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inch in length ; they consist of narrow, slender, bristly, somewhat recurved
An Oak (Quercus pedunculàta) in the park of Hazel Grove, Castle Cary, Somersetshire, (of which a lithograph has been sent us,] is 82 ft. high, 30 ft. in circumference at 3} ft. from the ground, and it contains 863 cubic feet of timber, though it has lost many of its largest limbs. It is in full vigour and bears every year abundance of small acorns in pairs at the end of long stalks. Near this tree are several other oaks of great height, and from 18 in. to 23 ft. in circumference. An elm in the same park, blown down some time since, measured 39 ft. in circumference; and an ash 21 ft. — P.J. M.
The Mistletoe on the Oak may be seen at Penporthlenny, in the parish of Goître, Monmouthshire; and also on a tree near Usk. It may be interesting to some to have these habitats added to those already given in your Arboretum Britannicum. — Jane Williams. Glastonbury, Oct. 22. 1842.
Verbena Melindres and V. Tweedieàna have stood out here the last winter with no other protection than their own uncut branches. They died back to the collar of the roots, but broke well again in spring, more especially V. Melindres, and they grew much more vigorously during summer than plants raised from cuttings in spring. Our flower-garden is a level spot on the south side of a steep hill overhanging Swansea. The soil is a strong loam, from 9 to 18 inches deep, on stratified rock dipping to the north. It becomes rapidly dry and hard after rain. — P. Walker, Gardener to R. Grenfell, Esq. Maesteg, near Swansea, Oct. 22. 1842.
Melons grown in Leaves. — At Taplow Lodge, Bucks, melons have been for many years past grown in leaves raked up the preceding autumn.
The plants are raised in loam in the usual manner, and a crop of early potatoes having been first grown on the leaves, the melons are turned out of the pots to succeed them. They bear abundantly, and the fruit is of excellent flavour. –J. B. Uxbridge, Dec. 10. 1842.
Mushrooms this year (1842) have been most unusually abundant in August and September, and very great quantities have been gathered fine and large; some measuring 30 in. round. Many of the agricultural labourers' families have inade a guinea a week during these months, by gathering them in the fields and selling them in the neighbourhood. — M. Saul. Garstang, Lancashire, Oct. 10. 1842.
Cucumbers this year (1842) have been very abundant in the cottager's gardens here. They are attended with very little trouble or expense, and are of great benefit to the cottager and the labouring man in hot weather, being found of great advantage in removing thirst, with the addition of a little vinegar, when taking their meals, far more so than either milk or beer. The cottagers' mode of growing is, in the first place, to obtain a few plants from their neighbours who have them in the open ground, and plant them in the spot where they have taken up their early potatoes in July, without adding any manure. I have seen some so planted ihis season produce cucumbers weighing from 2 to 3 lb. each, without any protection, but merely growing in the beds the early potatoes had been removed from. To keep the fruit clean when growing, they put what is here called a turf or peat under them, such as they use for fuel ; they use no coal for fuel here." I have no doubt you would have been much pleased if you had had an opportunity of seeing those cucumbers growing in the cottage gardens, and might have said much in their praise. There is at this time growing up to a saw-pit side in the wood yard of Henry Masden, at Cobus, near Garstang, a cucumber which weighs 52 oz. The roots are merely growing in a few road droppings from the horses, gathered from the road side. The plants have produced abundance of fruit, without the least protection, in September. — Idem.
SCOTLAND. Bust of Dr. Neill.— In consequence of a resolution passed at the General Meeting of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, of ist December last, to place in their New Hall a marble bust of their excellent secretary, Dr. Neill, for his long and valuable gratuitous services rendered to the Society since its commencement in 1809, now a period of thirty-three years, it was suggested, by several practical gardeners, that the exertions of that gentleman having been eminently instrumental in promoting and sustaining the high character of Scottish gardeners, and the science of horticulture in all its branches, they should come forward as a body and subscribe for a testimonial to be presented to him in their name; and in order to ascertain what might be the general feeling in this respect, a number of the most influential gardeners have been written to; all of whom (as is proved by extracts from their letters] are most anxious that it should be carried into execution; and, in order to do this the more effectually, the following individuals have agreed to act as a committee, viz., Mr. Edward Sang, sen., Kirkaldy ; Mr. W. M‘Nab, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh ; Mr. S. Murray, Royal Botanic Garden, Glasgow ; Mr. C. M'Intosh, Dalkeith Park; Mr. J. Smith, Hopetoun House; Mr. J. Dodds, Scone Palace ; Mr. John Young, Archerfield ; and Mr. R. Watson, Moredun ; Mr. W. M‘Nab, convener ; Mr. J. M‘Nab, treasurer.
To this paper are appended letters approving of the resolution from the following gardeners and nurserymen : Nicol Cathie, Airthrey Castle. Archibald Gorrie, Annat Cottage. James Dodds, Scone Palace. John Westwood, Academy Gardens, William Sharp, Pitfour.
Dollar. Edward Sang, Kirkaldy.
Joseph Bain, Beaufort Castle. James Smith, Hopetoun House. James Mathison, Melville House. John Robertson, Kinfauns Castle. John Petrie, Cullen House. John Gow, Tullyallan Gardens. D. Montgomery, Buchanan House. Robert Arthur, Edinburgh.
William M Nab, Royal Botanic GarStewart Murray, Royal Botanic Gar- den, Edinburgh. dens, Glasgow.
William Barron, Elvaston Castle. Thomas Bishop, Methven Castle. William Pearson, Cally House. William Lawson, Greenock.
Peter Crocket, Raith Gardens. John Addison, Gosford.
Charles M'Intosh, Dalkeith Park. John Davidson, Culzean Castle. James Sinclair, Castle Toward. John Young, Archerfield.
Daniel Ferguson, Royal Botanic GarAlexander Smith, Callander House. den, Belfas:. Robert Watson, Moredun Gardens. George Shiells, Erskine House. Charles Lawson, Edinburgh. George Saunders, Gordon Castle. Andrew Turnbull, Bothwell Castle. James Smith, Monkwood Grove. James M·Intosh, Drumlanrig Castle.
It is highly gratifying to us to see so many highly respectable men and excellent gardeners bearing testimony to the great services rendered by Dr. Neill to the horticulture of Scotland, and to his urbanity and kindness to gardeners. For our own part, we can only heartily join in the expression of Mr. M‘Nab of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, that we “have had the honour of Dr. Neill's acquaintance for upwards of thirty years, and can say with perfect sincerity, that we do not believe there is another individual now in existence who is more entitled to their gratitude. His whole life has been devoted to usefulness in almost every department of science, but more especially to that of gardening, and the advancement of gardeners.” Perhaps there is no Scotch gardener more obliged to Dr. Neill than we are, since it was from his article HORTICULTURE in the Encyclopædia Britannica that we took the idea of the arrangement of the Encyclopædia of Gardening. The subscriptions are limited to sums from 28. 6d. to 108. 6d., and the thirtyeight gardeners whose names are given above have subscribed from 58. io
10s. each. Subscriptions are received by Mr. James M‘Nab of the Experimental Garden.- Cond.
Foreign Trees which thrive in Shetland.- At a meeting of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, on November 10. 1842, Mr. Edmonston, jun., mentioned in our Volume for 1840, p. 102., gave an account of the botany of Shetland. The whole is extremely interesting ; but, as it will be published in the Transactions of the Botanical Society, we shall confine ourselves to an extract relating to arboriculture in that island. “ A number of experiments have been carried on by my father for five or six years, in order, if possible, to ascertain what foreign trees will endure this climate. He obtained from Messrs. Lawson of Edinburgh all the more generally cultivated trees and shrubs, North British, North American, and North Asiatic, and the result has been as follows. Among the indigenous trees of Scotland, the ash appears to stand as well as any other, as it puts forth its leaves late and loses them early Of the scarcely indigenous, or naturalised species, the sycamore appears to be the hardiest ; while the birch and Scotch pine will scarcely live a year. Again, Pinus montàna and Æ'sculus Hippocastanum, comparatively tender plants, appear to thrive well; and Pýrus aucuparia, which is indigenous with us, thrives tolerably in cultivation. Almost all the willows do well; Sàlix Russelliana, frágilis, cinèrea, viminalis, and vitellina, among the best. The alder is rather too early in putting forth its leaves ; but some poplars appear to do well, especially the white, black Italian, and Lombardy; and Pópulus nìgra * is indigenous. Oak and beech will not thrive at all. Generally speaking, evergreens, both trees and shrubs, appear not to suit. Pinus Cembra, the black, white, and Norway spruce have all been repeatedly tried, but seldom languished a year. Even the hardy shrubby, evergreens, which are met with indigenous or in every shrubbery on the mainland, such as I'lex Aquifolium, Rhododendron pónticum and fàvum, Viburnum Tìnus, &c., die almost immediately. Among the best-thriving evergreen shrubs may be mentioned, A'rbutus mucronata, Cotoneaster U'va-úrsi, Hédera Hèlix, &c. The latter, indeed, is native, and in some situations thrives remarkably well, as it also does in Orkney.” — Cond.
A good Tablet for the Indication of the Name of a Street, or a Guide- Post to a Cross Road. — It should be, Ist, readily discoverable and distinguishable; 2d, easily legible at moderate distances, and by oblique as well as by direct vision, in diffused light, or in sunshine ; 3d, of such material as to be lasting and easily kept in a serviceable state.
No tablet which I have met with fulfils these conditions so entirely as that which was widely diffused in Paris during the administration of M. Chabrol de Volvic. The material is volcanic stone in thin slabs; these slabs are covered by hard blue enamel, and the inscription is in white enamel burnt in. They are immediately distinguishable from all other inscriptions or signs, are very legible in all
ates of the weather, and appear to be unaltered after several years' exposure.
It unluckily happens that the cost of these tablets is such as to make them unattainable generally.
The next best model, in point of distinctness, is that which has long been in general use in the town of Birmingham, viz. cast-iron plates, with the inscription in slightly relieved letters. This model, which, if judiciously executed, is but little inferior to M. Chabrol's in distinctness, has a manifest advantage over it in cheapness and in strength. Some tablets on this plan were, several years ago, introduced in Edinburgh, and have answered well as far as they went; but, subsequently, changes have been introduced which have notably impaired their efficiency; the original proportion of the letters
* A specimen of poplar which we received from Mr. Edmonston, sen., some years ago, appeared to us to be P. balsamífera ; at all events we are quite certain it was not the P. nìgra of English Botany; but we have written to Mr. Edmonston for a plant. - Cond.
to the spaces has been altered so much as to make them illegible, unless when seen nearly from the front, and the colours of the ground and letters have been inverted (the ground being now white). This last change has been particularly detrimental, as, when the sun shines obliquely on them, the shadows of the raised letters fill the spaces between them, and turn the inscription into an illegible black stripe; it has, besides, had the effect of giving the tablets a close resemblance to the tickets on houses to let.
Among the models in the Paris collection was one which does not appear to have had a fair trial anywhere, and which, if on enquiry it should be found to be available in point of cost, appears to offer considerable advantages.
These tablets were very similar in form to the Birmingham pattern, though thicker in substance. The material was a sort of earthenware, analogous to that of which we make greybeards and pickling jars in this country. If such tablets were first fired with a hard lustreless blue enamel, and then the surfaces of the letters enamelled white, a very perfect tablet would be the result. (Civis, in the Scotsman, Dec., 1842.)
IRELAND. Agricultural Improvement. — The following is an extract of a letter received by Messrs. Drummond, of the Agricultural Museum, from Mr. MʻLeish, landsteward on one of the estates of the Marquess of Waterford, in Ireland. Mr. M‘Leish, after alluding to the implements furnished by the Messrs. Drummond for the estate, consisting of sixty full sets of draining tools, with subsoil and furrow plough, and expressing himself highly pleased with their superior excellence, proceeds to say: “ The Marquess of Waterford has about 40,000 acres of land in the county of Derry, on which there are about 800 tenants, but until this season there had not been anything done by them in the way of draining their land on any regular system. But, by advice and encouragement held out to them by Mr. Beresford, agent to the marquess, upwards of sixty of the tenants have been and are thorough draining on Mr. Smith of Deanston's system, and have already completed upwards of 16,000 perches (54 yards each) of drains, all filled with broken stones. Being only a few months since the principle was fairly laid down to them, they seem to embark in it with spirit ; and, from the satisfaction it is giving, not only to those who have adopted it, but also to those who have been watching its effects, I have no doubt that ere long every tenant on this estate will be thorough draining. They have suffered so much from wet for the last five or six years, and now from the lowness of the markets, that they seem quite aware that, unless they try some method of improving their land, so as to be able to raise an additional quantity of grain to compensate for the low prices, they will not be able to pay their rents ; so they have determined on thorough draining and subsoiling, which certainly is the first and best step, for nine acres out of ten require it. The qualities of the soils on this estate are variable, but well adapted for draining, and can be thoroughly drained with broken stones for about 5l. per imperial acre on the average. The tenants here do the work at their
own expense in the first instance, but, when finished in a proper manner, Mr. Beresford pays them the full amount of what it cost them, on their agreeing to pay interest for the same at the rate of five per cent per annum during the term of their lease. — Camnish, near Dungiven, Sept. 29. 1842.” (Stirling Advertiser, Oct. 14. 1842.)
Art. IV. Retrospective Criticism. ERRATA.— In our Vol. for 1842, p. 594., line 28. from the top, for “an overshot water-wheel” read “ four overshot water-wheels.” In p. 593., lines 1. and 33. from the top, for “ Grampians” read “ Ochils.”
In p.624., line 14. from the bottom, for “three thousand ” read “thirty thousand ;” and in p. 625., line 5. from the top, for “destruction” read "dispersion."
In our last Number, p. 35., under fig. 1., for “ Sida pulchélla” read “ Plagiánthus Lampènii.”
Thoughts on modern Burying-Grounds. (Vol. for 1842, p. 616.) – In visiting the country I have often regretted the very slovenly and neglected state of the churchyards. If they were judiciously planted with Irish yew, cypresses, junipers of different kinds, hollies, box, and other dark evergreens, the grass kept short, and the nettles and brambles destroyed, they would interest the spectator, and tend to keep alive a taste for neatness and decency generally amongst the poorer classes. I cannot doubt but that a great improvement would speedily take place if the public mind were roused on this subject ; and I do think it is of more real importance than may appear at first sight, and your pen would be very powerful if applied to cure this foul disease, though it may be a hereditary one. Pray give the subject that consideration which it deserves ; and draw up yourself, or get some of your correspondents to draw up, a paper, comparing the general states of churchyards in the country with what they might be made by a little attention, and at an expense which the frequenters of the churches would not grudge. I think the Church Society would be very much indebted to you for such a paper, and also that they would cause it to be printed and extensively circulated amongst the clergy. If I stop in a village I generally make a point of visiting the churchyard. I like to see the names, ages, &c.; but, as I said before, it is generally accompanied with regret at seeing the very slovenly manner in which they are allowed to remain. The churchyard at Henbury near Bristol is an exception ; and one of the neatest village churchyards I have ever seen is about two or three miles west of Henley-on-Thames, but I forget the name at this moment. The churchyard walls, and sometimes even the churches themselves, would be much improved in appearance by ivy being planted to grow up over them.-H, T. Dec. 5. 1842.
Our readers will find a great many remarks on cemeteries and churchyards, both at home and abroad, in the Notes of our Tours, but we fear little good will be done till the clergy can be induced to take up the subject ; which, happily, in various places they are now doing. The formation of public cemeteries, which are in general kept in a very superior manner to what churchyards are, will contribute to the same desirable end. — Cond.
Roots and Tops of Trees. — Although Mr. Barnes has of late given some very useful information on this subject, still I may be allowed to make a few remarks on what he says about orange trees in your Vol. for 1843, p. 24. He observes : “I purposely keep their heads from growing this season to any extent, because they should make themselves properly strong at bottom first of all.” By this are we to understand that if trees were allowed to make large tops, that would prevent them from making roots ? If so, it is against the received opinion, nay, the fact, that roots of trees extend accordingly as their branches do ; for, if otherwise, how is it that those who understand the culture of vines do not prune them the first summer or two after they are planted, but allow them to grow wild, if I may say so, solely with the view of encouraging their roots? Mr. Crawshay, the celebrated horticulturist, always adopted that plan with his young vines ; but, as Mr. Barnes mentions that he has a great deal to say some day on the culture of the vine,” perhaps he will then throw more light on the subject. — J. Wighton. Cossey Gardens, Jan. 6. 1843.
Line-water for killing Worms. -- I hardly know what you consider a fair trial of lime-water for a lawn infested with these pests; but I have tried it so often, and so long, that I give it up. You say, after the worms have come above ground, do so and so ; why, my good Sir, that is the very point at issue between us. I cannot make them come up; the last time I tried, not one out of fifty showed their faces. The truth is, we are ignorant of the