themselves over all the other states, particularly those contiguous to the lakes. The great natural resources at the mouth of Beaver did not escape their notice nor their grasp. Enlisting in their visionary plans some of the original holders of the property, who too soon became apt scholars in the new science, they proceeded to purchase up the real estate and mill sites along the banks of the river, and on the Ohio near it, and to lay out towns and cities, and great lines of public improvement. Better adepts with the pen and the drawing in. struments, than with the apparatus of the mill, these gentlemen preferred laying out paper cities, and trumpeting the value of their lots in overwrought puffs, to erecting manufactories themselves,

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