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habits of these groundlings. At certain times they lie so deep in the earth, that all the lime-water you could apply to them would not make them come forth; and, unless you do that, you do nothing. I believe at this very time, if I were to pour hogsheads of lime-water on my lawn, I should not kill any worms worth notice — S. T. April 20. 1842.
Saul's Potato-Planter, &c.— I think but little further can be added to the account of the potato-planter and its uses given in p.40. The plan has been tried in pianting the winter potatoes in the fields ; and, as an experiment on it, last season, a field was divided into parts; one half was planted by the plough, and the other half by the planter. The manure having been put into the ground, and covered up by the plough, the potatoes were planted by the planter fig. 4. (given in p. 41.), and the ground was then barrowed over. As soon as those potatoes made their appearance above ground, their foliage looked more luxuriant and stronger than those set by the plough, and when taken up had a more abundant produce, and well repaid the owner for the extra labour. As I before stated, it may be done by boys or aged persons, and would prove a benefit to the working classes, as it is highly desirable that every means should be used to prevent persons being sent to the workhouse; and there is no doubt that, if employment could be furnished, it would be to the advantage of the farmer, and a great pleasure to the labourer to work for small wages rather than be forced into the workhouse. As a proof of this, there are here, at the present time, farmer's labourers working for 8d. per day and their victuals, who have wives and three or four children to support out of this small sum; but who are quite satisfied with this rather than go to the workhouse: they have also rent to pay out of this small sum, as well as supporting their families, Bad as this may appear, I am sorry to say that many of the families of the Irish farmer's labourers are in a far worse condition, as may be seen in a work lately published in 2 vols. by Mr. Bins of Lancaster, who travelled through Ireland. It is entitled the Beauties and Miseries of Ireland, a work well worth being read by every thinking man of the present time.
I shall close by giving an account of an extraordinary crop of potatoes grown by Mr. Hodgson of Poulton le Fyld. At first sight it may appear as if not true, but it is a fact. In May last he cut into sets 20 potatoes, and planted them, the produce of which, when got up, was no less than ten bushels and a half, or three windles, as it is called here, which is 720 lb. This produce, I think, is worthy of recording in the Gardener's Magazine. — M. Saul. Gare stang, Dec. 29. 1842.
Art. V. Queries and Answers. KENT, the Landscape-Gardener.- At the end of one of your Magazines, you ask for information respecting (among others) Kent the landscape-gardener. I find this extract in the notes I made when reading Hunter's Deanery of Doncaster, a most learned and valuable local history. I cannot at this distance of time recollect whether 1 extracted the whole or only the most important part of what related to Kent.
" The family of Kent, who have been numerous in the parish of Rotherham, and have produced several clergymen, may seem to have a claim to William Kent, the artist, who did so much to improve the public taste in gardening. Vertue says he was a native of Yorkshire; and the following entry in the Parish Registry of Rotherham agrees well with the time of his birth. ‘ 1684, March 27. bap. William, son of Richard Kent.?.” (Vol. ii. p. 13.)
In looking for this memorandum, I found also the following extracts, which may not be uninteresting to you.
"Repton .... was accustomed to say that the groups of oaks, thorns, yews, and other trees were more picturesquely combined at Langold than at any other spot in the country.” (Vol. i. 299.)
Langold is near Rotherham, and is now the property of H. Gally Knight, Esq. N. P., a gentleman who inherits the fine taste of his predecessors.
“ Aston still exhibits evidence of the favourite employment of Mr. Mason." (Vol. ii. p. 168.) If I remember right he was vicar of Aston. Tankersley Park.—“Before 1654, Lady Fanshawe, speaking of Tankersley
"I found .... the country plentiful and healthy, and very pleasant, but there was no fruit in it till we planted some, and my Lord Strafford says now, that what we planted is the best fruit in the North."" Hunter adds : “ The fact which Lady Fanshawe notices, that before her time there was no fruit in this part of the country, is curious : but perhaps the statement is to be taken with some qualification. I find Dr. Berrie cultivating strawberries at Hodroyd before this time. The Fanshawes were great gardeners. Sir Henry Fanshawe had a curious garden at Ware.” (Vol. ii. p. 303).
Tankersley is about half-way between Sheffield and Barnsley, westward of the road. Hodroyd is 5 miles N. E. of Barnsley. I am inclined to think that Lady Fanshawe's account is more literal than Hunter seems disposed 10 think. The old accounts of the great families might, perhaps, if properly kept, throw some unexpected light on points like these. — Thomas Wilson. Crimbles House, near Leeds, Oct. 9. 1842.
An evergreen Larch has been discovered in his plantations by a gentleman in the neighbourhood of Carmarthen; and he is anxious to know if any of our correspondents have seen or heard of an evergreen larch. He also wishes to know,
Whether the Larch can be propagated by Cuttings. - To this question we answer, that every ligneous dicotyledonous plant whatever, that produces a shoot long enough to have two or three buds on it, can be propagated by cuttings ; because every such plant, when wounded into the soft wood, las an inherent power of healing that wound ; because the healing process consists in the protrusion of granulated matter from the upper lip of the wound ; and this granulated matter protrudes roots when placed in favourable circumstances. If, then, the cutting be cut directly through where it has been wounded, immediately below this granulated matter, and planted in sand, roots will be produced from the granulations. It is true that the process is much more rapid and certain in some plants than in others, but in all it will take place, if the operation of cutting into the soft wood is properly performed on the lower part of a shoot still growing, but just beginning to ripen its wood, and the cutting afterwards carefully planted in sand, and kept in a state of uniform temperature and moisture. In many cases the cutting may be taken off at once, without waiting for granulations; in others, it may be ringed or notched immediately under a bud; in some cases, a slit may be made vertically through a shoot where there is a bud or joint, and the slit kept open by a wedge till it has granulated on the edges of the wound. It may then be cut across the joint, or rather towards its lower extremity. Roses, rhododendrons, azaleas, arbutus, and a great many trees and shrubs that are commonly propagated by layers, may be increased in this manner, as Mr. Cooper, late of the Epsom Nursery, but now possessor of the Brixton Nursery, has abundantly proved ; and we should think it the most certain mode with the evergreen larch, making the slit an inch or two in length, through the lower part of the shoot, in the month of July, when it is just beginning to ripen. There are a great many other modes of applying the principle, not only to shoots containing woody matter, but even to leaves, many of which, from the common cabbage to the orange, if wounded at the lower extremity of the petiole before the leaf has quite done growing, will granulate, and, when planted, produce roots. See this matter treated in detail in the Suburban Horticulturist. - Cond.
Art. I. The Principles of Landscape-Gardening and of Landscape
Architecture applied to the Laying out of Public Cemeteries and the Improvement of Churchyards, including Observations on the Working and General Management of Cemeteries and Burial
Grounds. By the CONDUCTOR. The circumstance of being employed by the Directors of a Cemetery Company at Cambridge to form a plan for their guidance in arranging the ground, and in working and managing the cemetery afterwards, led us to study the principles on which all the arrangements connected with cemeteries are, or ought to be, founded, and the following pages contain the general results of our enquiries. The subjects discussed are:
I. The Uses of Cemeteries,
to these uses. III. The Working and Management of Cemeteries. IV. Certain Innovations suggested, relative to the Selection of Ground for
Cemeteries, and the Mode of performing Funerals, &c. V. A Design for a small Cemetery on level Ground, of moderate extent,
exemplified in a cemetery now being formed at Cambridge, illus
trated by a plan, sections, and an isometrical view. VI. Design for a Cemetery on hilly Ground, with an isometrical view. VII. The present State of the London Cemeteries, considered as cemetery
gardens. VIII. The Improvement and Extension of Country Churchyards, illustrated
by plans. IX. A List of Trees, Shrubs, and perennial herbaceous Plants, adapted for
Cemeteries and Churchyards.
I. THE USES OF CEMETERIES. As, to know the best mode of applying the principles of design to any particular object, it is necessary to know the purposes for which that object is intended, we shall commence by considering the uses for which cemeteries or burial-grounds are required.
The main object of a burial-ground is, the disposal of the remains of the dead in such a manner as that their decomposition, and return to the earth from which they sprung, shall not prove injurious to the living; either by affecting their health, or shocking their feelings, opinions, or prejudices.
A secondary object is, or ought to be, the improvement of the moral sentiments and general taste of all classes, and more especially of the great masses of society.
3d Ser, - 1843. III.
With respect to the first and most important object, the decomposition of the dead, without the risk of injury to the living, there is, as we think, but one mode in which this can be effected, to which there can be no objection on the part of the living; and that is, interment in a wooden coffin in the free soil, in a grave 5 or 6 feet deep, rendered secure from being violated, in which no body has been deposited before, or is contemplated to be deposited thereafter.
Various circumstances, however, into which it is needless to enquire, have given rise to burying several bodies in the same grave in the free soil, and to modes of sepulture by which the decomposition of the body, or at least its union with the earth, is prevented ; such as the use of leaden or iron coffins, and depositing them in vaults, catacombs, and other structures, in which they can never, humanly speaking, except in the case of some great change or convulsion, be mingled with the soil, or, in the beautiful language of Scripture, be returned to the dust from which they sprung. Though we are of opinion that the modes of burial which prevent the body from mixing with the soil, which, for the sake of distinction, we shall call the sepul. chral modes, cannot, on account of the danger to the living, be continued much longer in a highly civilised country, yet, in considering the conditions requisite for a complete cemetery suited to the present time, the various modes of sepulchral burial at present in use must be kept in view. The expense of the sepulchral mode, however, confines it to the comparatively wealthy; and hence by far the greater part of burial-grounds always was, and is, necessarily devoted to interments in the free soil. In some churchyards where there is abundance of room, only one coffin is deposited in a grave ; but in most cases, and particularly in the burial-grounds of large towns, the graves are dug very deep, and several coffins, sometimes as many as a dozen, or even more, according to the depth of the grave, are deposited one over another, till they reach within 5 or 6 feet of the surface. Interments in this manner are of two kinds. The first are made in family graves, in which the different members of the same family are deposited in succession, in the order of their decease ; and to such graves there is always a grave-stone or some kind of monument. The second are what are called common graves, to which there is no monument, and in which the bodies of the poor and of paupers are deposited, in the order in which they are brought to the cemetery ; probably two or three in one day, or possibly as many in one day as will fill the grave. Unless this mode were adopted in the public cemeteries, they would, from their present limited extent, very soon be filled up. Such graves, whether public or private, in the newly formed cemeteries, when once filled with coffins to within 6 ft. of the surface, are understood never to be reopened ; but, in the old burial-grounds, they are in many cases opened after being closed only four or five years, and sometimes much
When the parties burying cannot afford to purchase a private or family grave, the practice is, in some burial-grounds, to bury singly in graves of the ordinary depth of 6 or 7 feet, and these graves are reopened for a similar purpose in six or seven years; but, as this is attended with the disinterment of the bones, it is a very objectionable mode. In a burial-ground properly arranged and managed, a coffin, after it is once interred, should never again be exposed to view, nor a human bone be disturbed. At present this is only the case in the cemeteries of the Jews, where there is a separate grave for every coffin, and where the graves are never reopened. It is also the case in the cemeteries of the Quakers ; though not, we believe, from religious principle, as in the case of the Jews, but rather from that general regard to decency and propriety which is a characteristic of that sect of Christians, and perhaps, as in the case of the Moravians, in consequence of their comparatively limited number,
As data to proceed upon with reference to interments in the free soil, it is necessary to state that the muscular part of the body either decays rapidly,
or dries up rapidly, according to the circumstances in which it is placed; but that the bones do not decay, even under circumstances the most favourable for that purpose, for centuries.
The face of a dead body deposited in the free soil is generally destroyed in three or four months, but the thorax and abdomen undergo very little change, except in colour, till the fourth month. The last part of the muscular fibre which decays is the upper part of the thigh, which in some subjects resists putrefaction for four or five years. In general, a body is considered unfit for dissection after it has been interred eight or nine weeks. In a very dry and warm soil, especially where the body is emaciated, the juices are rapidly absorbed ; and, no moisture coming near it, the solids contract and harden, and a species of mummy is produced. This may be observed in the vaults of various churches in Britain where the soil and situation are remarkably dry; and it has given rise to those appalling scenes which may be witnessed in the vaults of Bremen, Vienna, Rome, Naples, Palermo, Malta, and other places. (See Necropolis Glasguensis, p. 48. to 55. ; and Stephens's Incidents of Travel, as quoted in the Saturday Magazine, vol. xx. p. 141.)
Bones are chiefly composed of phosphate of lime deposited in gelatine, an animal tissue ; and, unless acted on by powerful acids, they will endure, either in the soil or in the atmosphere, for many centuries. They are even found in the fossil state, and after ages of exposure often contain more or less of the original animal tissue, particularly if they have been embedded in clayey soil. In the ante-hominal part of the creation, there are bones daily discovered which have existed 6000 years at least. Dr. Charles Loudon informs us that he has seen numerous human bones in certain caves near to Naples, which are supposed to be those of the Grecian colonists who settled there before the Christian era, or perhaps those of an older race who inhabited Magna Græcia.* Dr. Loudon has seen several skeletons dug out of the ruins of Pompeii, the bones of which were as dry and entire as the bones of skeletons which we see in dissecting-rooms, though they must have lain there nearly 1800 years under the lava, which, around them, seemed to be a dry greyish kind of earth. Even while writing this, we read in the newspapers ( Morn. Chron., Jan. 10.) of the workmen, while digging a deep sewer in Lad Lane in the city, having cut into what is supposed to have been a cemetery of the Romans, and dug up a number of human bones.
With respect to prejudices, there is, as every one knows, a decided prejudice in favour of being buried in dry soil, and against the placing of decomposing substances, such as quicklime, in coffins ; and it is one of our principles to respect existing prejudices as well as vested rights. With regard to the use
The desire to preserve the bones from decay seems natural to man, both in a rude and a civilised state. Dr. Dieffenbach informs us that the New Zealanders expose the bodies of their dead, in a sort of canoe-shaped coffin, among the foliage of trees, for several months, till the flesh is sufficiently decomposed ; the bones are then washed and cleaned, and finally deposited in some secret spot in a wood, or in a limestone cavern, of which there are many, or in some chasm of the rocks difficult of access. The bodies of hereditary chiefs are dressed and ornamented, and preserved in mansoleums of elaborately carved work; but, even in this case, after a time, the tohunga, or priest, removes the bones to a place in the forest often known only to himself. (Travels in New Zealand, ii. p. 63.) The monks of the Convent of Mount Sinai, Mr. Stephens informs us, bury their dead for about three years, after which they take them up, clean the bones, and deposit them in one great pit ; except those of the archbishops, which are preserved separately in an adjoining sepulchre, some in baskets, some on shelves, and others tied together and hanging from the roof. (Incidents of Travel.)